gag gene products


Summary: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.

Top Publications

  1. Ricci E, Soto Rifo R, Herbreteau C, Decimo D, Ohlmann T. Lentiviral RNAs can use different mechanisms for translation initiation. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:690-3 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that HIV-1 is able to drive the synthesis of the Gag polyprotein both by a classical cap-dependent mechanism and an IRES, whereas HIV-2 and SIV appear to use exclusively an IRES mechanism. ..
  2. Rulli S, Hibbert C, Mirro J, Pederson T, Biswal S, Rein A. Selective and nonselective packaging of cellular RNAs in retrovirus particles. J Virol. 2007;81:6623-31 pubmed
    ..In contrast, signal recognition particle RNA was present at the same level in Psi- and Psi+ particles; a minor fraction of this RNA was weakly associated with genomic RNA in Psi+ MLV particles. ..
  3. Geldmacher C, Currier J, Herrmann E, Haule A, Kuta E, McCutchan F, et al. CD8 T-cell recognition of multiple epitopes within specific Gag regions is associated with maintenance of a low steady-state viremia in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-seropositive patients. J Virol. 2007;81:2440-8 pubmed
    ..36; P = 0.0016). Particularly, recognition of multiple epitopes within two regions of Gag (amino acids [aa] 1 to 75 and aa 248 to 500) was associated with the maintenance of a low steady-state viremia, even years after acute infection. ..
  4. Scholz I, Still A, Dhenub T, Coday K, Webb M, Barklis E. Analysis of human immunodeficiency virus matrix domain replacements. Virology. 2008;371:322-35 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the HIV-1 assembly machinery is flexible with regard to its means of membrane association, but that alternative MBDs can interfere with the elaboration of infectious virus cores. ..
  5. Younes S, Trautmann L, Yassine Diab B, Kalfayan L, Kernaleguen A, Cameron T, et al. The duration of exposure to HIV modulates the breadth and the magnitude of HIV-specific memory CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2007;178:788-97 pubmed
  6. Yu X, Lichterfeld M, Chetty S, Williams K, Mui S, Miura T, et al. Mutually exclusive T-cell receptor induction and differential susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 mutational escape associated with a two-amino-acid difference between HLA class I subtypes. J Virol. 2007;81:1619-31 pubmed
    ..These data show the influence of HLA allele subtypes on TCR selection and indicate that extensive TCR diversity is not a prerequisite to prevention of allowable viral mutations. ..
  7. Anderson E, Lever A. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag polyprotein modulates its own translation. J Virol. 2006;80:10478-86 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Gag controls the equilibrium between translation and packaging, ensuring production of enough molecules of Gag to make viral particles before encapsidating its genome. ..
  8. Yao Y, Schroder J, Nellåker C, Bottmer C, Bachmann S, Yolken R, et al. Elevated levels of human endogenous retrovirus-W transcripts in blood cells from patients with first episode schizophrenia. Genes Brain Behav. 2008;7:103-12 pubmed
    ..05) in the patients compared with the controls. Thus, studies aiming to further understanding of complex human disease such as schizophrenia may need to be extended beyond the strictly protein-coding fraction of the transcriptome. ..
  9. Mazurov D, Heidecker G, Derse D. The inner loop of tetraspanins CD82 and CD81 mediates interactions with human T cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 Gag protein. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3896-903 pubmed
    ..HTLV-1 MA also interacted with the inner loop of CD81. Thus, association of HTLV-1 Gag with tetraspanin-enriched microdomains is mediated by the inner loops of CD81 and CD82. ..

More Information


  1. Fisher R, Chung H, Zhai Q, Robinson H, Sundquist W, Hill C. Structural and biochemical studies of ALIX/AIP1 and its role in retrovirus budding. Cell. 2007;128:841-52 pubmed
    ..ALIX therefore serves as a flexible, extended scaffold that connects retroviral Gag proteins to ESCRT-III and other cellular-budding machinery...
  2. Camus G, Segura Morales C, Molle D, Lopez Verges S, Begon Pescia C, Cazevieille C, et al. The clathrin adaptor complex AP-1 binds HIV-1 and MLV Gag and facilitates their budding. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:3193-203 pubmed
    ..We propose that AP-1 promotes Gag release by transporting it to intracellular sites of active budding, and/or by facilitating its interactions with other cellular partners. ..
  3. De Rose R, Batten C, Smith M, Fernandez C, Peut V, Thomson S, et al. Comparative efficacy of subtype AE simian-human immunodeficiency virus priming and boosting vaccines in pigtail macaques. J Virol. 2007;81:292-300 pubmed
    ..These studies suggest priming of T-cell immunity to prevent AIDS in humans is possible, but differences in the immunogenicity of various subtype vaccines and broad cross-subtype protection are substantial hurdles...
  4. Jouvenet N, Neil S, Bess C, Johnson M, Virgen C, Simon S, et al. Plasma membrane is the site of productive HIV-1 particle assembly. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e435 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HIV-1 assembly is initiated and completed at the PM, and not at endosomal membranes. ..
  5. Kawada M, Tsukamoto T, Yamamoto H, Iwamoto N, Kurihara K, Takeda A, et al. Gag-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-based control of primary simian immunodeficiency virus replication in a vaccine trial. J Virol. 2008;82:10199-206 pubmed publisher
  6. Pereyra F, Addo M, Kaufmann D, Liu Y, Miura T, Rathod A, et al. Genetic and immunologic heterogeneity among persons who control HIV infection in the absence of therapy. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Even low-level viremia among HIV controllers was associated with measurable T cell dysfunction, which has implications for current prophylactic vaccine strategies. ..
  7. Navis M, Schellens I, van Baarle D, Borghans J, van Swieten P, Miedema F, et al. Viral replication capacity as a correlate of HLA B57/B5801-associated nonprogressive HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2007;179:3133-43 pubmed
  8. Kiepiela P, Ngumbela K, Thobakgale C, Ramduth D, Honeyborne I, Moodley E, et al. CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load. Nat Med. 2007;13:46-53 pubmed
    ..These population-based data, suggesting the existence of both effective immune responses and responses lacking demonstrable biological impact in chronic HIV infection, are of relevance to HIV vaccine design and evaluation. ..
  9. Saez Cirion A, Sinet M, Shin S, Urrutia A, Versmisse P, Lacabaratz C, et al. Heterogeneity in HIV suppression by CD8 T cells from HIV controllers: association with Gag-specific CD8 T cell responses. J Immunol. 2009;182:7828-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results, on the one hand, suggest the importance of Gag responses in the antiviral potency of CD8(+) T cells from HICs and, on the other hand, propose that other host mechanisms may contribute to restraining HIV infection in HICs. ..
  10. Brumme Z, John M, Carlson J, Brumme C, Chan D, Brockman M, et al. HLA-associated immune escape pathways in HIV-1 subtype B Gag, Pol and Nef proteins. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6687 pubmed publisher
    ..These resources should facilitate research in HIV epitope discovery and host-pathogen co-evolution, and are relevant to the continued search for an effective CTL-based AIDS vaccine. ..
  11. Sacha J, Chung C, Rakasz E, Spencer S, Jonas A, Bean A, et al. Gag-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes recognize infected cells before AIDS-virus integration and viral protein expression. J Immunol. 2007;178:2746-54 pubmed
    ..0017) in SIV-infected rhesus macaques. These results suggest that HIV vaccines should focus CD8(+) T cell responses on Gag. ..
  12. Loh L, Batten C, Petravic J, Davenport M, Kent S. In vivo fitness costs of different Gag CD8 T-cell escape mutant simian-human immunodeficiency viruses for macaques. J Virol. 2007;81:5418-22 pubmed
    ..The fitness impact of these mutations is KP9 > AF9 > KW9. These data provide insights into the differential utility of CTL in controlling viremia...
  13. Bukrinskaya A. HIV-1 matrix protein: a mysterious regulator of the viral life cycle. Virus Res. 2007;124:1-11 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that two MA fractions possess diverse functions and are involved in different stages of virus morphogenesis as key regulators of the viral life cycle. ..
  14. Seki S, Kawada M, Takeda A, Igarashi H, Sata T, Matano T. Transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus carrying multiple cytotoxic T-lymphocyte escape mutations with diminished replicative ability can result in AIDS progression in rhesus macaques. J Virol. 2008;82:5093-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that even such a "crippled" SIV infection can result in persistent viral replication, multiple reversions, and AIDS progression. ..
  15. Sakuma R, Noser J, Ohmine S, Ikeda Y. Rhesus monkey TRIM5alpha restricts HIV-1 production through rapid degradation of viral Gag polyproteins. Nat Med. 2007;13:631-5 pubmed
    ..This finding demonstrates a cellular factor blocking HIV-1 production by actively degrading a viral protein. Further understanding of this previously unknown restriction mechanism may reveal new targets for future anti-HIV-1 therapy. ..
  16. Finzi A, Orthwein A, Mercier J, Cohen E. Productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly takes place at the plasma membrane. J Virol. 2007;81:7476-90 pubmed
    ..These results point towards the PM as being the primary site of productive HIV-1 assembly in cells that also support Gag accumulation in intracellular compartments. ..
  17. Adamson C, Freed E. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly, release, and maturation. Adv Pharmacol. 2007;55:347-87 pubmed
  18. Friedrich T, Valentine L, Yant L, Rakasz E, Piaskowski S, Furlott J, et al. Subdominant CD8+ T-cell responses are involved in durable control of AIDS virus replication. J Virol. 2007;81:3465-76 pubmed
    ..It is likely that subdominant CD8+ T-cell populations play a key role in maintaining this control. ..
  19. Goepfert P, Lumm W, Farmer P, Matthews P, Prendergast A, Carlson J, et al. Transmission of HIV-1 Gag immune escape mutations is associated with reduced viral load in linked recipients. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1009-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to their direct implications for HIV-1 vaccine design, these data suggest that CTL-induced viral polymorphisms and their associated in vivo viral fitness costs could have a significant impact on HIV-1 pathogenesis. ..
  20. Huber M, Fischer M, Misselwitz B, Manrique A, Kuster H, Niederost B, et al. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e441 pubmed
  21. Sacha J, Giraldo Vela J, Buechler M, Martins M, Maness N, Chung C, et al. Gag- and Nef-specific CD4+ T cells recognize and inhibit SIV replication in infected macrophages early after infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9791-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that retrovirus-specific CD4(+) T cells may contribute directly to elite control by inhibiting viral replication in macrophages. ..
  22. Ferre A, Hunt P, Critchfield J, Young D, Morris M, Garcia J, et al. Mucosal immune responses to HIV-1 in elite controllers: a potential correlate of immune control. Blood. 2009;113:3978-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These responses may play an important role in mucosal immune surveillance, as suggested by their relative enrichment among persons who control HIV in the absence of therapy. ..
  23. Lopez Verges S, Camus G, Blot G, Beauvoir R, Benarous R, Berlioz Torrent C. Tail-interacting protein TIP47 is a connector between Gag and Env and is required for Env incorporation into HIV-1 virions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14947-52 pubmed
  24. Matthews P, Prendergast A, Leslie A, Crawford H, Payne R, Rousseau C, et al. Central role of reverting mutations in HLA associations with human immunodeficiency virus set point. J Virol. 2008;82:8548-59 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of these results is in highlighting the rationale for an HIV vaccine that can induce these broad responses. ..
  25. Ribet D, Harper F, Dewannieux M, Pierron G, Heidmann T. Murine MusD retrotransposon: structure and molecular evolution of an "intracellularized" retrovirus. J Virol. 2007;81:1888-98 pubmed
  26. Hearps A, Jans D. Regulating the functions of the HIV-1 matrix protein. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:341-6 pubmed
    ..J Virol 2005;79:13028-13036) confirms the importance of this protein for HIV infection and highlights a potentially new avenue in multivalent drug therapy. ..
  27. Casazza J, Betts M, Price D, Precopio M, Ruff L, Brenchley J, et al. Acquisition of direct antiviral effector functions by CMV-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes with cellular maturation. J Exp Med. 2006;203:2865-77 pubmed
    ..Thus, mature CMV-specific CD4+ T cells exhibit distinct functional properties reminiscent of antiviral CD8+ T lymphocytes. ..
  28. Fischer W, Perkins S, Theiler J, Bhattacharya T, Yusim K, Funkhouser R, et al. Polyvalent vaccines for optimal coverage of potential T-cell epitopes in global HIV-1 variants. Nat Med. 2007;13:100-6 pubmed
  29. Chatel Chaix L, Abrahamyan L, Fréchina C, Mouland A, DesGroseillers L. The host protein Staufen1 participates in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 assembly in live cells by influencing pr55Gag multimerization. J Virol. 2007;81:6216-30 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that Stau1 influences HIV-1 assembly by modulating pr55Gag-pr55Gag interactions, as shown in a live cell interaction assay. This likely occurs when Stau1 interacts with membrane-associated assembly intermediates. ..
  30. Nchinda G, Kuroiwa J, Oks M, Trumpfheller C, Park C, Huang Y, et al. The efficacy of DNA vaccination is enhanced in mice by targeting the encoded protein to dendritic cells. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The efficacy of DNA vaccines therefore may be enhanced by inclusion of sequences such as single-chain antibodies to target the antigen to DCs. ..
  31. Kim E, Veazey R, Zahn R, McEvers K, Baumeister S, Foster G, et al. Contribution of CD8+ T cells to containment of viral replication and emergence of mutations in Mamu-A*01-restricted epitopes in Simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2008;82:5631-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirm the importance of cytotoxic T cells in controlling viremia and the constraint on epitope sequences that require compensatory changes to go to fixation...
  32. Smith M, Asher T, Venturi V, Davenport M, Douek D, Price D, et al. Limited maintenance of vaccine-induced simian immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8 T-cell receptor clonotypes after virus challenge. J Virol. 2008;82:7357-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings have implications for future AIDS virus vaccine studies, which should consider the "fitness" of vaccine-induced T cells in order to generate robust responses in the face of virus exposure. ..
  33. Jäger S, Gottwein E, Kräusslich H. Ubiquitination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag is highly dependent on Gag membrane association. J Virol. 2007;81:9193-201 pubmed
    ..We therefore propose that membrane association and multimerization of HIV-1 Gag proteins, rather than a specific motif within Gag, trigger recognition by the cellular ubiquitination machinery. ..
  34. Almeida J, Price D, Papagno L, Arkoub Z, Sauce D, Bornstein E, et al. Superior control of HIV-1 replication by CD8+ T cells is reflected by their avidity, polyfunctionality, and clonal turnover. J Exp Med. 2007;204:2473-85 pubmed
    ..Such attributes are interlinked and constitute the basis for effective control of HIV-1 replication. These data on the features of effective CD8+ T cells in HIV infection may aid in the development of successful T cell vaccines. ..
  35. Bansal A, Yue L, Conway J, Yusim K, Tang J, Kappes J, et al. Immunological control of chronic HIV-1 infection: HLA-mediated immune function and viral evolution in adolescents. AIDS. 2007;21:2387-97 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that viral fitness costs associated with CD8 T-cell pressure is an important factor determining differences in the viral load among HIV-infected patients. ..
  36. Matthews P, Leslie A, Katzourakis A, Crawford H, Payne R, Prendergast A, et al. HLA footprints on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are associated with interclade polymorphisms and intraclade phylogenetic clustering. J Virol. 2009;83:4605-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these data highlight the fact that HLA can be a strong selection force for both intra- and interclade HIV evolution at a population level. ..
  37. Trumpfheller C, Caskey M, Nchinda G, Longhi M, Mizenina O, Huang Y, et al. The microbial mimic poly IC induces durable and protective CD4+ T cell immunity together with a dendritic cell targeted vaccine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2574-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that poly IC be tested as an adjuvant with DC-targeted vaccines to induce numerous multifunctional CD4(+) Th1 cells with proliferative capacity. ..
  38. Wright E, Schooler J, Ding H, Kieffer C, Fillmore C, Sundquist W, et al. Electron cryotomography of immature HIV-1 virions reveals the structure of the CA and SP1 Gag shells. EMBO J. 2007;26:2218-26 pubmed
    ..This model suggests why the SP1 spacer is essential for assembly of the Gag lattice and how cleavage between SP1 and CA acts as a structural switch controlling maturation. ..
  39. Klein K, Reed J, Lingappa J. Intracellular destinies: degradation, targeting, assembly, and endocytosis of HIV Gag. AIDS Rev. 2007;9:150-61 pubmed
    ..Thus, the challenge for the future will be to understand which cellular factors act during the pathway from Gag synthesis to assembly, and exactly where and how they act in this pathway. ..
  40. Jin J, Sturgeon T, Chen C, Watkins S, Weisz O, Montelaro R. Distinct intracellular trafficking of equine infectious anemia virus and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag during viral assembly and budding revealed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. J Virol. 2007;81:11226-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that lentivirus assembly and budding are regulated by the RNA nuclear export pathway and that alternative cellular pathways can be adapted for lentiviral Gag assembly and budding...
  41. Crawford H, Prado J, Leslie A, Hue S, Honeyborne I, Reddy S, et al. Compensatory mutation partially restores fitness and delays reversion of escape mutation within the immunodominant HLA-B*5703-restricted Gag epitope in chronic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2007;81:8346-51 pubmed
    ..These data may help explain the observed association between HLA-B*5703 and long-term control of viremia. ..
  42. Lee S, Joshi A, Nagashima K, Freed E, Hurley J. Structural basis for viral late-domain binding to Alix. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:194-9 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of the V domain inhibits HIV-1 release from cells. This inhibition of release is reversed by mutations that block binding of the Alix V domain to p6. ..
  43. Honeyborne I, Prendergast A, Pereyra F, Leslie A, Crawford H, Payne R, et al. Control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with HLA-B*13 and targeting of multiple gag-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes. J Virol. 2007;81:3667-72 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with data from studies of other HLA-class I alleles associated with HIV control that have shown that the targeting of multiple Gag epitopes is associated with relative suppression of viremia. ..
  44. Datta S, Zhao Z, Clark P, Tarasov S, Alexandratos J, Campbell S, et al. Interactions between HIV-1 Gag molecules in solution: an inositol phosphate-mediated switch. J Mol Biol. 2007;365:799-811 pubmed
    ..As Gag is an extended rod in immature virions, this apparent proximity of the ends in solution implies that it undergoes a major conformational change during particle assembly. ..
  45. Ono A, Waheed A, Freed E. Depletion of cellular cholesterol inhibits membrane binding and higher-order multimerization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Gag. Virology. 2007;360:27-35 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains promote HIV-1 particle production by facilitating both Gag-membrane binding and Gag multimerization. ..
  46. Roy B, Hu J, Guo X, Russell R, Guo F, Kleiman L, et al. Association of RNA helicase a with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12625-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore, RHA represents the first example of cellular RNA helicases that participate in HIV-1 particle production and promote viral reverse transcription. ..
  47. Arruda L, Sim D, Chikhlikar P, Maciel M, Akasaki K, August J, et al. Dendritic cell-lysosomal-associated membrane protein (LAMP) and LAMP-1-HIV-1 gag chimeras have distinct cellular trafficking pathways and prime T and B cell responses to a diverse repertoire of epitopes. J Immunol. 2006;177:2265-75 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that LAMP-1 and DC-LAMP Ag chimeras follow different trafficking pathways, induce distinct modulatory immune responses, and are able to present cryptic epitopes. ..
  48. Costa L, Chen N, Lopes A, Aguiar R, Tanuri A, Plemenitas A, et al. Interactions between Nef and AIP1 proliferate multivesicular bodies and facilitate egress of HIV-1. Retrovirology. 2006;3:33 pubmed
    ..We conclude that by binding GagPol and AIP1, Nef not only proliferates MVBs but also contributes to the egress of viral particles from infected cells. ..
  49. Yao Y, Nellåker C, Karlsson H. Evaluation of minor groove binding probe and Taqman probe PCR assays: Influence of mismatches and template complexity on quantification. Mol Cell Probes. 2006;20:311-6 pubmed
  50. Bailey J, Williams T, Siliciano R, Blankson J. Maintenance of viral suppression in HIV-1-infected HLA-B*57+ elite suppressors despite CTL escape mutations. J Exp Med. 2006;203:1357-69 pubmed
    ..Continued viral suppression probably reflects CTL responses against unmutated epitopes and residual or de novo responses against epitopes with escape mutations. ..
  51. Grigorov B, Arcanger F, Roingeard P, Darlix J, Muriaux D. Assembly of infectious HIV-1 in human epithelial and T-lymphoblastic cell lines. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:848-62 pubmed
  52. Saad J, Miller J, Tai J, Kim A, Ghanam R, Summers M. Structural basis for targeting HIV-1 Gag proteins to the plasma membrane for virus assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11364-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that PI(4,5)P(2) acts as both a trigger of the myristyl switch and a membrane anchor and suggest a potential mechanism for targeting Gag to membrane rafts. ..
  53. Booth A, Fang Y, Fallon J, Yang J, Hildreth J, Gould S. Exosomes and HIV Gag bud from endosome-like domains of the T cell plasma membrane. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:923-35 pubmed
    ..In support of this, we find that Jurkat T cells direct the key budding factor of HIV, HIV Gag, to these endosome-like domains of plasma membrane and secrete HIV Gag from the cell in exosomes. ..