capsid proteins


Summary: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.

Top Publications

  1. Lyu K, Ding J, Han J, Zhang Y, Wu X, He Y, et al. Human enterovirus 71 uncoating captured at atomic resolution. J Virol. 2014;88:3114-26 pubmed publisher
    ..EV71 uncoating intermediate, drastic conformational changes occur in this region, as has been observed in all capsid proteins. Additionally, the RNA genome interacts with the N-terminal extensions of VP1 and residues 32 to 36 of VP3, ..
  2. Ludi A, Horton D, Li Y, Mahapatra M, King D, Knowles N, et al. Antigenic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype A. J Gen Virol. 2014;95:384-92 pubmed publisher
  3. Upadhyaya S, Ayelet G, Paul G, King D, Paton D, Mahapatra M. Genetic basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease serotype A viruses from the Middle East. Vaccine. 2014;32:631-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparisons of capsid sequences identified substitutions in neutralising antigenic sites (1, 2 and 4), which either individually or together underpin these observed antigenic phenotypes. ..
  4. Ni P, Cheng Kao C. Non-encapsidation activities of the capsid proteins of positive-strand RNA viruses. Virology. 2013;446:123-32 pubmed publisher
    Viral capsid proteins (CPs) are characterized by their role in forming protective shells around viral genomes. However, CPs have additional and important roles in the virus infection cycles and in the cellular responses to infection...
  5. Liu Q, Huang X, Ku Z, Wang T, Liu F, Cai Y, et al. Characterization of enterovirus 71 capsids using subunit protein-specific polyclonal antibodies. J Virol Methods. 2013;187:127-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The results add new information on the processing, assembly and localization of EV71 capsid proteins, and demonstrate the usefulness of the capsid protein-specific antibodies for virological investigation and ..
  6. Lauinger I, Bible J, Halligan E, Aarons E, MacMahon E, Tong C. Lineages, sub-lineages and variants of enterovirus 68 in recent outbreaks. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36005 pubmed publisher
    ..Continuous global monitoring of the clinical and molecular epidemiology of EV68 is recommended...
  7. Vongpunsawad S, Venkataram Prasad B, Estes M. Norwalk Virus Minor Capsid Protein VP2 Associates within the VP1 Shell Domain. J Virol. 2013;87:4818-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The highly basic nature of VP2 and its location interior to the viral particle are consistent with its potential role in assisting capsid assembly and genome encapsidation...
  8. Day P, Thompson C, Schowalter R, Lowy D, Schiller J. Identification of a role for the trans-Golgi network in human papillomavirus 16 pseudovirus infection. J Virol. 2013;87:3862-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, Rab9a and Rab7b were determined to be mediators of this transit, as expression of dominant negative versions of these proteins, but not Rab7a, significantly inhibited HPV16 pseudovirus infection. ..
  9. Ford R, Barker A, Bakker S, Coutts R, Ranson N, Phillips S, et al. Sequence-specific, RNA-protein interactions overcome electrostatic barriers preventing assembly of satellite tobacco necrosis virus coat protein. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:1050-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are discussed in light of a first stage of assembly involving compaction of the genomic RNA driven by multiple RNA packaging signal-CP interactions...

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Snijder J, Reddy V, May E, Roos W, Nemerow G, Wuite G. Integrin and defensin modulate the mechanical properties of adenovirus. J Virol. 2013;87:2756-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Host factors that influence adenovirus infectivity thus modulate the elastic properties of the capsid. Our findings reveal a direct link between virus-host interactions and capsid mechanics...
  2. Yang J, Wang J, Zuo Y, Zhan H. Molecularly modified VP3 (30-121) induces apoptosis in human bladder cancer (EJ) cells but not in normal (3T3) cells. Cell Biol Int. 2012;36:1037-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study increases our understanding of modified VP3 (30-121) as a possible substitute for the wild-type VP3, which makes VP3 (30-121) an interesting candidate for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. ..
  3. Plevka P, Perera R, Cardosa J, Kuhn R, Rossmann M. Structure determination of enterovirus 71. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2012;68:1217-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Once the orientations and positions of the particles had been established, the structure was solved by molecular replacement and phase extension. ..
  4. Vega C, Bok M, Vlasova A, Chattha K, Fernandez F, Wigdorovitz A, et al. IgY antibodies protect against human Rotavirus induced diarrhea in the neonatal gnotobiotic piglet disease model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42788 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy can be scaled-up to inexpensively produce large amounts of polyclonal IgY Abs from egg yolks to be applied as a preventive and therapeutic passive Ab treatment to control RV diarrhea...
  5. Ge M, Luo W, Jiang D, Li R, Zhao W, Chen G, et al. Development and application of a double-antigen sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies to porcine circovirus 2. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:1480-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This double-antigen sandwich ELISA should be a useful tool to aid swine industry professionals in deciding the intervention strategies for the control of PCV2-associated diseases...
  6. Veron P, Leborgne C, Monteilhet V, Boutin S, Martin S, Moullier P, et al. Humoral and cellular capsid-specific immune responses to adeno-associated virus type 1 in randomized healthy donors. J Immunol. 2012;188:6418-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Clearly, a better understanding of the natural immunology of AAV serotypes will allow us to improve AAV gene therapy and make it an efficient treatment for genetic disease...
  7. Suzuki T, Semba S, Sunden Y, Orba Y, Kobayashi S, Nagashima K, et al. Role of JC virus agnoprotein in virion formation. Microbiol Immunol. 2012;56:639-46 pubmed publisher
    ..large T antigen, small T antigen, and T' antigen) and four late proteins (agnoprotein, and three viral capsid proteins, VP1, VP2, and VP3)...
  8. Laimbacher A, Esteban L, Castello A, Abdusetir Cerfoglio J, Argüelles M, Glikmann G, et al. HSV-1 amplicon vectors launch the production of heterologous rotavirus-like particles and induce rotavirus-specific immune responses in mice. Mol Ther. 2012;20:1810-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides proof of principle for the application of HSV-1 amplicon vectors that mediate the efficient production of heterologous VLPs as genetic vaccines. ..
  9. Gorovits R, Moshe A, Kolot M, Sobol I, Czosnek H. Progressive aggregation of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus coat protein in systemically infected tomato plants, susceptible and resistant to the virus. Virus Res. 2013;171:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that sequestering of virus CP into midsized aggregates and retarding the formation of large insoluble aggregates containing infectious particles is part of the response of resistant plants to TYLCV. ..
  10. Kwag H, Kim H, Chang D, Kim H. The production and immunogenicity of human papillomavirus type 58 virus-like particles produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Microbiol. 2012;50:813-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a convenient method for obtaining substantial amounts of highly immunogenic HPV58 L1 from S. cerevisiae. ..
  11. Mazzoni E, Corallini A, Cristaudo A, Taronna A, Tassi G, Manfrini M, et al. High prevalence of serum antibodies reacting with simian virus 40 capsid protein mimotopes in patients affected by malignant pleural mesothelioma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:18066-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The two SV40 peptides used in indirect ELISAs correspond to viral capsid proteins. ELISA with the two SV40 mimotopes gave overlapping results...
  12. Johansson C, Somberg M, Li X, Backstr m Winquist E, Fay J, Ryan F, et al. HPV-16 E2 contributes to induction of HPV-16 late gene expression by inhibiting early polyadenylation. EMBO J. 2012;31:3212-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that the accumulation of high levels of E2 during the viral life cycle, not only turns off the expression of the pro-mitotic viral E6 and E7 genes, but also induces the expression of the late HPV genes L1 and L2...
  13. Jagu S, Kwak K, Karanam B, Huh W, Damotharan V, Chivukula S, et al. Optimization of multimeric human papillomavirus L2 vaccines. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e55538 pubmed publisher
  14. Trask S, Ogden K, Patton J. Interactions among capsid proteins orchestrate rotavirus particle functions. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future work may serve to fill the remaining gaps in understanding of rotavirus particle structure and function. ..
  15. Fukui A, Matsueda S, Kawano K, Tsuda N, Komatsu N, Shichijo S, et al. Identification of B cell epitopes reactive to human papillomavirus type-16L1- derived peptides. Virol J. 2012;9:199 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, one unique 20-mer was determined as a B cell epitope in each strain. These results might provide new information for better understanding of immune responses to HPV 16?L1. ..
  16. Tao P, Mahalingam M, Marasa B, Zhang Z, Chopra A, Rao V. In vitro and in vivo delivery of genes and proteins using the bacteriophage T4 DNA packaging machine. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5846-51 pubmed publisher
    ..were translocated into emptied phage head and its outer surface was decorated with proteins fused to outer capsid proteins, highly antigenic outer capsid protein (Hoc) and small outer capsid protein (Soc)...
  17. Roques E, Girard A, Gagnon C, Archambault D. Antibody responses induced in mice immunized with recombinant adenovectors expressing chimeric proteins of various porcine pathogens. Vaccine. 2013;31:2698-704 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, immunization with vaccines expressing P97c in fusion to either Cap or GP5 enhanced the Ab responses against Cap and GP5, suggesting an immunopotentiator effect for P97c. ..
  18. Neu U, Hengel H, Blaum B, Schowalter R, Macejak D, Gilbert M, et al. Structures of Merkel cell polyomavirus VP1 complexes define a sialic acid binding site required for infection. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002738 pubmed publisher
    ..Since cell-surface glycans typically serve as primary attachment receptors for many viruses, we identify here a new role for glycans in mediating, and perhaps even modulating, post-attachment entry processes...
  19. Kuksin D, Norkin L. Disassociation of the SV40 genome from capsid proteins prior to nuclear entry. Virol J. 2012;9:158 pubmed publisher
    ..that input SV40 particles undergo a partial disassembly in the endoplasmic reticulum, which exposes internal capsid proteins VP2 and VP3 to immunostaining...
  20. Martino A, Basner Tschakarjan E, Markusic D, Finn J, Hinderer C, Zhou S, et al. Engineered AAV vector minimizes in vivo targeting of transduced hepatocytes by capsid-specific CD8+ T cells. Blood. 2013;121:2224-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, AAV capsids can be engineered to substantially reduce the risk of destruction by cytotoxic T lymphocytes, whereas use of alternative serotypes per se does not circumvent this obstacle. ..
  21. Hess G, Guimaraes C, Spooner E, Ploegh H, Belcher A. Orthogonal labeling of M13 minor capsid proteins with DNA to self-assemble end-to-end multiphage structures. ACS Synth Biol. 2013;2:490-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Building more complex multiphage devices requires precise control of interactions between the M13 capsid proteins. Toward this end, we engineered a loop structure onto the pIII capsid protein of M13 bacteriophage to enable ..
  22. Nelson C, Derdowski A, Maginnis M, O Hara B, Atwood W. The VP1 subunit of JC polyomavirus recapitulates early events in viral trafficking and is a novel tool to study polyomavirus entry. Virology. 2012;428:30-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These pentamers represent a new tool to study polyomavirus entry, and will be particularly useful in studying recently identified polyomaviruses that are difficult to propagate. ..
  23. Comas Garcia M, Cadena Nava R, Rao A, Knobler C, Gelbart W. In vitro quantification of the relative packaging efficiencies of single-stranded RNA molecules by viral capsid protein. J Virol. 2012;86:12271-82 pubmed publisher
    ..At acidic pH, excess protein unbinds from RNA/CP complexes and nucleocapsids form irreversibly...
  24. Li F, Chen H, Zhang Y, Chen Z, Zhang Z, Zhang X, et al. Three-dimensional gold nanoparticle clusters with tunable cores templated by a viral protein scaffold. Small. 2012;8:3832-8 pubmed publisher
    ..It is expected that the VNP guided 3D hybrid nanoarchitectures provide ideal models for NP interaction studies and open new opportunities for integrating various functionalities in NP assemblies...
  25. Yemelyanova A, Gravitt P, Ronnett B, Rositch A, Ogurtsova A, Seidman J, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of human papillomavirus capsid proteins L1 and L2 in squamous intraepithelial lesions: potential utility in diagnosis and management. Mod Pathol. 2013;26:268-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Lesions of different grades in the same specimen were scored separately. Expression of capsid proteins was detected in 34/89 (40%) LSIL/CIN 1, 5/75 (6%) HSIL/CIN 2 and none of 48 HSIL/CIN 3...
  26. Nakao S, Mori S, Kondo K, Matsumoto K, Yoshikawa H, Kanda T. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing cross-neutralization epitopes in human papillomavirus 16 minor capsid protein L2. Virology. 2012;434:110-7 pubmed publisher
  27. Shaukat S, Angez M, Alam M, Sharif S, Khurshid A, Mahmood T, et al. Characterization of non-polio enterovirus isolates from acute flaccid paralysis children in Pakistan reflects a new genotype of EV-107. Virus Res. 2012;170:164-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also highlights the probable role of non-polio viral etiologies associated with AFP and needs to plan new strategies especially during the post polio eradication era...
  28. McLeish N, Williams C, Kaloudas D, Roivainen M, Stanway G. Symmetry-related clustering of positive charges is a common mechanism for heparan sulfate binding in enteroviruses. J Virol. 2012;86:11163-70 pubmed
    ..This is a potentially powerful mechanism by which a single amino acid change could generate novel receptor binding capabilities, underscoring the plasticity of host-cell interactions in enteroviruses. ..
  29. Shingler K, Yoder J, Carnegie M, Ashley R, Makhov A, Conway J, et al. The enterovirus 71 A-particle forms a gateway to allow genome release: a cryoEM study of picornavirus uncoating. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003240 pubmed publisher
    ..These structural characteristics identify the two-fold channel as the site where a gateway forms and regulates the process of genome release...
  30. Tresset G, Le Coeur C, Bryche J, Tatou M, Zeghal M, Charpilienne A, et al. Norovirus capsid proteins self-assemble through biphasic kinetics via long-lived stave-like intermediates. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:15373-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The extracted form factors are robust against changes in experimental conditions. These findings challenge and complement currently accepted models for the assembly of norovirus capsids. ..
  31. Burns C, Shaw J, Jorba J, Bukbuk D, Adu F, Gumede N, et al. Multiple independent emergences of type 2 vaccine-derived polioviruses during a large outbreak in northern Nigeria. J Virol. 2013;87:4907-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection of multiple concurrent cVDPV2 outbreaks in northern Nigeria highlights the risks of cVDPV emergence accompanying tOPV use at low rates of coverage in developing countries...
  32. Naumer M, Sonntag F, Schmidt K, Nieto K, Panke C, Davey N, et al. Properties of the adeno-associated virus assembly-activating protein. J Virol. 2012;86:13038-48 pubmed publisher
    ..virus (AAV) capsid assembly requires expression of the assembly-activating protein (AAP) together with capsid proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. AAP is encoded by an alternative open reading frame of the cap gene...
  33. Key T, Read J, Nibert M, Duncan R. Piscine reovirus encodes a cytotoxic, non-fusogenic, integral membrane protein and previously unrecognized virion outer-capsid proteins. J Gen Virol. 2013;94:1039-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of a novel integral membrane protein and two previously unrecognized, essential outer-capsid proteins has important implications for the biology, evolution and taxonomic classification of this virus.
  34. Yang S, Wang T, Bohon J, Gagn M, Bolduc M, Leclerc D, et al. Crystal structure of the coat protein of the flexible filamentous papaya mosaic virus. J Mol Biol. 2012;422:263-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of PapMV will be useful for rational design and engineering of the PapMV nanoparticles into innovative vaccines...
  35. Lanz H, Suijker J, Noteborn M, Backendorf C. Proteasomal insensitivity of apoptin in tumor cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;422:169-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Apparently, apoptin is degraded by proteasomal activity in normal human cells, a process that no longer takes place in tumor cells. This loss of proteasomal susceptibility appears to be specific for apoptin. ..
  36. Tumban E, Peabody J, Tyler M, Peabody D, Chackerian B. VLPs displaying a single L2 epitope induce broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies against human papillomavirus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49751 pubmed publisher
  37. Nomaguchi M, Yokoyama M, Kono K, Nakayama E, Shioda T, Saito A, et al. Gag-CA Q110D mutation elicits TRIM5-independent enhancement of HIV-1mt replication in macaque cells. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:56-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results here indicate that CA-Q110D accelerates viral growth in macaque cells irrelevant to TRIM5 proteins restriction...
  38. Johne R, Dremsek P, Kindler E, Schielke A, Plenge Bonig A, Gregersen H, et al. Rat hepatitis E virus: geographical clustering within Germany and serological detection in wild Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus). Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:947-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The recombinant ratHEV antigen generated here will allow future seroepidemiological studies to differentiate ratHEV and genotype 3 infections in humans and animals. ..
  39. Scuda N, Madinda N, Akoua Koffi C, Adjogoua E, Wevers D, Hofmann J, et al. Novel polyomaviruses of nonhuman primates: genetic and serological predictors for the existence of multiple unknown polyomaviruses within the human population. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003429 pubmed publisher
    ..determine whether the remaining chimpanzee polyomaviruses had potential human counterparts, the major viral capsid proteins (VP1) of four chimpanzee polyomaviruses were expressed in E...
  40. Maree F, Blignaut B, de Beer T, Rieder E. Analysis of SAT type foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins and the identification of putative amino acid residues affecting virus stability. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61612 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant vSAT2 and intra-serotype chimeric viruses were used to map the amino acid differences in the capsid proteins of viruses with disparate low pH stabilities...
  41. Castellanos M, Pérez R, Carrasco C, Hernando Pérez M, Gomez Herrero J, de Pablo P, et al. Mechanical elasticity as a physical signature of conformational dynamics in a virus particle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12028-33 pubmed publisher
  42. Ward P, Poitras E, LeBlanc D, Gagnon C, Brassard J, Houde A. Comparison of different RT-qPCR assays for the detection of human and bovine group A rotaviruses and characterization by sequences analysis of genes encoding VP4 and VP7 capsid proteins. J Appl Microbiol. 2013;114:1435-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Utilization of only one RT-qPCR for the detection of human and bovine group A rotaviruses and the possibility of human infection by a feline rotavirus strain. ..
  43. Hung M, Niedziela Majka A, Jin D, Wong M, Leavitt S, Brendza K, et al. Large-scale functional purification of recombinant HIV-1 capsid. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58035 pubmed publisher
    During human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) virion maturation, capsid proteins undergo a major rearrangement to form a conical core that protects the viral nucleoprotein complexes...
  44. Borodavka A, Tuma R, Stockley P. A two-stage mechanism of viral RNA compaction revealed by single molecule fluorescence. RNA Biol. 2013;10:481-9 pubmed publisher
    ..RNA compaction by coat protein or polycation binding are distinct processes, implying that defined RNA-coat protein contacts are required for assembly...
  45. Lindesmith L, Beltramello M, Donaldson E, Corti D, Swanstrom J, Debbink K, et al. Immunogenetic mechanisms driving norovirus GII.4 antigenic variation. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002705 pubmed publisher
    ..4 norovirus evolution is heavily influenced by antigenic variation of neutralizing epitopes and consequently, antibody-driven receptor switching; thus, protective herd immunity is a driving force in norovirus molecular evolution...
  46. Lee M, Sun F, Huang C, Lien Y, Feng S, Lai G, et al. Efficient production of an engineered apoptin from chicken anemia virus in a recombinant E. coli for tumor therapeutic applications. BMC Biotechnol. 2012;12:27 pubmed publisher
    ..This protein may in the future allow the development of a therapeutic protein that is able to specifically kill tumor cells. ..
  47. Ivanov K, Mäkinen K. Coat proteins, host factors and plant viral replication. Curr Opin Virol. 2012;2:712-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we summarize the non-structural functions of plant viral CPs, placing special emphasis on their roles in viral genome replication and translation. ..
  48. Takeuchi J, Perche B, Migraine J, Mercier Delarue S, Ponscarme D, Simon F, et al. High level of susceptibility to human TRIM5? conferred by HIV-2 capsid sequences. Retrovirology. 2013;10:50 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-2 capsid sequences expressed high levels of susceptibility to hTRIM5?. This property, common to all HIV-2 sequences tested, may contribute in part to the lower replication and pathogenicity of this virus in humans. ..
  49. Tan M, Jiang X. Norovirus P particle: a subviral nanoparticle for vaccine development against norovirus, rotavirus and influenza virus. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2012;7:889-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This article summarizes the discovery, structure, development and applications of the P particles as a vaccine against NoVs, as well as a vaccine platform against rotavirus, influenza virus and possibly other pathogens in the future. ..
  50. Bronnimann M, Chapman J, Park C, Campos S. A transmembrane domain and GxxxG motifs within L2 are essential for papillomavirus infection. J Virol. 2013;87:464-73 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest an important role for the self-associating L2 TM domain and the conserved GxxxG motifs in the transfer of vDNA across the endo-/lysosomal membrane...
  51. Cheng S, Brooks C. Viral capsid proteins are segregated in structural fold space. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1002905 pubmed publisher
    Viral capsid proteins assemble into large, symmetrical architectures that are not found in complexes formed by their cellular counterparts...
  52. Nishimura Y, Lee H, Hafenstein S, Kataoka C, Wakita T, Bergelson J, et al. Enterovirus 71 binding to PSGL-1 on leukocytes: VP1-145 acts as a molecular switch to control receptor interaction. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003511 pubmed publisher
  53. Wang Y, Liu D, Guo L, Tang Q, Wei Y, Wu H, et al. Enhanced protective immune response to PCV2 subunit vaccine by co-administration of recombinant porcine IFN-? in mice. Vaccine. 2013;31:833-8 pubmed publisher