nucleocapsid proteins


Summary: Viral proteins found in either the NUCLEOCAPSID or the viral core (VIRAL CORE PROTEINS).

Top Publications

  1. Chamontin C, Yu B, Racine P, Darlix J, Mougel M. MoMuLV and HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins have a common role in genomic RNA packaging but different in late reverse transcription. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e51534 pubmed publisher
    Retroviral nucleocapsid proteins harbor nucleic acid chaperoning activities that mostly rely on the N-terminal basic residues and the CCHC zinc finger motif...
  2. Green T, Rowse M, Tsao J, Kang J, Ge P, Zhou Z, et al. Access to RNA encapsidated in the nucleocapsid of vesicular stomatitis virus. J Virol. 2011;85:2714-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyribonucleotides were reencapsidated into the empty NLP, and the crystal structures were determined. The crystal structures revealed variable degrees of association of the N protein with a specific RNA sequence...
  3. Spriggs S, Garyu L, Connor R, Summers M. Potential intra- and intermolecular interactions involving the unique-5' region of the HIV-1 5'-UTR. Biochemistry. 2008;47:13064-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the previously proposed long-range U5-gag(AUG) interaction is feasible and suggest a potential NC-dependent mechanism for modulating the structure of the 5'-UTR. ..
  4. Lo Y, Lin S, Wang S, Wang C, Chiu Y, Huang T, et al. Oligomerization of the carboxyl terminal domain of the human coronavirus 229E nucleocapsid protein. FEBS Lett. 2013;587:120-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study may assist the development of anti-viral drugs against HCoV...
  5. Bell N, Kenyon J, Balasubramanian S, Lever A. Comparative structural effects of HIV-1 Gag and nucleocapsid proteins in binding to and unwinding of the viral RNA packaging signal. Biochemistry. 2012;51:3162-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Hoffmann B, Scheuch M, Höper D, Jungblut R, Holsteg M, Schirrmeier H, et al. Novel orthobunyavirus in Cattle, Europe, 2011. Emerg Infect Dis. 2012;18:469-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Metagenomic analysis identified a novel orthobunyavirus, which subsequently was isolated from blood of affected animals. Surveillance was initiated to test malformed newborn animals in the affected region. ..
  7. Taylor S, Krempel R, Schmaljohn C. Inhibition of TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB by hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1171 Suppl 1:E86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide evidence that hantaviruses differ in their abilities to interfere with host innate immune responses...
  8. Sandmeyer S, Clemens K. Function of a retrotransposon nucleocapsid protein. RNA Biol. 2010;7:642-54 pubmed
  9. Singh S, Toro H, TANG D, Briles W, Yates L, Kopulos R, et al. Non-replicating adenovirus vectors expressing avian influenza virus hemagglutinin and nucleocapsid proteins induce chicken specific effector, memory and effector memory CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Virology. 2010;405:62-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreases in all responses with time were most dramatic with maximum activation of T cells as observed following effector and effector memory responses. ..

More Information


  1. Muriaux D, Darlix J. Properties and functions of the nucleocapsid protein in virus assembly. RNA Biol. 2010;7:744-53 pubmed
    ..This ensures a bona fide trafficking of early GagNC-genomic RNA complexes to the plasma membrane of the infected cell and ultimately virion formation and budding. ..
  2. Wu H, Rouzina I, Williams M. Single-molecule stretching studies of RNA chaperones. RNA Biol. 2010;7:712-23 pubmed
    ..The most widely studied RNA chaperones are the retroviral nucleocapsid proteins (NC), also referred to as nucleic acid (NA) chaperones...
  3. Mir M, Panganiban A. A protein that replaces the entire cellular eIF4F complex. EMBO J. 2008;27:3129-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Viral nucleocapsid proteins (N) function in both genome replication and RNA encapsidation...
  4. Martín Folgar R, Lorenzo G, Boshra H, Iglesias J, Mateos F, Borrego B, et al. Development and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid protein generated by DNA immunization. MAbs. 2010;2:275-84 pubmed
    ..These monoclonal antibodies constitute useful tools for diagnosis, especially for the detection of serum anti-RVFV antibodies from a broad range of species by means of competitive ELISA...
  5. Raymond D, Piper M, Gerrard S, Smith J. Structure of the Rift Valley fever virus nucleocapsid protein reveals another architecture for RNA encapsidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11769-74 pubmed publisher
  6. Bourhy H, Reynes J, Dunham E, Dacheux L, Larrous F, Huong V, et al. The origin and phylogeography of dog rabies virus. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:2673-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our study reveals that the stochastic processes of genetic drift and population subdivision are the most important factors shaping the global phylogeography of canid RABV. ..
  7. Nakauchi M, Fukushi S, Saijo M, Mizutani T, Ure A, Romanowski V, et al. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to Junin virus nucleocapsid protein and application to the diagnosis of hemorrhagic fever caused by South American arenaviruses. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1132-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined use of these Ag capture ELISA systems in the present study may be useful for the diagnosis of acute-phase viral hemorrhagic fever due to infection by a South American arenavirus...
  8. Levin J, Mitra M, Mascarenhas A, Musier Forsyth K. Role of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein in HIV-1 reverse transcription. RNA Biol. 2010;7:754-74 pubmed
  9. Mougel M, Houzet L, Darlix J. When is it time for reverse transcription to start and go?. Retrovirology. 2009;6:24 pubmed publisher
    ..This brief review also proposes some explanations of how NC may control late reverse transcription during Gag assembly in virus producer cells. ..
  10. Katz A, Freiberg A, Backstr m V, Schulz A, Mateos A, Holm L, et al. Oligomerization of Uukuniemi virus nucleocapsid protein. Virol J. 2010;7:187 pubmed publisher
  11. Habchi J, Mamelli L, Darbon H, Longhi S. Structural disorder within Henipavirus nucleoprotein and phosphoprotein: from predictions to experimental assessment. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11684 pubmed publisher
  12. Williams R, Ellis C, Smith S, Potgieter C, Wallace D, Mareledwane V, et al. Validation of an IgM antibody capture ELISA based on a recombinant nucleoprotein for identification of domestic ruminants infected with Rift Valley fever virus. J Virol Methods. 2011;177:140-6 pubmed publisher
  13. Nadin Davis S, Sheen M, Wandeler A. Recent emergence of the Arctic rabies virus lineage. Virus Res. 2012;163:352-62 pubmed publisher
  14. Omi Furutani M, Yoneda M, Fujita K, Ikeda F, Kai C. Novel phosphoprotein-interacting region in Nipah virus nucleocapsid protein and its involvement in viral replication. J Virol. 2010;84:9793-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to visualize Nipah viral proteins in live cells and to assess the essential domain of N protein for the interaction with P protein. ..
  15. Ge P, Tsao J, Schein S, Green T, Luo M, Zhou Z. Cryo-EM model of the bullet-shaped vesicular stomatitis virus. Science. 2010;327:689-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data suggest a mechanism of VSV assembly in which the nucleocapsid spirals from the tip to become the helical trunk, both subsequently framed and rigidified by the M layer. ..
  16. Lagerqvist N, Näslund J, Lundkvist A, Bouloy M, Ahlm C, Bucht G. Characterisation of immune responses and protective efficacy in mice after immunisation with Rift Valley Fever virus cDNA constructs. Virol J. 2009;6:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The appearance of Rift Valley Fever associated clinical signs were significantly decreased among the DNA vaccinated mice and further adjustment of this strategy may result in full protection against Rift Valley Fever. ..
  17. Harouaka D, Wertz G. Mutations in the C-terminal loop of the nucleocapsid protein affect vesicular stomatitis virus RNA replication and transcription differentially. J Virol. 2009;83:11429-39 pubmed publisher
  18. Chang C, Hsu Y, Chang Y, Chao F, Wu M, Huang Y, et al. Multiple nucleic acid binding sites and intrinsic disorder of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein: implications for ribonucleocapsid protein packaging. J Virol. 2009;83:2255-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The current results underscore the important roles of multisite nucleic acid binding and intrinsic disorder in N protein function and RNP packaging. ..
  19. Pignatelli J, Jimenez M, Luque J, Rejas M, Lavazza A, Rodriguez D. Molecular characterization of a new PToV strain. Evolutionary implications. Virus Res. 2009;143:33-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The ELISA method developed in this work could be useful in future epidemiological surveys about toroviruses...
  20. Nayak D, Panda D, Das S, Luo M, Pattnaik A. Single-amino-acid alterations in a highly conserved central region of vesicular stomatitis virus N protein differentially affect the viral nucleocapsid template functions. J Virol. 2009;83:5525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the structure of the N protein and the resulting N-RNA complex, in part, regulate the viral template functions in transcription and replication...
  21. Ariza A, Tanner S, Walter C, Dent K, Shepherd D, Wu W, et al. Nucleocapsid protein structures from orthobunyaviruses reveal insight into ribonucleoprotein architecture and RNA polymerization. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:5912-26 pubmed publisher
  22. Kafaie J, Dolatshahi M, Ajamian L, Song R, Mouland A, Rouiller I, et al. Role of capsid sequence and immature nucleocapsid proteins p9 and p15 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 genomic RNA dimerization. Virology. 2009;385:233-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This represents the first evidence that a capsid mutation can affect HIV-1 RNA dimerization. ..
  23. Wu C, Yeh S, Tsay Y, Shieh Y, Kao C, Chen Y, et al. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 regulates the phosphorylation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus nucleocapsid protein and viral replication. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5229-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This study, thus, provides new avenues to further investigate the specific role of N protein phosphorylation in CoV replication. ..
  24. Keane S, Liu P, Leibowitz J, Giedroc D. Functional transcriptional regulatory sequence (TRS) RNA binding and helix destabilizing determinants of murine hepatitis virus (MHV) nucleocapsid (N) protein. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7063-73 pubmed publisher
  25. Reddy G, Singh R, Singh R, Singh K, Gupta P, Mahadevan A, et al. Molecular characterization of Indian rabies virus isolates by partial sequencing of nucleoprotein (N) and phosphoprotein (P) genes. Virus Genes. 2011;43:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Rabies virus isolates of Punjab and Rabies virus isolates of remaining parts of India (other than Punjab). All the Indian rabies virus isolates were closely related to geography (>95% homology), but not to host species. ..
  26. Ribeiro D, Borst J, Goldbach R, Kormelink R. Tomato spotted wilt virus nucleocapsid protein interacts with both viral glycoproteins Gn and Gc in planta. Virology. 2009;383:121-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The observations are discussed in the context of the virus particle formation during the infection process. ..
  27. Gurav Y, Tandale B, Jadi R, Gunjikar R, Tikute S, Jamgaonkar A, et al. Chandipura virus encephalitis outbreak among children in Nagpur division, Maharashtra, 2007. Indian J Med Res. 2010;132:395-9 pubmed
    ..7%) and diarrhoea (23.7%). CHPV RNA was detected in one of two pools of sandflies from affected locality. Chandipura virus was confirmed as the aetiological agent of this acute encephalitis outbreak with high case-fatality among children...
  28. Liu Y, Wu J, Chen H, Hew C, Yan J. DNA condensates organized by the capsid protein VP15 in White Spot Syndrome Virus. Virology. 2010;408:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that VP15 may aid in the viral DNA packaging process by directly condensing DNA. ..
  29. Pichlmair A, Habjan M, Unger H, Weber F. Virus-like particles expressing the nucleocapsid gene as an efficient vaccine against Rift Valley fever virus. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2010;10:701-3 pubmed publisher
  30. Walter C, Bento D, Alonso A, Barr J. Amino acid changes within the Bunyamwera virus nucleocapsid protein differentially affect the mRNA transcription and RNA replication activities of assembled ribonucleoprotein templates. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:80-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the BUNV N protein possesses functions outside of its primary role of RNA encapsidation...
  31. Koma T, Yoshimatsu K, Pini N, Safronetz D, Taruishi M, Levis S, et al. Truncated hantavirus nucleocapsid proteins for serotyping Sin Nombre, Andes, and Laguna Negra hantavirus infections in humans and rodents. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:1635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Truncated SNV, ANDV, and LANV recombinant nucleocapsid proteins (trNs) missing 99 N-terminal amino acids (trN100) were expressed using a baculovirus system, and their ..
  32. Jalalirad M, Laughrea M. Formation of immature and mature genomic RNA dimers in wild-type and protease-inactive HIV-1: differential roles of the Gag polyprotein, nucleocapsid proteins NCp15, NCp9, NCp7, and the dimerization initiation site. Virology. 2010;407:225-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The DIS is a dimerization initiation site for all immature gRNA dimers, irrespective of their mechanism of formation. ..
  33. Rainsford E, Harouaka D, Wertz G. Importance of hydrogen bond contacts between the N protein and RNA genome of vesicular stomatitis virus in encapsidation and RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2010;84:1741-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show a direct correlation between viral RNA synthesis and N protein residues structurally positioned to interact with RNA. ..
  34. Cox R, Green T, Qiu S, Kang J, Tsao J, Prevelige P, et al. Characterization of a mumps virus nucleocapsidlike particle. J Virol. 2009;83:11402-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Shorter RNA pieces are also visible. The MuV NP protein may provide weaker protection of the RNA than the NP protein of some other negative-strand RNA viruses, reflecting the degree of NP protein association. ..
  35. Tawar R, Duquerroy S, Vonrhein C, Varela P, Damier Piolle L, Castagné N, et al. Crystal structure of a nucleocapsid-like nucleoprotein-RNA complex of respiratory syncytial virus. Science. 2009;326:1279-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the nucleoprotein structure highlights possible key sites for drug targeting. ..
  36. Qualley D, STEWART MAYNARD K, Wang F, Mitra M, Gorelick R, Rouzina I, et al. C-terminal domain modulates the nucleic acid chaperone activity of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 nucleocapsid protein via an electrostatic mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:295-307 pubmed publisher
    ..The latter inhibits both NA/NC aggregation and rapid protein dissociation from single-stranded DNA. These features make HTLV-1 NC a poor NA chaperone, despite its robust duplex destabilizing capability. ..
  37. Ribeiro E, Leyrat C, Gerard F, Albertini A, Falk C, Ruigrok R, et al. Binding of rabies virus polymerase cofactor to recombinant circular nucleoprotein-RNA complexes. J Mol Biol. 2009;394:558-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural model is in agreement with available biochemical data and provides new insights on the mechanism of attachment of the polymerase complex to the NC template. ..
  38. Lu K, Heng X, Garyu L, Monti S, Garcia E, Kharytonchyk S, et al. NMR detection of structures in the HIV-1 5'-leader RNA that regulate genome packaging. Science. 2011;334:242-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a packaging mechanism in which translation, dimerization, NC binding, and packaging are regulated by a common RNA structural switch. ..
  39. Carter S, Surtees R, Walter C, Ariza A, Bergeron E, Nichol S, et al. Structure, function, and evolution of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleocapsid protein. J Virol. 2012;86:10914-23 pubmed
  40. Raymond D, Piper M, Gerrard S, Skiniotis G, Smith J. Phleboviruses encapsidate their genomes by sequestering RNA bases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:19208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..All RNA bases, whether in the binding slot or in the subunit interface, face the protein in a manner that is incompatible with base pairing or with "reading" by the viral polymerase. ..
  41. Eifan S, Elliott R. Mutational analysis of the Bunyamwera orthobunyavirus nucleocapsid protein gene. J Virol. 2009;83:11307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Different assays were applied to determine why 20 mutant N proteins could not be recovered into infectious virus. Based on these results, a preliminary domain map of the BUNV N protein is proposed. ..
  42. Ferron F, Li Z, Danek E, Luo D, Wong Y, Coutard B, et al. The hexamer structure of Rift Valley fever virus nucleoprotein suggests a mechanism for its assembly into ribonucleoprotein complexes. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002030 pubmed publisher
    ..Both the RNA binding cleft and the multimerization site of the N protein are promising targets for the development of antiviral drugs. ..
  43. Longhi S. Nucleocapsid structure and function. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2009;329:103-28 pubmed
    ..Finally, the functional implications of structural disorder are also discussed in light of the ability of disordered regions to establish interactions with multiple partners, thus leading to multiple biological effects...
  44. Li B, Wang Q, Pan X, Fernandez de Castro I, Sun Y, Guo Y, et al. Bunyamwera virus possesses a distinct nucleocapsid protein to facilitate genome encapsidation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:9048-53 pubmed publisher
  45. Mirambeau G, Lyonnais S, Gorelick R. Features, processing states, and heterologous protein interactions in the modulation of the retroviral nucleocapsid protein function. RNA Biol. 2010;7:724-34 pubmed
    ..All of these properties are reviewed here, focusing on HIV-1 as a paradigmatic reference and highlighting the plasticity of the nucleocapsid architecture. ..
  46. Rajendran A, Endo M, Hidaka K, Tran P, Mergny J, Gorelick R, et al. HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins as molecular chaperones for tetramolecular antiparallel G-quadruplex formation. J Am Chem Soc. 2013;135:18575-85 pubmed publisher
    HIV-1 nucleocapsid proteins (NCps) facilitate remodeling of nucleic acids to fold thermodynamically stable conformations, and thus called nucleic acid chaperones...
  47. Leyrat C, Yabukarski F, Tarbouriech N, Ribeiro E, Jensen M, Blackledge M, et al. Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus N?-P complex. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002248 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of this complex also suggests a mechanism for the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. ..
  48. Mohl B, Barr J. Investigating the specificity and stoichiometry of RNA binding by the nucleocapsid protein of Bunyamwera virus. RNA. 2009;15:391-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By comparing this minimal sequence to those bound to our model RNP, we conclude that N protein does not obligatorily require a sequence or structure for RNA encapsidation. ..
  49. Darlix J, Godet J, Ivanyi Nagy R, Fosse P, Mauffret O, Mely Y. Flexible nature and specific functions of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein. J Mol Biol. 2011;410:565-81 pubmed publisher
  50. Bernard C, Gely S, Bourhis J, Morelli X, Longhi S, Darbon H. Interaction between the C-terminal domains of N and P proteins of measles virus investigated by NMR. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1084-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Nagarajan T, Nagendrakumar S, Mohanasubramanian B, Rajalakshmi S, Hanumantha N, Ramya R, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene of dog rabies virus isolates from Southern India. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:976-82 pubmed publisher
    ..The data indicated that dog rabies virus variants are the major circulating viruses and control of dog rabies would result in overall reduction in the burden and incidence of rabies in India. ..
  52. Li M, Schmitt P, Li Z, McCrory T, He B, Schmitt A. Mumps virus matrix, fusion, and nucleocapsid proteins cooperate for efficient production of virus-like particles. J Virol. 2009;83:7261-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results demonstrate that different MuV structural proteins cooperate together for efficient particle production and that particle budding likely involves host class E protein machinery...
  53. Mondal A, Bhattacharya R, Ganguly T, Mukhopadhyay S, Basu A, Basak S, et al. Elucidation of functional domains of Chandipura virus Nucleocapsid protein involved in oligomerization and RNA binding: implication in viral genome encapsidation. Virology. 2010;407:33-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we propose a model to explain the mechanism of genome encapsidation of this important human pathogen. ..