viral structural proteins


Summary: Viral proteins that are components of the mature assembled VIRUS PARTICLES. They may include nucleocapsid core proteins (gag proteins), enzymes packaged within the virus particle (pol proteins), and membrane components (env proteins). These do not include the proteins encoded in the VIRAL GENOME that are produced in infected cells but which are not packaged in the mature virus particle,i.e. the so called non-structural proteins (VIRAL NONSTRUCTURAL PROTEINS).

Top Publications

  1. Lee H, Jeong H, Yun H, Kim K, Kim J, Yang J, et al. Genetic analysis of hepatitis A virus strains that induced epidemics in Korea during 2007-2009. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:1252-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that hepatitis A virus strains of 2 different genotypes are currently cocirculating in Korea. Moreover, it documents an increasing prevalence of genotype IIIA strains in the country...
  2. Desbois D, Couturier E, Mackiewicz V, Graube A, Letort M, Dussaix E, et al. Epidemiology and genetic characterization of hepatitis A virus genotype IIA. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:3306-15 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the unexplained contamination mode of autochthonous cases suggests another, still to be discovered geographical origin or a French reservoir to be explored...
  3. Firth A, Zevenhoven Dobbe J, Wills N, Go Y, Balasuriya U, Atkins J, et al. Discovery of a small arterivirus gene that overlaps the GP5 coding sequence and is important for virus production. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects, which could be partially complemented in ORF5a-expressing cells, indicate that the novel protein, which may be the eighth structural protein of arteriviruses, is expressed and important for arterivirus infection. ..
  4. Johnson C, Griggs T, Gnanandarajah J, Murtaugh M. Novel structural protein in porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus encoded by an alternative ORF5 present in all arteriviruses. J Gen Virol. 2011;92:1107-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Its discovery also provides a new potential target for immunological and pharmacological intervention in PRRS. ..
  5. Kuo S, Chen Y, Wang Y, Kuo M, Jinn T, Chen W, et al. Cell-based analysis of Chikungunya virus membrane fusion using baculovirus-expression vectors. J Virol Methods. 2011;175:206-15 pubmed publisher
    ..for screening anti-virus drugs, a bi-cistronic baculovirus expression system was utilized to co-express viral structural proteins C (capsid), E2 and E1 and the enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) in Spodoptera frugiperda insect ..
  6. Baek K, Yeo S, Lee B, Park K, Song J, Yu J, et al. Epidemics of enterovirus infection in Chungnam Korea, 2008 and 2009. Virol J. 2011;8:297 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparison of the VP1 amino acid sequences of the Korean coxsackievirus B5 isolates with reference strains revealed amino acid sequence substitutions at nine amino acid sequences (532, 562, 570, 571, 576-578, 582, 583, and 585)...
  7. García Mayoral M, Rodriguez Crespo I, Bruix M. Structural models of DYNLL1 with interacting partners: African swine fever virus protein p54 and postsynaptic scaffolding protein gephyrin. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:53-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We model the structure of both complexes and show that the overall binding mode is preserved as in other complexes despite differences at the residue-specific interactions. ..
  8. Perez Sautu U, Costafreda M, Lite J, Sala R, Barrabeig I, Bosch A, et al. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis A virus infections in Catalonia, Spain, 2005-2009: circulation of newly emerging strains. J Clin Virol. 2011;52:98-102 pubmed publisher
    ..In spite of annual vaccination campaigns, hepatitis A cases increased in Catalonia (North-East Spain) in the period 2002-2005 calling for the elucidation of the underlying mechanisms associated to the epidemiological shifts...
  9. Belaganahalli M, Maan S, Maan N, Nomikou K, Pritchard I, Lunt R, et al. Full genome sequencing and genetic characterization of Eubenangee viruses identify Pata virus as a distinct species within the genus Orbivirus. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31911 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented will facilitate diagnostic assay design and the identification of additional isolates of these viruses...

More Information


  1. Wang X, Hao H, Qiu L, Dang R, Du E, Zhang S, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in China and the antigenic variation of new strains. Arch Virol. 2012;157:1523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work is the first comprehensive analysis of Chinese RHDV and reveals a new RHDV variation that should be carefully monitored...
  2. Ballesteros N, Saint Jean S, Pérez Prieto S, Coll J. Trout oral VP2 DNA vaccination mimics transcriptional responses occurring after infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:1249-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of the genes described here could be used as markers to further optimize the oral immunization method...
  3. Okitsu S, Khamrin P, Thongprachum A, Hidaka S, Kongkaew S, Kongkaew A, et al. Sequence analysis of porcine kobuvirus VP1 region detected in pigs in Japan and Thailand. Virus Genes. 2012;44:253-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Since this strain was previously found to be closely related to bovine kobuviruses in the 3D gene region, it may be a natural recombinant...
  4. Xiang J, Ma G, Zhang S, Cheng A, Wang M, Zhu D, et al. Expression and intracellular localization of duck enteritis virus pUL38 protein. Virol J. 2010;7:162 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, pUL38 was found in purified virus. These results provide the first evidence of the kinetics of expression and intracellular localization of DEV pUL38...
  5. Liu J, Wang W, Duo J, Hao Y, Ma C, Li W, et al. Combined peptides of human enterovirus 71 protect against virus infection in mice. Vaccine. 2010;28:7444-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that Vac6 could have potential clinical value against EV71 epidemics caused mainly by C4 strains in the mainland of China. ..
  6. Xu X, Tong D, Wang Z, Zhang Q, Li Z, Zhang K, et al. Baculovirus virions displaying infectious bursal disease virus VP2 protein protect chickens against infectious bursal disease virus infection. Avian Dis. 2011;55:223-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus BacSC-VP2 can be a potential vaccine against IBDV infections...
  7. Sulbaran Y, Gutierrez C, Marquez B, Rojas D, Sanchez D, Navas J, et al. Hepatitis A virus genetic diversity in Venezuela: exclusive circulation of subgenotype IA and evidence of quasispecies distribution in the isolates. J Med Virol. 2010;82:1829-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular characterization of HAV isolates from Venezuela showed the circulation of a unique subgenotype IA, but with the presence of diverse strains and quasispecies inside the viral populations. ..
  8. Newcomb W, Brown J. Structure and capsid association of the herpesvirus large tegument protein UL36. J Virol. 2010;84:9408-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The variably curved structure of the strands suggests they may be flexible, a property that could contribute to the deformable nature of the tegument...
  9. Fitzner A, Niedbalski W, Paprocka G, Kesy A. Identification of Polish RHDVa subtype strains based on the analysis of a highly variable part of VP60 gene. Pol J Vet Sci. 2012;15:21-9 pubmed
    ..The most genetically variable strains (6-7%) clustered to RHDVa subtype. The analysis of nucleotides and amino acid sequences demonstrated three pairs of well conserved RHDV strains, isolated over 3, 6 and 10-year period...
  10. Hu Z, Tian X, Zhai Y, Xu W, Zheng D, Sun F. Cryo-electron microscopy reconstructions of two types of wild rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses characterized the structural features of Lagovirus. Protein Cell. 2010;1:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our cryo-electron microscopic studies of RHDV provide close insight into the structure of Lagovirus, which is important for functional analysis and better vaccine development in the future. ..
  11. Bruscolini P, Naganathan A. Quantitative prediction of protein folding behaviors from a simple statistical model. J Am Chem Soc. 2011;133:5372-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The extended model presented here serves as an ideal tool not only to characterize folding data but also to make experimentally testable predictions. ..
  12. Ince I, Boeren S, van Oers M, Vervoort J, Vlak J. Proteomic analysis of Chilo iridescent virus. Virology. 2010;405:253-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The remaining 15 identified proteins are so far unique to CIV. In addition to broadening our insight in the structure and assembly of CIV virions, this knowledge is pivotal to unravel the initial steps in the infection process. ..
  13. Yoon Y, Yeon J, Kim J, Sim H, Kim J, Park D, et al. Comparative analysis of disease severity between genotypes IA and IIIA of hepatitis A virus. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1308-14 pubmed publisher
    ..49, 95%CI 4.6-132.5) were associated independently with genotype IIIA. In conclusion, this study indicates that HAV genotype might be one of the viral factors responsible for the disease severity of hepatitis A...
  14. Perez Sautu U, Costafreda M, Cayla J, Tortajada C, Lite J, Bosch A, et al. Hepatitis a virus vaccine escape variants and potential new serotype emergence. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:734-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The need to complete the proper vaccination schedules is critical, particularly in the immunocompromised population, to prevent the emergence of vaccine-escaping variants. ..
  15. Cao J, Bi S, Meng Q, Shen L, Zheng H, Zhang Y. Genotyping of acute hepatitis a virus isolates from China, 2003-2008. J Med Virol. 2011;83:1134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This report provides new data on the genetic relatedness and molecular epidemiology of HAV isolates from China as well as the distribution of sub-genotype IA and IB in this part of the world...
  16. Le Gall Reculé G, Lavazza A, Marchandeau S, Bertagnoli S, Zwingelstein F, Cavadini P, et al. Emergence of a new lagovirus related to Rabbit Haemorrhagic Disease Virus. Vet Res. 2013;44:81 pubmed publisher
    ..RHDV2 was detected in continental Italy in June 2011, then four months later in Sardinia. ..
  17. Goldner T, Hewlett G, Ettischer N, Ruebsamen Schaeff H, Zimmermann H, Lischka P. The novel anticytomegalovirus compound AIC246 (Letermovir) inhibits human cytomegalovirus replication through a specific antiviral mechanism that involves the viral terminase. J Virol. 2011;85:10884-93 pubmed publisher
  18. Leyrat C, Yabukarski F, Tarbouriech N, Ribeiro E, Jensen M, Blackledge M, et al. Structure of the vesicular stomatitis virus N?-P complex. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002248 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of this complex also suggests a mechanism for the initiation of viral RNA synthesis. ..
  19. Maan S, Maan N, Nomikou K, Veronesi E, Bachanek Bankowska K, Belaganahalli M, et al. Complete genome characterisation of a novel 26th bluetongue virus serotype from Kuwait. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26147 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analyses indicate that all of the BTV genome segments have evolved under strong purifying selection...
  20. Hicks A, Duffy S. One misdated sequence of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus prevents accurate estimation of its nucleotide substitution rate. BMC Evol Biol. 2012;12:74 pubmed publisher
    ..These jackknife controls would be useful for future tip-calibrated rate analyses that include taxa with ambiguous dates of isolation. ..
  21. Jackwood D. Molecular epidemiologic evidence of homologous recombination in infectious bursal disease viruses. Avian Dis. 2012;56:574-7 pubmed
    ..The amino acid sequence data, however, suggest they would contain antigenic epitopes of both variant and classic IBDVs...
  22. Wang X, Xu F, Liu J, Gao B, Liu Y, Zhai Y, et al. Atomic model of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus by cryo-electron microscopy and crystallography. PLoS Pathog. 2013;9:e1003132 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides a reliable, pseudo-atomic model of a Lagovirus and suggests a new candidate for an efficient vaccine that can be used to protect rabbits from RHDV infection...
  23. Lu L, Cheng A, Wang M, Jiang J, Zhu D, Jia R, et al. Polyclonal antibody against the DPV UL46M protein can be a diagnostic candidate. Virol J. 2010;7:83 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, we established Dot-ELISA using the polyclonal antibody and applied it to DPV detection...
  24. Zhang R, Yang S, Zhang W, Zhang T, Xie Z, Feng H, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of the VP2 gene of canine parvoviruses circulating in China. Virus Genes. 2010;40:397-402 pubmed publisher
    ..A phylogenetic tree constructed from the VP2 genes showed that most of the Chinese strains classified in a cluster consisting of Chinese and Korean field isolates, which were distinct from Thai, U.S., and Italian isolates...
  25. Ribeiro E, Favier A, Gerard F, Leyrat C, Brutscher B, Blondel D, et al. Solution structure of the C-terminal nucleoprotein-RNA binding domain of the vesicular stomatitis virus phosphoprotein. J Mol Biol. 2008;382:525-38 pubmed publisher
  26. Firth A, Chung B, Fleeton M, Atkins J. Discovery of frameshifting in Alphavirus 6K resolves a 20-year enigma. Virol J. 2008;5:108 pubmed publisher
    ..The results have implications for alphavirus biology, virion structure, viroporins, ribosomal frameshifting, and bioinformatic identification of novel frameshift-expressed genes, both in viruses and in cellular organisms...
  27. Icard A, Sellers H, Mundt E. Detection of infectious bursal disease virus isolates with unknown antigenic properties by reverse genetics. Avian Dis. 2008;52:590-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, using the reverse-genetics approach, a number of field isolates showed no reactivity with any of the used monoclonal antibodies, indicating that an unknown, antigenic subtype of IBDV serotype 1 is circulating in the field...
  28. Gerard F, Ribeiro E, Leyrat C, Ivanov I, Blondel D, Longhi S, et al. Modular organization of rabies virus phosphoprotein. J Mol Biol. 2009;388:978-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a conserved organization of P proteins in the Rhabdoviridae family in concatenated functional domains resembling that of the P proteins in the Paramyxoviridae family. ..
  29. Rozen R, Sathish N, Li Y, Yuan Y. Virion-wide protein interactions of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. J Virol. 2008;82:4742-50 pubmed publisher
  30. Lee J, Vittone V, Diefenbach E, Cunningham A, Diefenbach R. Identification of structural protein-protein interactions of herpes simplex virus type 1. Virology. 2008;378:347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This information will provide further insights into the pathways of HSV-1 assembly and the identified interactions are potential targets for new antiviral drugs. ..
  31. Wang E, Volkova E, Adams A, Forrester N, Xiao S, Frolov I, et al. Chimeric alphavirus vaccine candidates for chikungunya. Vaccine. 2008;26:5030-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccinated mice were fully protected against disease and viremia after CHIKV challenge. ..
  32. Desai P, Sexton G, Huang E, Person S. Localization of herpes simplex virus type 1 UL37 in the Golgi complex requires UL36 but not capsid structures. J Virol. 2008;82:11354-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first demonstration of a functional role for UL36:UL37 interaction in HSV-1-infected cells...
  33. Tran T, Castagn N, Dubosclard V, Noinville S, Koch E, Moudjou M, et al. The respiratory syncytial virus M2-1 protein forms tetramers and interacts with RNA and P in a competitive manner. J Virol. 2009;83:6363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the region encompassing amino acid residues 59 to 178 binds to P and RNA in a competitive manner that is independent of the phosphorylation status of M2-1...
  34. Xiang Y, Leiman P, Li L, Grimes S, Anderson D, Rossmann M. Crystallographic insights into the autocatalytic assembly mechanism of a bacteriophage tail spike. Mol Cell. 2009;34:375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Structural and sequence comparisons suggest that some eukaryotic and bacterial viruses as well as bacterial adhesins might have a similar maturation mechanism as is performed by phi29 gp12 for Bacillus subtilis...
  35. Iwai M, Masaki A, Hasegawa S, Obara M, Horimoto E, Nakamura K, et al. Genetic changes of coxsackievirus A16 and enterovirus 71 isolated from hand, foot, and mouth disease patients in Toyama, Japan between 1981 and 2007. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2009;62:254-9 pubmed
  36. Michel B, Leroy B, Stalin Raj V, Lieffrig F, Mast J, Wattiez R, et al. The genome of cyprinid herpesvirus 3 encodes 40 proteins incorporated in mature virions. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:452-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The identification of the proteins incorporated into CyHV-3 virions and determination of the viral genes encoding these proteins are key milestones for further fundamental and applied research on this virus...
  37. Arrigo N, Adams A, Weaver S. Evolutionary patterns of eastern equine encephalitis virus in North versus South America suggest ecological differences and taxonomic revision. J Virol. 2010;84:1014-25 pubmed publisher
  38. Doceul V, Hollinshead M, van der Linden L, Smith G. Repulsion of superinfecting virions: a mechanism for rapid virus spread. Science. 2010;327:873-876 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional spreading mechanisms may exist for other viruses that also spread faster than predicted by replication kinetics. ..
  39. De Lima M, Ansari I, Das P, Ku B, Martinez Lobo F, Pattnaik A, et al. GP3 is a structural component of the PRRSV type II (US) virion. Virology. 2009;390:31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that GP3 is a minor structural component of the PRRSV type II (FL12 strain) virion, as had been previously described for PRRSV type I. ..
  40. Coulibaly F, Chevalier C, Delmas B, Rey F. Crystal structure of an Aquabirnavirus particle: insights into antigenic diversity and virulence determinism. J Virol. 2010;84:1792-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, in addition to revealing the viral antigenic determinants, the structure suggests that birnaviruses interact with different receptors for attachment and for cell internalization during entry...
  41. Oem J, Lee K, Roh I, Lee K, Kim S, Kim H, et al. Identification and characterization of rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus genetic variants isolated in Korea. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:1519-23 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the recent RHDVa strains have gradually replaced the original RHDV and are the predominant strains in Korea. ..
  42. Zhou X, Wang D, Xiong J, Zhang P, Li Y, She R. Protection of chickens, with or without maternal antibodies, against IBDV infection by a recombinant IBDV-VP2 protein. Vaccine. 2010;28:3990-6 pubmed publisher
  43. Böttcher S, Maresch C, Granzow H, Klupp B, Teifke J, Mettenleiter T. Mutagenesis of the active-site cysteine in the ubiquitin-specific protease contained in large tegument protein pUL36 of pseudorabies virus impairs viral replication in vitro and neuroinvasion in vivo. J Virol. 2008;82:6009-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the DUB activity is important for PrV replication in vitro and for neuroinvasion in mice...
  44. Jackwood D, Sreedevi B, LeFever L, Sommer Wagner S. Studies on naturally occurring infectious bursal disease viruses suggest that a single amino acid substitution at position 253 in VP2 increases pathogenicity. Virology. 2008;377:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the molecular and pathogenicity data indicate that a single amino acid mutation from Histidine (H) to Glutamine (Q) or Asparagine (N) at position 253 in VP2 will markedly increase the virulence of an attenuated IBDV...
  45. Chua B, Phuektes P, Sanders S, Nicholls P, McMinn P. The molecular basis of mouse adaptation by human enterovirus 71. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1622-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Of the two amino acid substitutions identified in MP-26M, the VP1 (G(145)-->E) mutation alone was sufficient to increase virulence in mice to the level observed in MP-26M-infected mice. ..
  46. Perozo F, Villegas P, Estevez C, Alvarado I, Purvis L, Williams S. Protection against infectious bursal disease virulent challenge conferred by a recombinant avian adeno-associated virus vaccine. Avian Dis. 2008;52:315-9 pubmed
    ..The use of rAAAV virions for gene delivery represents a novel approach to poultry vaccination...
  47. de Las Heras A, Rodríguez Saint Jean S, Pérez Prieto S. Immunogenic and protective effects of an oral DNA vaccine against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2010;28:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study demonstrates the potential of the encapsulation technique for IPNV-DNA vaccine delivery and the relevance of the IPNV-VP2 gene for future plasmid constructs...
  48. Ji X, Sutton G, Evans G, Axford D, Owen R, Stuart D. How baculovirus polyhedra fit square pegs into round holes to robustly package viruses. EMBO J. 2010;29:505-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of flexible adaptors to generate a powerful system for packaging irregular particles is characteristic of the AcMNPV polyhedrin and may provide a vehicle to sequester a wide range of objects such as biological nano-particles...
  49. Roberts A, Abaitua F, O Hare P, McNab D, Rixon F, Pasdeloup D. Differing roles of inner tegument proteins pUL36 and pUL37 during entry of herpes simplex virus type 1. J Virol. 2009;83:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of noninfectious enveloped particles (L-particles) further showed that pUL36 and pUL37 are dependent on each other for incorporation into tegument...
  50. Leege T, Fuchs W, Granzow H, Kopp M, Klupp B, Mettenleiter T. Effects of simultaneous deletion of pUL11 and glycoprotein M on virion maturation of herpes simplex virus type 1. J Virol. 2009;83:896-907 pubmed publisher
    ..The defects of HSV-1DeltaUL11 and HSV-1DeltaUL11/gM could be partially corrected in trans by pUL11 of PrV. Thus, our data indicate that PrV and HSV-1 pUL11 and gM exhibit similar functions in cytoplasmic steps of virion assembly...
  51. Copeland A, Newcomb W, Brown J. Herpes simplex virus replication: roles of viral proteins and nucleoporins in capsid-nucleus attachment. J Virol. 2009;83:1660-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Capsids are suggested to attach to the NPC by way of the complex of Nup358 and Nup214, with high-resolution immunofluorescence studies favoring binding to Nup358. ..
  52. Dey S, Upadhyay C, Madhan Mohan C, Kataria J, Vakharia V. Formation of subviral particles of the capsid protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus and its application in serological diagnosis. J Virol Methods. 2009;157:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay proved to be sensitive, specific and accurate as compared to the serum neutralization test and agar gel immunodiffusion test. The recombinant VP2 antigen is a suitable alternative to whole viral antigen...
  53. Shen C, Cheng A, Wang M, Guo Y, Zhao L, Wen M, et al. Identification and characterization of the duck enteritis virus UL51 gene. Arch Virol. 2009;154:1061-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Indirect immunofluorescence studies localized most of the protein to the juxtanuclear region. These results will provide a basis for further functional analysis of the gene...