viral regulatory and accessory proteins


Summary: A broad category of viral proteins that play indirect roles in the biological processes and activities of viruses. Included here are proteins that either regulate the expression of viral genes or are involved in modifying host cell functions. Many of the proteins in this category serve multiple functions.

Top Publications

  1. Neely M, Friedman D. Arrangement and functional identification of genes in the regulatory region of lambdoid phage H-19B, a carrier of a Shiga-like toxin. Gene. 1998;223:105-13 pubmed
    ..The Shiga-like stx-I genes are located directly downstream of the promoter, p'R, for the late genes, and upstream of the lysis genes. ..
  2. Bratt G, Hammarin A, Grandien M, Hedquist B, Nennesmo I, Sundelin B, et al. BK virus as the cause of meningoencephalitis, retinitis and nephritis in a patient with AIDS. AIDS. 1999;13:1071-5 pubmed
    ..JCV might cause progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy, but although up to 60% of AIDS patients excrete BKV in the urine there have been few reports of BKV-related renal and/or neurological disease in AIDS...
  3. Srinivasakumar N, Schuening F. A lentivirus packaging system based on alternative RNA transport mechanisms to express helper and gene transfer vector RNAs and its use to study the requirement of accessory proteins for particle formation and gene delivery. J Virol. 1999;73:9589-98 pubmed
    ..The combination/mixed packaging system was comparable to the other systems for production of virus stocks, suggesting that this design may prove to be safer for the eventual deployment of lentivirus vectors for therapeutic purposes. ..
  4. Schneider T, Stormo G, Gold L, Ehrenfeucht A. Information content of binding sites on nucleotide sequences. J Mol Biol. 1986;188:415-31 pubmed
    ..The comparisons between R sequence and R frequency suggest that the information at binding sites is just sufficient for the sites to be distinguished from the rest of the genome. ..
  5. Faust T, Binning J, Gross J, Frankel A. Making Sense of Multifunctional Proteins: Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Accessory and Regulatory Proteins and Connections to Transcription. Annu Rev Virol. 2017;4:241-260 pubmed publisher
  6. Zhang N, Guo H, Yang J, Liu G, Li S, Li S, et al. The poly-proline tail of SIVmac Vpx provides gain of function for resistance to a cryptic proteasome-dependent degradation pathway. Virology. 2017;511:23-29 pubmed publisher
  7. Liu B, Dong S, Li G, Wang W, Liu X, Wang Y, et al. Structural Insight into Nucleoprotein Conformation Change Chaperoned by VP35 Peptide in Marburg Virus. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we discussed the high conservation and critical role of the VP35 binding pocket and its potential use for therapeutic development. ..
  8. Zhu T, Song H, Peng R, Shi Y, Qi J, Gao G. Crystal Structure of the Marburg Virus Nucleoprotein Core Domain Chaperoned by a VP35 Peptide Reveals a Conserved Drug Target for Filovirus. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Our results expand our knowledge of filovirus NP-VP35 interactions and provide more details for therapeutic intervention. ..
  9. Bharaj P, Atkins C, Luthra P, Giraldo M, Dawes B, Miorin L, et al. The Host E3-Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM6 Ubiquitinates the Ebola Virus VP35 Protein and Promotes Virus Replication. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our study identifies a new host factor, TRIM6, as a potential target in the development of antiviral drugs against EBOV. ..

More Information


  1. Sharma N, Majerciak V, Kruhlak M, Zheng Z. KSHV inhibits stress granule formation by viral ORF57 blocking PKR activation. PLoS Pathog. 2017;13:e1006677 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data provide the first evidence that KSHV ORF57 plays a role in modulating PKR/eIF2?/SG axis and enhances virus production during virus lytic infection. ..
  2. Gardner T, Cantor C, Collins J. Construction of a genetic toggle switch in Escherichia coli. Nature. 2000;403:339-42 pubmed
    ..As a practical device, the toggle switch forms a synthetic, addressable cellular memory unit and has implications for biotechnology, biocomputing and gene therapy. ..
  3. Malim M. HIV: Ringside views. Nature. 2014;505:167-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Florek D, Ehmann R, Kristen Burmann C, Lemmermeyer T, Lochnit G, Ziebuhr J, et al. Identification and characterization of a Golgi retention signal in feline coronavirus accessory protein 7b. J Gen Virol. 2017;98:2017-2029 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study provides interesting new insights into an efficient Golgi retention signal that controls the cellular localization and trafficking of the FIPV 7b protein in virus-infected feline cells. ..
  5. Chao S, Schafer J, Gruebele M. The Surface of Protein ?6-85 Can Act as a Template for Recurring Poly(ethylene glycol) Structure. Biochemistry. 2017;56:5671-5678 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, sufficiently long PEG chains are organized by the protein surface and in turn interact with certain elements of protein structure more than others, even when PEG is attached to very different sites. ..
  6. Dyson O, Pagano J, Whitehurst C. The Translesion Polymerase Pol ? Is Required for Efficient Epstein-Barr Virus Infectivity and Is Regulated by the Viral Deubiquitinating Enzyme BPLF1. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings help to establish how EBV enlists and manipulates cellular DNA repair factors during the viral lytic cycle, contributing to efficient infectious virion production. ..
  7. Dilley K, Voorhies A, Luthra P, Puri V, Stockwell T, Lorenzi H, et al. The Ebola virus VP35 protein binds viral immunostimulatory and host RNAs identified through deep sequencing. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178717 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data support a model in which VP35 sequesters isRNA in virus-infected cells to avert RIG-I like receptor (RLR) activation. ..
  8. Madhavi V, Wines B, Amin J, Emery S, Lopez E, Kelleher A, et al. HIV-1 Env- and Vpu-Specific Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Responses Associated with Elite Control of HIV. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies specific to Vpu are a common feature of the immune response of ECs that may prove to be of functional importance to the design of improved ADCC-based immunotherapy and preventative HIV vaccines. ..
  9. Richard J, Prévost J, von Bredow B, Ding S, Brassard N, Medjahed H, et al. BST-2 Expression Modulates Small CD4-Mimetic Sensitization of HIV-1-Infected Cells to Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may inform strategies aimed at HIV prevention and eradication. ..
  10. Luscombe N, Laskowski R, Thornton J. NUCPLOT: a program to generate schematic diagrams of protein-nucleic acid interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:4940-5 pubmed
    ..It also facilitates comparison of binding found in different structures. NUCPLOT is a completely automatic program, which can be used for any protein-DNA complex and will also work for certain protein-RNA structures. ..
  11. Ewart G, Sutherland T, Gage P, Cox G. The Vpu protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 forms cation-selective ion channels. J Virol. 1996;70:7108-15 pubmed
    ..A bacterial cross-feeding assay was used to demonstrate that Vpu can also form sodium-permeable channels in vivo in the E. coli plasma membrane. ..