hiv envelope protein gp160


Summary: An envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus that is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 160,000 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. It serves as a precursor for both the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 and the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP41.

Top Publications

  1. Gabuzda D, Olshevsky U, Bertani P, Haseltine W, Sodroski J. Identification of membrane anchorage domains of the HIV-1 gp160 envelope glycoprotein precursor. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1991;4:34-40 pubmed
    ..The data also suggest that characteristics in addition to hydrophobicity are required for stop-transfer signals. ..
  2. Pancera M, Wyatt R. Selective recognition of oligomeric HIV-1 primary isolate envelope glycoproteins by potently neutralizing ligands requires efficient precursor cleavage. Virology. 2005;332:145-56 pubmed
    ..The data also have implications in regards to the use and design of non-cleaved envelope glycoprotein trimeric immunogens as a means to selectively and preferentially present neutralizing epitopes to the host immune system. ..
  3. Kibler K, Miyazato A, Yedavalli V, Dayton A, Jacobs B, Dapolito G, et al. Polyarginine inhibits gp160 processing by furin and suppresses productive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49055-63 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data support that inhibitors of proteolytic processing of gp160 may be useful for combating human immunodeficiency virus-1 and that polyarginine represents a lead example of such inhibitors. ..
  4. Chakrabarti B, Kong W, Wu B, Yang Z, Friborg J, Ling X, et al. Modifications of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoprotein enhance immunogenicity for genetic immunization. J Virol. 2002;76:5357-68 pubmed
    ..Importantly, this modified Env, gp140 Delta CFI, stimulated the antibody response to native gp160 while it retained its ability to induce a CTL response, a desirable feature for an AIDS vaccine. ..
  5. Bultmann A, Muranyi W, Seed B, Haas J. Identification of two sequences in the cytoplasmic tail of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein that inhibit cell surface expression. J Virol. 2001;75:5263-76 pubmed
    ..In accordance with the results in heterologous systems, an internal deletion of both elements considerably increased surface expression of gp160. ..
  6. Khattar S, Samal S, DeVico A, Collins P, Samal S. Newcastle disease virus expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein induces strong mucosal and serum antibody responses in Guinea pigs. J Virol. 2011;85:10529-41 pubmed publisher
    ..3. These data illustrate that it is feasible to use NDV as a vaccine vector to elicit potent humoral and mucosal responses to the HIV-1 envelope protein. ..
  7. Lu F. Predominate HIV1-specific IgG activity in various mucosal compartments of HIV1-infected individuals. Clin Immunol. 2000;97:59-68 pubmed
  8. Berman P, Riddle L, Nakamura G, Haffar O, Nunes W, Skehel P, et al. Expression and immunogenicity of the extracellular domain of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein, gp160. J Virol. 1989;63:3489-98 pubmed
    ..Rabbit antibodies to the sgp160 protein differed from those raised against rgp120 in that they were enriched for populations that blocked CD4 binding but did not prevent human immunodeficiency virus type 1-induced syncytium formation. ..
  9. Devito C, Zuber B, Schroder U, Benthin R, Okuda K, Broliden K, et al. Intranasal HIV-1-gp160-DNA/gp41 peptide prime-boost immunization regimen in mice results in long-term HIV-1 neutralizing humoral mucosal and systemic immunity. J Immunol. 2004;173:7078-89 pubmed
    ..Intranasal DNA prime followed by one peptide/L3 adjuvant booster immunization, but not a peptide prime followed by a DNA booster, was able to induce B cell memory and HIV-1-neutralizing Abs for at least half of a mouse's life span. ..

More Information


  1. Hallenberger S, Bosch V, Angliker H, Shaw E, Klenk H, Garten W. Inhibition of furin-mediated cleavage activation of HIV-1 glycoprotein gp160. Nature. 1992;360:358-61 pubmed
    ..We show here that the glycoprotein of HIV-1, which has the same protease recognition motif as the FPV haemagglutinin, is also activated by furin. ..
  2. Gorry P, Taylor J, Holm G, Mehle A, Morgan T, Cayabyab M, et al. Increased CCR5 affinity and reduced CCR5/CD4 dependence of a neurovirulent primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolate. J Virol. 2002;76:6277-92 pubmed
  3. Brave A, Johansen K, Palma P, Benthin R, Hinkula J. Maternal immune status influences HIV-specific immune responses in pups after DNA prime protein boost using mucosal adjuvant. Vaccine. 2008;26:5957-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that HIV-1 DNA-plasmid immunization during breast-feeding and recombinant protein boosting shortly thereafter enhance the breadth of humoral HIV-1-specific immune responses. ..
  4. Moulard M, Decroly E. Maturation of HIV envelope glycoprotein precursors by cellular endoproteases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1469:121-32 pubmed
    ..We discuss the cellular endoproteases that are implicated in HIV gp160 endoproteolytical maturation into gp120 and gp41. ..
  5. Earl P, Moss B, Doms R. Folding, interaction with GRP78-BiP, assembly, and transport of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope protein. J Virol. 1991;65:2047-55 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in terms of the overall biosynthetic pathway of the envelope protein and provide a framework with which to assess the effects of mutations on structure and function. ..
  6. Nkosi S, Huismans H, Papathanasopoulos M. Purification and partial characterization of R5, R5X4, and X4 HIV-1 subtype C envelope glycoproteins expressed in insect cells. J Med Virol. 2005;76:459-63 pubmed
    ..Baculovirus derived rgp160 can be used for further structural, functional, antigenic, and immunological studies. ..
  7. Yang K, Li S, He F, Zhang J, Wei M, Pan H, et al. Expression and purification of soluble HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 mutant from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biosci Bioeng. 2009;108:5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we may provide a novel antigen for immunodetection assay, vaccine candidate, and other relative research purposes. ..
  8. Courageot J, Fenouillet E, Bastiani P, Miquelis R. Intracellular degradation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Evidence for, and some characteristics of, an endoplasmic reticulum degradation pathway. Eur J Biochem. 1999;260:482-9 pubmed
    ..Thus our results provide direct evidence that regulated degradation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein may take place in the ER of infected cells. ..
  9. Ohnishi Y, Shioda T, Nakayama K, Iwata S, Gotoh B, Hamaguchi M, et al. A furin-defective cell line is able to process correctly the gp160 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 1994;68:4075-9 pubmed
    ..Our present study thus raises a further need to search for and identify the proteinases involved in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp160 processing rather than supporting the notion that furin is responsible. ..
  10. Mao Y, Wang L, Gu C, Herschhorn A, Xiang S, Haim H, et al. Subunit organization of the membrane-bound HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:893-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The cage-like architecture, which is unique among characterized viral envelope proteins, restricts antibody access, reflecting requirements imposed by HIV-1 persistence in the host. ..
  11. Stein B, Engleman E. Intracellular processing of the gp160 HIV-1 envelope precursor. Endoproteolytic cleavage occurs in a cis or medial compartment of the Golgi complex. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2640-9 pubmed
    ..Preliminary data also suggest that gp120 is post-translationally modified by sialylated O-linked oligosaccharides. ..
  12. Gu M, Rappaport J, Leppla S. Furin is important but not essential for the proteolytic maturation of gp160 of HIV-1. FEBS Lett. 1995;365:95-7 pubmed
  13. Mossman S, Pierce C, Watson A, Robertson M, Montefiori D, Kuller L, et al. Protective immunity to SIV challenge elicited by vaccination of macaques with multigenic DNA vaccines producing virus-like particles. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004;20:425-34 pubmed
    ..007, DNA alone and p = 0.01, all vaccinees). There was no significant difference between the two vaccine groups in levels of plasma viremia or maintenance of CD4(+) T cell counts postchallenge. ..
  14. Mestecky J, Jackson S, Moldoveanu Z, Nesbit L, Kulhavy R, Prince S, et al. Paucity of antigen-specific IgA responses in sera and external secretions of HIV-type 1-infected individuals. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004;20:972-88 pubmed
    ..Therefore, in striking contrast to other mucosally encountered microbial infections, HIV-1 does not induce vigorous specific IgA responses in any body fluid examined or in ASC in peripheral blood. ..
  15. McDonald R, Burnett V. Novel single-round PCR and cloning of full-length envelope genes of HIV-1 may yield new insight into biomolecular antibacterial drug development. J Virol Methods. 2005;126:111-8 pubmed
    ..The HIV-1 gp160 toxicity issue may provide insight towards the development of the next generation of novel biomolecular drugs against bacterial infections. ..
  16. Rasmussen R, Ong H, Kittel C, Ruprecht C, Ferrantelli F, Hu S, et al. DNA prime/protein boost immunization against HIV clade C: safety and immunogenicity in mice. Vaccine. 2006;24:2324-32 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the utility of this DNA prime/protein boost approach to generate cellular immunity, as well as neutralizing antibodies, against HIV clade C env antigens. ..
  17. Westby M, Lewis M, Whitcomb J, Youle M, Pozniak A, James I, et al. Emergence of CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) variants in a minority of HIV-1-infected patients following treatment with the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc is from a pretreatment CXCR4-using virus reservoir. J Virol. 2006;80:4909-20 pubmed
    ..Importantly, in all three patients, circulating virus reverted to predominantly CCR5 tropic following cessation of maraviroc. ..
  18. Liu Y, Curlin M, Diem K, Zhao H, Ghosh A, Zhu H, et al. Env length and N-linked glycosylation following transmission of human immunodeficiency virus Type 1 subtype B viruses. Virology. 2008;374:229-33 pubmed publisher
  19. Farquhar C, VanCott T, Bosire R, Bermudez C, Mbori Ngacha D, Lohman Payne B, et al. Salivary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-specific immunoglobulin A in HIV-1-exposed infants in Kenya. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;153:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Mucosal responses would be an appropriate target for paediatric vaccines against breast milk HIV-1 transmission. ..
  20. Blair W, Cao J, Jackson L, Jimenez J, Peng Q, Wu H, et al. Identification and characterization of UK-201844, a novel inhibitor that interferes with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp160 processing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:3554-61 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that UK-201844 represents the prototype for a unique HIV-1 inhibitor class that directly or indirectly interferes with HIV-1 gp160 processing. ..
  21. Rasmussen R, Ong H, Song R, Chenine A, Ayash Rashkovsky M, Hu S, et al. Efficacy of a multigenic protein vaccine containing multimeric HIV gp160 against heterologous SHIV clade C challenges. AIDS. 2007;21:1841-8 pubmed
    ..Protein-only immunogens induced significant protection against heterologous viruses encoding env from locally circulating viruses. ..
  22. Becquart P, Hocini H, Levy M, Sepou A, Kazatchkine M, Belec L. Secretory anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies in colostrum and breast milk are not a major determinant of the protection of early postnatal transmission of HIV. J Infect Dis. 2000;181:532-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that humoral mucosal immunity to HIV does not appear as a predominant factor for protection against viral transmission through breast milk. ..
  23. Welman M, Lemay G, Cohen E. Role of envelope processing and gp41 membrane spanning domain in the formation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) fusion-competent envelope glycoprotein complex. Virus Res. 2007;124:103-12 pubmed
  24. Borrow P, Lewicki H, Hahn B, Shaw G, Oldstone M. Virus-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activity associated with control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 1994;68:6103-10 pubmed
  25. Doria Rose N, Ohlen C, Polacino P, Pierce C, Hensel M, Kuller L, et al. Multigene DNA priming-boosting vaccines protect macaques from acute CD4+-T-cell depletion after simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV89.6P mucosal challenge. J Virol. 2003;77:11563-77 pubmed
    ..03). We conclude that multigene vaccines delivered by a combination of vaccinia virus and gene gun-delivered DNA were effective against SHIV89.6P viral challenge in M. nemestrina. ..
  26. Chen J, Wang L, Chen J, Sahu G, Tyring S, Ramsey K, et al. Detection of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that recognize conformational epitopes of glycoproteins 160 and 41 often allows for early diagnosis of HIV infection. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:321-31 pubmed
    ..A fourth panel possessed early HIV antibodies that reacted with HIV(213) but not with HIV(IIIB), allowing for detection of HIV antibodies approximately 3 weeks earlier than by RT-PCR or other current tests. ..
  27. Chong H, Hong K, Zhang C, Nie J, Song A, Kong W, et al. Genetic and neutralization properties of HIV-1 env clones from subtype B/BC/AE infections in China. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;47:535-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These characterized functional HIV-1 env clones should be useful for standardizing neutralization assays in China. ..
  28. Hocini H, Becquart P, Bouhlal H, Chomont N, Ancuta P, Kazatchkine M, et al. Active and selective transcytosis of cell-free human immunodeficiency virus through a tight polarized monolayer of human endometrial cells. J Virol. 2001;75:5370-4 pubmed
    ..These findings provide new insights into the initial events occurring during heterosexual transmission of the virus. ..
  29. Kuhmann S, Pugach P, Kunstman K, Taylor J, Stanfield R, Snyder A, et al. Genetic and phenotypic analyses of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 escape from a small-molecule CCR5 inhibitor. J Virol. 2004;78:2790-807 pubmed
    ..2-CCR5 cells under conditions where gp120 proteins from the parental virus and a partially AD101-resistant virus bound strongly. Hence, the full impact of the V3 substitutions may only be apparent at the level of the native Env complex. ..
  30. Chomont N, Hocini H, Gody J, Bouhlal H, Becquart P, Krief Bouillet C, et al. Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 do not inhibit viral transcytosis through mucosal epithelial cells. Virology. 2008;370:246-54 pubmed
  31. Ogert R, Wojcik L, Buontempo C, Ba L, Buontempo P, Ralston R, et al. Mapping resistance to the CCR5 co-receptor antagonist vicriviroc using heterologous chimeric HIV-1 envelope genes reveals key determinants in the C2-V5 domain of gp120. Virology. 2008;373:387-99 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, a chimeric envelope that contained only the V3-loop region from this resistant virus was completely susceptible suggesting that the V3-loop changes acquired are context dependent. ..
  32. Doria Rose N, Learn G, Rodrigo A, Nickle D, Li F, Mahalanabis M, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtype B ancestral envelope protein is functional and elicits neutralizing antibodies in rabbits similar to those elicited by a circulating subtype B envelope. J Virol. 2005;79:11214-24 pubmed
    ..The results were similar for rabbits immunized in parallel with a natural isolate, HIV-1 SF162. Further design efforts to better present conserved neutralization determinants are warranted. ..
  33. Abacioglu Y, Fouts T, Laman J, Claassen E, Pincus S, Moore J, et al. Epitope mapping and topology of baculovirus-expressed HIV-1 gp160 determined with a panel of murine monoclonal antibodies. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994;10:371-81 pubmed
    ..This MAb panel may aid in the refinement of HIV-1 Env subunit vaccines. ..
  34. Hinkula J, Devito C, Zuber B, Benthin R, Ferreira D, Wahren B, et al. A novel DNA adjuvant, N3, enhances mucosal and systemic immune responses induced by HIV-1 DNA and peptide immunizations. Vaccine. 2006;24:4494-7 pubmed
    ..The needle-free intranasal prime-boost strategy using two different adjuvant formulations reduced significantly the dose of DNA needed. ..
  35. Decroly E, VandenBranden M, Ruysschaert J, Cogniaux J, Jacob G, Howard S, et al. The convertases furin and PC1 can both cleave the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 envelope glycoprotein gp160 into gp120 (HIV-1 SU) and gp41 (HIV-I TM). J Biol Chem. 1994;269:12240-7 pubmed
    ..Transition state analog peptides were designed and tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit the PC1- or furin-mediated gp160 cleavage. The best inhibitor was decanoyl-Arg-Lys-Arg-Arg-psi [CH2NH]-Phe-Leu-Gly-Phe-NH2. ..
  36. Rademeyer C, Moore P, Taylor N, Martin D, Choge I, Gray E, et al. Genetic characteristics of HIV-1 subtype C envelopes inducing cross-neutralizing antibodies. Virology. 2007;368:172-81 pubmed
    ..Collectively these data provide some insights into design features of an envelope immunogen aimed at inducing neutralizing antibodies. ..
  37. Richards R, Rao M, VanCott T, Matyas G, Birx D, Alving C. Liposome-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions as adjuvants: increased emulsion stability promotes induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes against an HIV envelope antigen. Immunol Cell Biol. 2004;82:531-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that stable liposomal oil-in-water emulsions provide an effective means of obtaining both antibody and CTL responses against an HIV envelope antigen. ..
  38. Gray E, Meyers T, Gray G, Montefiori D, Morris L. Insensitivity of paediatric HIV-1 subtype C viruses to broadly neutralising monoclonal antibodies raised against subtype B. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e255 pubmed
    ..It is therefore recommended that 2G12 and 2F5 MAbs not be used for passive immunization experiments in southern Africa and other regions where HIV-1 subtype C viruses predominate. ..
  39. Brave A, Ljungberg K, Boberg A, Rollman E, Isaguliants M, Lundgren B, et al. Multigene/multisubtype HIV-1 vaccine induces potent cellular and humoral immune responses by needle-free intradermal delivery. Mol Ther. 2005;12:1197-205 pubmed
    ..This vaccine has been approved by the Swedish Medicinal Products Agency and is currently in a Phase I clinical trial. ..
  40. Grundner C, Mirzabekov T, Sodroski J, Wyatt R. Solid-phase proteoliposomes containing human immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins. J Virol. 2002;76:3511-21 pubmed
    ..The PLs represent a significant advance over present envelope glycoprotein formulations as candidate immunogens for HIV vaccine design and development. ..
  41. Moore A, Kong W, Chakrabarti B, Nabel G. Effects of antigen and genetic adjuvants on immune responses to human immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccines in mice. J Virol. 2002;76:243-50 pubmed
  42. Bahbouhi B, Seidah N, Bahraoui E. Replication of HIV-1 viruses in the presence of the Portland alpha1-antitrypsin variant (alpha1-PDX) inhibitor. Biochem J. 2001;360:127-34 pubmed
    ..We conclude that recovered HIV-1 infectivity in J-PDX cells was due to a loss of alpha1-PDX activity via its extensive processing by intracellular proteases that cleave it through the substrate pathway. ..
  43. Cho M, Kim Y, Lee M, Gupta K, Ross W, Plishka R, et al. Polyvalent envelope glycoprotein vaccine elicits a broader neutralizing antibody response but is unable to provide sterilizing protection against heterologous Simian/human immunodeficiency virus infection in pigtailed macaques. J Virol. 2001;75:2224-34 pubmed
    ..6, exhibited markedly lower levels of plasma virus than those in the control group, suggesting a superior cell-mediated immune response induced by the polyvalent vaccine. ..
  44. Hivroz C, Mazerolles F, Soula M, Fagard R, Graton S, Meloche S, et al. Human immunodeficiency virus gp120 and derived peptides activate protein tyrosine kinase p56lck in human CD4 T lymphocytes. Eur J Immunol. 1993;23:600-7 pubmed
    ..This activation led to a specific pattern of tyrosine phosphorylation on cellular proteins that may be of significance in the biological effects of the gp120/CD4 interaction, e.g. syncytium formation and inhibition of T cell activation. ..
  45. Guo W, Cleveland B, Davenport T, Lee K, Hu S. Purification of recombinant vaccinia virus-expressed monomeric HIV-1 gp120 to apparent homogeneity. Protein Expr Purif. 2013;90:34-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The purification procedure is robust and reproducible, and may find general use for glycoprotein purifications from sources where the presence of serum is desirable. ..
  46. Wang X, Kochetkova I, Haddad A, Hoyt T, Hone D, Pascual D. Transgene vaccination using Ulex europaeus agglutinin I (UEA-1) for targeted mucosal immunization against HIV-1 envelope. Vaccine. 2005;23:3836-42 pubmed
    ..Likewise, elevated envelope-specific CTLs were induced. Thus, UEA-1 mediated DNA delivery represents an alternative mucosal formulation for inducing humoral and cellular immunity against HIV-1...
  47. Thongcharoen P, Suriyanon V, Paris R, Khamboonruang C, de Souza M, Ratto Kim S, et al. A phase 1/2 comparative vaccine trial of the safety and immunogenicity of a CRF01_AE (subtype E) candidate vaccine: ALVAC-HIV (vCP1521) prime with oligomeric gp160 (92TH023/LAI-DID) or bivalent gp120 (CM235/SF2) boost. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007;46:48-55 pubmed
    ..These 2 different prime-boost regimens seem to be safe and displayed cell-mediated immune responses consistent with those in other trials of canarypox vectors. ..
  48. Gao F, Weaver E, Lu Z, Li Y, Liao H, Ma B, et al. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of a synthetic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 group m consensus envelope glycoprotein. J Virol. 2005;79:1154-63 pubmed
    ..Thus, the computer-generated "consensus" env genes are capable of expressing envelope glycoproteins that retain the structural, functional, and immunogenic properties of wild-type HIV-1 envelopes. ..
  49. Muthumani K, Zhang D, Dayes N, Hwang D, Calarota S, Choo A, et al. Novel engineered HIV-1 East African Clade-A gp160 plasmid construct induces strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in vivo. Virology. 2003;314:134-46 pubmed
    ..This study suggests a simple strategy for improving the expression and immunogenicity of HIV subtype-specific envelope antigens as plasmid or vector-borne immunogens...
  50. Wu K, Kim G, Kang C. Expression and processing of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp160 using the vesicular stomatitis virus New Jersey serotype vector system. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we have investigated the applicability of the VSV(NJ) vector system for foreign gene expression. ..
  51. Zolla Pazner S, Gomy M, Nyambi P. The implications of antigenic diversity for vaccine development. Immunol Lett. 1999;66:159-64 pubmed
  52. McNicholas P, Mann P, Wojcik L, Qiu P, Lee E, McCarthy M, et al. Mapping and characterization of vicriviroc resistance mutations from HIV-1 isolated from treatment-experienced subjects enrolled in a phase II study (VICTOR-E1). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56:222-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that genotypic tests for VCV susceptibility may require larger training sets and additional information beyond V3 sequences. ..
  53. Hu R, Oyaizu N, Than S, Kalyanaraman V, Wang X, Pahwa S. HIV-1 gp160 induces transforming growth factor-beta production in human PBMC. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1996;80:283-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that HIV-1 gp160 may contribute to the immune defects in HIV infection by inducing TGF-beta secretion. ..