retroviridae proteins


Summary: Proteins from the family Retroviridae. The most frequently encountered member of this family is the Rous sarcoma virus protein.

Top Publications

  1. Nicot C, Dundr M, Johnson J, Fullen J, Alonzo N, Fukumoto R, et al. HTLV-1-encoded p30II is a post-transcriptional negative regulator of viral replication. Nat Med. 2004;10:197-201 pubmed
    ..Because Tex and Rex are positive regulators of viral gene expression, their inhibition by p30(II) reduces virion production. p30(II) inhibits virus expression by reducing Tax and Rex protein expression. ..
  2. Younis I, Boris Lawrie K, Green P. Human T-cell leukemia virus open reading frame II encodes a posttranscriptional repressor that is recruited at the level of transcription. J Virol. 2006;80:181-91 pubmed
  3. Michael B, Nair A, Datta A, Hiraragi H, Ratner L, Lairmore M. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 modulates human T lymphotropic virus type 1 p30II-mediated repression of LTR transcriptional activity. Virology. 2006;354:225-39 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our data indicate that HTLV-1 p30II modulates viral gene expression in a cooperative manner with p300-mediated acetylation. ..
  4. Yamamoto B, Li M, Kesic M, Younis I, Lairmore M, Green P. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 2 post-transcriptional control protein p28 is required for viral infectivity and persistence in vivo. Retrovirology. 2008;5:38 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that p28 repression of Tax and Rex-mediated viral gene expression may facilitate survival of these cells by down-modulating overall viral gene expression. ..
  5. Lochelt M, Romen F, Bastone P, Muckenfuss H, Kirchner N, Kim Y, et al. The antiretroviral activity of APOBEC3 is inhibited by the foamy virus accessory Bet protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:7982-7 pubmed
    ..This is the first report that, in addition to lentiviruses, the foamy viruses also developed APOBEC3-counter-acting proteins...
  6. Kido K, Doerks A, Lochelt M, Flügel R. Identification and functional characterization of an intragenic DNA binding site for the spumaretroviral trans-activator in the human p57Kip2 gene. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:12032-9 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that Bel1 can directly bind to BRE sites. The cellular Kip2-BRE can be used to predict those human genes that are directly or indirectly activated by the Bel1 trans-activator. ..
  7. Silic Benussi M, Cavallari I, Zorzan T, Rossi E, Hiraragi H, Rosato A, et al. Suppression of tumor growth and cell proliferation by p13II, a mitochondrial protein of human T cell leukemia virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:6629-34 pubmed
    ..These findings provide clues into the function of p13(II) as a negative regulator of cell growth and underscore a link between mitochondria, Ca(2+) signaling, and tumorigenicity. ..
  8. Llorens C, Fares M, Moya A. Relationships of gag-pol diversity between Ty3/Gypsy and Retroviridae LTR retroelements and the three kings hypothesis. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:276 pubmed publisher
    ..We have called this "the three kings hypothesis" concerning the origin of vertebrate retroviruses. ..
  9. Datta A, Sinha Datta U, Dhillon N, Buch S, Nicot C. The HTLV-I p30 interferes with TLR4 signaling and modulates the release of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines from human macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23414-24 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests a novel function of p30, which may instigate immune tolerance by reducing activation of adaptive immunity in ATL patients. ..

More Information


  1. Weikel J, Lochelt M, Truyen U. Demonstration of feline foamy virus in experimentally infected cats by immunohistochemistry. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003;50:415-7 pubmed
    ..The method described opens new ways to explore the in vivo replication and tissue specificity of FFV and its possible role in disease. ..
  2. Kido K, Bannert H, Gronostajski R, Flügel R. Bel1-mediated transactivation of the spumaretroviral internal promoter is repressed by nuclear factor I. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11836-42 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate the relevance of NFI-mediated repression of Bel1-driven transactivation in vivo. ..
  3. Silverman L, Phipps A, Montgomery A, Ratner L, Lairmore M. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 open reading frame II-encoded p30II is required for in vivo replication: evidence of in vivo reversion. J Virol. 2004;78:3837-45 pubmed
    ..Our data provide evidence that HTLV-1 must maintain its key accessory genes to survive in vivo and that in vivo pressures select for maintenance of wild-type ORF II gene products during the early course of infection. ..
  4. Romen F, Pawlita M, Sehr P, Bachmann S, Schroder J, Lutz H, et al. Antibodies against Gag are diagnostic markers for feline foamy virus infections while Env and Bet reactivity is undetectable in a substantial fraction of infected cats. Virology. 2006;345:502-8 pubmed
    ..With one exception, all Bet- and/or Env-positive sera were also positive for Gag. In this small epidemiological pilot study, FFV antibodies were not significantly associated with clinical disease. ..
  5. Sinha Datta U, Datta A, Ghorbel S, Dodon M, Nicot C. Human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I rex and p30 interactions govern the switch between virus latency and replication. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:14608-15 pubmed
    ..Together, our data demonstrate a complex regulatory mechanism of antagonizing post-transcriptional regulators evolved by human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type I to allow a vigilant control of viral gene expression. ..
  6. Chen Y, Chen S, Fu C, Chen J, Osame M. Antibody reactivities to tumor-suppressor protein p53 and HTLV-I Tof, Rex and Tax in HTLV-I-infected people with differing clinical status. Int J Cancer. 1997;71:196-202 pubmed
  7. Meiering C, Linial M. The promyelocytic leukemia protein does not mediate foamy virus latency in vitro. J Virol. 2003;77:2207-13 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that endogenous PML does not play an important role in mediating FV latency. ..
  8. Aghokeng A, Liu W, Bibollet Ruche F, Loul S, Mpoudi Ngole E, Laurent C, et al. Widely varying SIV prevalence rates in naturally infected primate species from Cameroon. Virology. 2006;345:174-89 pubmed
    ..The newly developed assays should now permit to define with greater accuracy existing SIV reservoirs and associated human zoonotic risk...
  9. Zhang W, Nisbet J, Albrecht B, Ding W, Kashanchi F, Bartoe J, et al. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 p30(II) regulates gene transcription by binding CREB binding protein/p300. J Virol. 2001;75:9885-95 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that CBP/p300 is a cellular protein target for HTLV-1 p30(II) and mediates its transcriptional effects in vivo. ..
  10. Elrouby N, Bureau T. A novel hybrid open reading frame formed by multiple cellular gene transductions by a plant long terminal repeat retroelement. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41963-8 pubmed
    ..We suggest that transduction by retroelements may facilitate the formation of novel hybrid genes in plants. ..
  11. Derse D, Mikovits J, Ruscetti F. X-I and X-II open reading frames of HTLV-I are not required for virus replication or for immortalization of primary T-cells in vitro. Virology. 1997;237:123-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, ORFs X-I and X-II are not essential for virus infectivity, replication, gene expression, or T-cell immortalization in vitro. ..
  12. Russell R, Wiegand H, Moore M, Schäfer A, McClure M, Cullen B. Foamy virus Bet proteins function as novel inhibitors of the APOBEC3 family of innate antiretroviral defense factors. J Virol. 2005;79:8724-31 pubmed
    ..While these data identify the foamy virus Bet protein as a functional ortholog of the HIV-1 Vif auxiliary protein, they also indicate that Vif and Bet block APOBEC3 protein function by distinct mechanisms. ..
  13. Perkovic M, Schmidt S, Marino D, Russell R, Stauch B, Hofmann H, et al. Species-specific inhibition of APOBEC3C by the prototype foamy virus protein bet. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:5819-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Bet likely achieves this by trapping APOBEC3C protein in complexes rendering them unavailable for newly generated viruses due to direct immobilization...
  14. Llorens C, Futami R, Bezemer D, Moya A. The Gypsy Database (GyDB) of mobile genetic elements. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:D38-46 pubmed
    ..The GyDB project is available at ..
  15. Younis I, Khair L, Dundr M, Lairmore M, Franchini G, Green P. Repression of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 and type 2 replication by a viral mRNA-encoded posttranscriptional regulator. J Virol. 2004;78:11077-83 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the critical role of these proteins in viral persistence and pathogenesis in animal models of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection...
  16. Awasthi S, Sharma A, Wong K, Zhang J, Matlock E, Rogers L, et al. A human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 enhancer of Myc transforming potential stabilizes Myc-TIP60 transcriptional interactions. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6178-98 pubmed
    ..Importantly, these results suggest that p30II functions as a novel retroviral modulator of Myc-TIP60-transforming interactions that may contribute to adult T-cell leukemogenesis. ..
  17. Sonigo P, Barker C, Hunter E, Wain Hobson S. Nucleotide sequence of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus: an immunosuppressive D-type retrovirus. Cell. 1986;45:375-85 pubmed
    ..While MPMV-like viruses cannot be used as direct models for the AIDS/SAIDS associated with lentiviruses, they provide an important system for studying the molecular basis of immunosuppressive diseases in primates. ..
  18. Shirazi Y, Pitha P. Alpha interferon inhibits early stages of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication cycle. J Virol. 1992;66:1321-8 pubmed
  19. Yang O, Boscardin W, Matud J, Hausner M, Hultin L, Hultin P, et al. Immunologic profile of highly exposed yet HIV type 1-seronegative men. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002;18:1051-65 pubmed
    ..General immune parameters reflected by CD8(+) T cell levels and activation, and monocyte concentrations may affect the risk of infection with HIV-1, and/or serve as markers of exposure. ..
  20. Lundholm P, Asakura Y, Hinkula J, Lucht E, Wahren B. Induction of mucosal IgA by a novel jet delivery technique for HIV-1 DNA. Vaccine. 1999;17:2036-42 pubmed
  21. Ching N, Yang O, Deville J, Nielsen Saines K, Ank B, Sim M, et al. Pediatric HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses suggesting ongoing viral replication despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Pediatr Res. 2007;61:692-7 pubmed
    ..The long-term clinical implications of these findings remain to be determined. ..
  22. Mayo J, Sampson K, Adams L, Crumm E, Kelly S, Abraham I. Increased amount of a 25-kilodalton phosphoprotein after v-mos transfection of CHO cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1988;8:4685-91 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of this protein may be a useful marker of mos and have some functional importance in the transformation of cells by the v-mos oncogene. ..
  23. Boucher P, Koning A, Privalsky M. The avian erythroblastosis virus erbA oncogene encodes a DNA-binding protein exhibiting distinct nuclear and cytoplasmic subcellular localizations. J Virol. 1988;62:534-44 pubmed
  24. Deuel T, Pierce G, Yeh H, Shawver L, Milner P, Kimura A. Platelet-derived growth factor/sis in normal and neoplastic cell growth. J Cell Physiol Suppl. 1987;Suppl 5:95-9 pubmed
    ..PDGF is also a potent chemotactic agent for inflammatory and other mesenchymal cells and has been implicated in normal tissue repair processes such as wound healing, as well as in aberrant proliferative processes like atherogenesis...
  25. Valeri V, Hryniewicz A, Andresen V, Jones K, Fenizia C, Bialuk I, et al. Requirement of the human T-cell leukemia virus p12 and p30 products for infectivity of human dendritic cells and macaques but not rabbits. Blood. 2010;116:3809-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that infection of dendritic cells may be required for the establishment and maintenance of HTLV-1 infection in primate species. ..
  26. Alpert M, Rahmberg A, Neidermyer W, Ng S, Carville A, Camp J, et al. Envelope-modified single-cycle simian immunodeficiency virus selectively enhances antibody responses and partially protects against repeated, low-dose vaginal challenge. J Virol. 2010;84:10748-64 pubmed publisher
  27. Xue B, Mizianty M, Kurgan L, Uversky V. Protein intrinsic disorder as a flexible armor and a weapon of HIV-1. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:1211-59 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we focus on the structural peculiarities of HIV-1 proteins, on the abundance of intrinsic disorder in viral proteins, and on the role of intrinsic disorder in their functions. ..
  28. Reinis M, Weiser B, Kuiken C, Dong T, Lang D, Nachman S, et al. Genomic analysis of HIV type 1 strains derived from a mother and child pair of long-term nonprogressors. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007;23:309-15 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the potential of full genome analysis in the investigation of pathogenesis and immune selection during HIV-1 evolution. ..
  29. Masuda M. [HIV replication and host cell cycle]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2007;52:1161-7 pubmed
  30. Wright D, Marchal C, Hoang K, Ankney J, Nguyen S, Rushing A, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-1-encoded protein HBZ represses p53 function by inhibiting the acetyltransferase activity of p300/CBP and HBO1. Oncotarget. 2016;7:1687-706 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may explain how p53 activity is restricted in ATL cells that do not express Tax due to modifications of the HTLV-1 provirus, which accounts for a majority of patient samples. ..
  31. Lundin K, Nygren A, Arthur L, Robey W, Morein B, Ramstedt U, et al. A specific assay measuring binding of 125I-Gp 120 from HIV to T4+/CD4+ cells. J Immunol Methods. 1987;97:93-100 pubmed
    ..It represents a safe, objective and sensitive method for the analysis of Gp120-CD4 interactions, as well as the potential of antibodies to interfere with this binding. ..
  32. Kovarik A, Hlubinova K, Prachar J, Simkovic D, Knotek J. No significant correlation between specific antibodies to mouse mammary tumour virus and human cancer. Br J Cancer. 1989;60:572-5 pubmed
    ..Sera frequently reacted with a 42 kDa protein which is a cellular contaminant of the virus. ..
  33. Benchaibi M, Mallet F, Thoraval P, Savatier P, Xiao J, Verdier G, et al. Avian retroviral vectors derived from avian defective leukemia virus: role of the translational context of the inserted gene on efficiency of the vectors. Virology. 1989;169:15-26 pubmed
    ..Our data provide information for further construction of double expression vectors. Furthermore, three of the vectors would provide helpful tools to identify genetic elements of the virus genome involved in splicing regulation. ..
  34. Ishibashi K, Hanada S, Uozumi K, Otsuka M, Sakurami T, Hashimoto S. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immune complex of HTLV-I. J Immunol Methods. 1989;119:217-21 pubmed
    ..Immune complexes of HTLV-I could not be identified in sera obtained from one patient with overt ATL, three healthy HTLV-I carriers and three normal human controls. ..
  35. Fisher R, Bertonis J, Meier W, Johnson V, Costopoulos D, Liu T, et al. HIV infection is blocked in vitro by recombinant soluble CD4. Nature. 1988;331:76-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that rsT4 is sufficient to bind HIV, and that it represents a potential anti-viral therapy for HIV infection. ..
  36. Ho D, Kaplan J, Rackauskas I, Gurney M. Second conserved domain of gp120 is important for HIV infectivity and antibody neutralization. Science. 1988;239:1021-3 pubmed
    ..These findings may be applicable in the design of a vaccine for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. ..
  37. Pfaff S, Duesberg P. Two autonomous myc oncogenes in avian carcinoma virus OK10. J Virol. 1988;62:3703-9 pubmed
    ..Although this virus expressed more delta p200 than wild-type OK10 did, it transformed cells less efficiently. It follows that OK10 expresses two autonomous transforming genes, which is unique among retroviruses with onc genes. ..
  38. Frankel A, Young J. HIV-1: fifteen proteins and an RNA. Annu Rev Biochem. 1998;67:1-25 pubmed
    ..The review highlights recent biochemical and structural studies that help clarify the mechanisms of viral assembly, infection, and replication. ..
  39. Karwath A, King R. Homology induction: the use of machine learning to improve sequence similarity searches. BMC Bioinformatics. 2002;3:11 pubmed
    ..HI with PSI-BLAST is shown to outperform PSI-BLAST for all error costs. It is expect that similar improvements would be obtained using HI with any sequence similarity method. ..
  40. Roy N, Nakano T, Keyoung H, Windrem M, Rashbaum W, Alonso M, et al. Telomerase immortalization of neuronally restricted progenitor cells derived from the human fetal spinal cord. Nat Biotechnol. 2004;22:297-305 pubmed
    ..hTERT overexpression thus permits the generation of progenitor lines able to give rise to phenotypically restricted neurons. ..
  41. Cancio R, Spadari S, Maga G. Vif is an auxiliary factor of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and facilitates abasic site bypass. Biochem J. 2004;383:475-82 pubmed
    ..In addition, Vif was found to promote the bypass of an abasic site by HIV-1 RT. ..
  42. Sacco M, Flannery D, Howes K, Venugopal K. Avian endogenous retrovirus EAV-HP shares regions of identity with avian leukosis virus subgroup J and the avian retrotransposon ART-CH. J Virol. 2000;74:1296-306 pubmed
  43. Boven L. Macrophages and HIV-1-associated dementia. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz). 2000;48:273-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, macrophages have been suggested to play a major role in the development of this disease. This review focuses on possible mechanisms through which the macrophage may enhance disease progression by mediating neuronal damage. ..
  44. Romen F, Backes P, Materniak M, Sting R, Vahlenkamp T, Riebe R, et al. Serological detection systems for identification of cows shedding bovine foamy virus via milk. Virology. 2007;364:123-31 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings for the potential interspecies transmission of BFV to humans will be discussed. ..
  45. Cheng Mayer C, Seto D, Tateno M, Levy J. Biologic features of HIV-1 that correlate with virulence in the host. Science. 1988;240:80-2 pubmed
    ..The biologic properties of HIV-1 in vitro thus appear to reflect its virulence in the host. Further studies of such sequentially isolated viruses may lead to the identification of viral genes that govern pathogenesis. ..
  46. Biggart N, Murphy E. Analysis of metal-induced mutations altering the expression or structure of a retroviral gene in a mammalian cell line. Mutat Res. 1988;198:115-29 pubmed
    ..CdCl2 also induced frameshift mutations but, in one case, induced a mutation which may result from a deletion of about 300 bases within the MuSVts110 DNA...
  47. Schröfelbauer B, Senger T, Manning G, Landau N. Mutational alteration of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif allows for functional interaction with nonhuman primate APOBEC3G. J Virol. 2006;80:5984-91 pubmed
    ..These findings provide insight into the interaction of Vif with A3G and are a step toward the development of a novel primate model for AIDS. ..
  48. Hamamoto S, Nishitsuji H, Amagasa T, Kannagi M, Masuda T. Identification of a novel human immunodeficiency virus type 1 integrase interactor, Gemin2, that facilitates efficient viral cDNA synthesis in vivo. J Virol. 2006;80:5670-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, we provide the evidence for a novel host protein that binds to HIV-1 IN and facilitates viral cDNA synthesis and subsequent steps that precede integration in vivo. ..
  49. Gärtner K, Wiktorowicz T, Park J, Mergia A, Rethwilm A, Scheller C. Accuracy estimation of foamy virus genome copying. Retrovirology. 2009;6:32 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the frequency of FV recombination by template switching (TS) and the cross-packaging ability of different FV strains were analyzed...
  50. Carbone R. An advanced application of protein microarrays: cell-based assays for functional genomics. Methods Mol Biol. 2009;570:339-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, we present the detailed development of the "reverse infection cell-microarray based technology" in U2OS cells on a novel coated slide that represents an advanced application of protein arrays. ..
  51. Bohnlein E, Siekevitz M, Ballard D, Lowenthal J, Rimsky L, Bogerd H, et al. Stimulation of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 enhancer by the human T-cell leukemia virus type I tax gene product involves the action of inducible cellular proteins. J Virol. 1989;63:1578-86 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, these findings highlight an intriguing biological interplay between HTLV-1 and HIV-1 through a cellular transcriptional pathway that is normally involved in T-cell activation and growth. ..
  52. Sap J, Munoz A, Schmitt J, Stunnenberg H, Vennstrom B. Repression of transcription mediated at a thyroid hormone response element by the v-erb-A oncogene product. Nature. 1989;340:242-4 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that overexpressed v-erb-A protein negatively interferes with normal transcriptional-control mechanisms, and that amino-acid substitutions have altered its DNA-binding properties. ..
  53. Alcami J. [Advances in the immunopathology of HIV infection]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2004;22:486-96 pubmed
    ..In this article the mechanisms involved in HIV infection and destruction of target cells and the immune response elicited by HIV are analysed. Finally, viral escape mechanisms to host immune response are considered. ..