ubiquitin c


Summary: A single protein comprised of tandem repeats of the UBIQUITIN 78-amino acid sequence. It is a product of the polyubiquitin gene which contains multiple copies of the ubiquitin coding sequence. Proteolytic processing of ubiquitin C results in the formation of individual ubiquitin molecules. This protein is distinct from POLYUBIQUITIN, which is a protein formed through isopeptide linkage of multiple ubiquitin species.

Top Publications

  1. Bianchi M, Crinelli R, Giacomini E, Carloni E, Magnani M. A potent enhancer element in the 5'-UTR intron is crucial for transcriptional regulation of the human ubiquitin C gene. Gene. 2009;448:88-101 pubmed publisher
  2. Bianchi M, Crinelli R, Giacomini E, Carloni E, Radici L, Magnani M. Yin Yang 1 intronic binding sequences and splicing elicit intron-mediated enhancement of ubiquitin C gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65932 pubmed publisher
    ..Our previous studies revealed that the 5'-UTR intron of human ubiquitin C (UbC) gene is responsible for the boost of reporter gene expression and is able to bind, in vitro, Yin Yang 1 (..
  3. Susor A, Liskova L, Toralova T, Pavlok A, Pivonkova K, Karabinova P, et al. Role of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 in antipolyspermy defense of mammalian oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:1151-61 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is one of the most abundant proteins in mammalian oocytes...
  4. Gill D, Smyth S, Goddard C, Pringle I, Higgins C, Colledge W, et al. Increased persistence of lung gene expression using plasmids containing the ubiquitin C or elongation factor 1alpha promoter. Gene Ther. 2001;8:1539-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, despite the persistence of vector DNA in vivo, attenuation of promoter function may lead to silencing of transgene expression and careful selection of promoter sequences is recommended for in vivo gene transfer. ..
  5. Kim H, Jeon Y, Kang J, Lee Y, Kim K, Chung H, et al. In vivo long-term imaging and radioiodine therapy by sodium-iodide symporter gene expression using a lentiviral system containing ubiquitin C promoter. Cancer Biol Ther. 2007;6:1130-5 pubmed
    ..The devised lentiviral vector system carrying hNIS controlled by UbC promoter was found to be suitable for the long-term monitoring and radionuclide therapy of cancer in living organism. ..
  6. Li X, MAKELA S, Streng T, Santti R, Poutanen M. Phenotype characteristics of transgenic male mice expressing human aromatase under ubiquitin C promoter. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2003;86:469-76 pubmed
    ..e. the model suggests which abnormalities of the human reproductive functions may be associated with the increased ratio of estrogen/androgen concentrations in early life and at adult age as well. ..
  7. Ryu K, Maehr R, Gilchrist C, Long M, Bouley D, Mueller B, et al. The mouse polyubiquitin gene UbC is essential for fetal liver development, cell-cycle progression and stress tolerance. EMBO J. 2007;26:2693-706 pubmed
    ..We propose that UbC is regulated by a process that senses Ub pool dynamics. These data establish that UbC constitutes an essential source of Ub during cell proliferation and stress that cannot be compensated by other Ub genes. ..
  8. Gazdhar A, Bilici M, Pierog J, Ayuni E, Gugger M, Wetterwald A, et al. In vivo electroporation and ubiquitin promoter--a protocol for sustained gene expression in the lung. J Gene Med. 2006;8:910-8 pubmed
    ..If this method is used in combination with a long-acting promoter system, sustained transgene expression can be achieved. ..
  9. Byun H, Suh D, Jeong Y, Wee H, Kim J, Kim W, et al. Plasmid vectors harboring cellular promoters can induce prolonged gene expression in hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;332:518-23 pubmed
    ..Here, we examined the ability of cellular promoters from elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1alpha) and ubiquitin C to drive gene expression in hematopoietic TF-1 and mesenchymal progenitor cells...

More Information


  1. Kim D, Akiyama T, Harman F, Burns A, Shan W, Ward J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (delta)-dependent regulation of ubiquitin C expression contributes to attenuation of skin carcinogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:23719-27 pubmed
    ..analysis was performed and a number of differentially regulated gene products were identified including ubiquitin C. Subsequent promoter analysis, reporter gene assays, site-directed mutagenesis, and electrophoretic mobility ..
  2. Chen Q, Peto C, Shelton G, Mizisin A, Sawchenko P, Schubert D. Loss of modifier of cell adhesion reveals a pathway leading to axonal degeneration. J Neurosci. 2009;29:118-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that MOCA is required for maintaining the functional integrity of axons and define a model for the steps leading to axonal degeneration. ..
  3. Di Fabio R, Moro F, Pestillo L, Meschini M, Pezzini F, Doccini S, et al. Pseudo-dominant inheritance of a novel CTSF mutation associated with type B Kufs disease. Neurology. 2014;83:1769-70 pubmed publisher
  4. Manavalan A, Mishra M, Feng L, Sze S, Akatsu H, Heese K. Brain site-specific proteome changes in aging-related dementia. Exp Mol Med. 2013;45:e39 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, our Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)-based network analysis further revealed ubiquitin C (UBC) as a pivotal protein to interact with diverse AD-associated pathophysiological molecular factors and ..
  5. Surendarbabu M, Meenakshisundaram S. Human ubiquitin C promoter based expression of erythropoietin in CHO K1 cell lines: a simple transfectants screening approach. Anim Biotechnol. 2013;24:198-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Cloning of human EPO gene in a shuttle vector pUB6/V5-HisB driven by human ubiquitin C promoter and its transfection in CHO K1 cell lines by electroporation resulted in a moderate level of EPO ..
  6. Xu Z, Gong L, Huang X, Zhang Y, Gao L. [Transgenic maize plants with low copy number of foreign genes were produced with maize Ubi-1 promoter]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2004;20:120-5 pubmed
    ..These results reflected that utilization of self gene promoter could reduce the copy number of the transgenes in transgenic plants of certain species itself and avoid the occurrence of gene silencing. T2 seeds have been harvested. ..
  7. Koppelkamm A, Vennemann B, Fracasso T, Lutz Bonengel S, Schmidt U, Heinrich M. Validation of adequate endogenous reference genes for the normalisation of qPCR gene expression data in human post mortem tissue. Int J Legal Med. 2010;124:371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..hydroxymethylbilane synthase, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, cyclophilin A and ubiquitin C. The aim of the current study was to assess which reference genes show stable mRNA levels in human post mortem ..
  8. Streatfield S, Magallanes Lundback M, Beifuss K, Brooks C, Harkey R, Love R, et al. Analysis of the maize polyubiquitin-1 promoter heat shock elements and generation of promoter variants with modified expression characteristics. Transgenic Res. 2004;13:299-312 pubmed
    ..The Ubi-1 variants described here differ in their overall activity in the seed, but they all show potential for driving high levels of heterologous gene expression in maize. ..
  9. Cui J, Yao Q, Li S, Ding X, Lu Q, Mao H, et al. Glutamine deamidation and dysfunction of ubiquitin/NEDD8 induced by a bacterial effector family. Science. 2010;329:1215-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations of substrate-contacting residues in Cif abolished or attenuated EPEC-induced cytopathic phenotypes of cell cycle arrest and actin stress fiber formation. ..
  10. Jeong S, Yu H, Pfeifer K. Accurate measurement of the relative abundance of different DNA species in complex DNA mixtures. DNA Res. 2012;19:209-17 pubmed publisher
  11. Pan H, Mostoslavsky G, Eruslanov E, Kotton D, Kramnik I. Dual-promoter lentiviral system allows inducible expression of noxious proteins in macrophages. J Immunol Methods. 2008;329:31-44 pubmed
    ..Our method will be especially useful to study immunity-related macrophage proteins in their physiological context during macrophage activation or infection. ..
  12. Haas D, Lutzko C, Logan A, Cho G, Skelton D, Jin Yu X, et al. The Moloney murine leukemia virus repressor binding site represses expression in murine and human hematopoietic stem cells. J Virol. 2003;77:9439-50 pubmed
    ..a modified MLV long terminal repeat (MNDU3) promoter, a simian virus 40 promoter, and three cellular promoters: ubiquitin C, mPGK, and hEF-1a...
  13. Schaefer B, Schaefer M, Kappler J, Marrack P, Kedl R. Observation of antigen-dependent CD8+ T-cell/ dendritic cell interactions in vivo. Cell Immunol. 2001;214:110-22 pubmed
    ..C57BL/6 mice that express a transgene coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP) under control of the human ubiquitin C promoter...
  14. Skaar J, Pagano M. Control of cell growth by the SCF and APC/C ubiquitin ligases. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2009;21:816-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our expanding understanding of the roles of the SCF and APC/C complexes highlight the potential for targeted molecular therapies. ..
  15. Kobori M, Masumoto S, Akimoto Y, Takahashi Y. Dietary quercetin alleviates diabetic symptoms and reduces streptozotocin-induced disturbance of hepatic gene expression in mice. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2009;53:859-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Unexpectedly, in healthy control mice the 0.5 and 1% quercetin diets reduced the expression of ubiquitin C (Ubc), which has heat-shock element (HSE) in the promoter region, in the liver.
  16. Watanabe H, Smith M, Heilig E, Beglopoulos V, Kelleher R, Shen J. Indirect regulation of presenilins in CREB-mediated transcription. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13705-13 pubmed publisher
  17. Friant S, Meier K, Riezman H. Increased ubiquitin-dependent degradation can replace the essential requirement for heat shock protein induction. EMBO J. 2003;22:3783-91 pubmed
    ..This suggests that cells stressed by heat shock do not die because of the loss of protein activity due to their denaturation, but because of the inherent toxicity of the denatured and/or aggregated proteins. ..
  18. Argyros O, Wong S, Gowers K, Harbottle R. Genetic modification of cancer cells using non-viral, episomal S/MAR vectors for in vivo tumour modelling. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47920 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a further usage of this pDNA vector with the human Ubiquitin C promoter to create stably transfected human hepatoma (Huh7) and human Pancreatic Carcinoma (MIA-PaCa2) cell ..
  19. Liste I, Navarro B, Johansen J, Bueno C, Villa A, Johansen T, et al. Low-level tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression allows for the generation of stable TH+ cell lines of human neural stem cells. Hum Gene Ther. 2004;15:13-20 pubmed
    ..These results may be relevant for the generation of TH/DA-producing human neural cells for in vitro and neurotransplantation research in Parkinson's disease. ..
  20. Al Dasooqi N, Bowen J, Gibson R, Logan R, Stringer A, Keefe D. Selection of housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in a rat model of irinotecan-induced mucositis. Chemotherapy. 2011;57:43-53 pubmed publisher
    ..UBC is the most favourable if restricted to a single housekeeping gene across all time points. ..
  21. Albershardt T, Iritani B, Ruddell A. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative PCR analysis of mouse lymphocytes. J Immunol Methods. 2012;384:196-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms, we consistently show that ubiquitin C (Ubc) is the optimal reference gene for normalizing qPCR data obtained from mouse lymphocytes, whereas beta-..
  22. Wang Y, Song Y, Liu Q, Liu C, Wang L, Liu Y, et al. Quantitative analysis of lentiviral transgene expression in mice over seven generations. Transgenic Res. 2010;19:775-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggested that transgenic lines with long term stable expression and no position effect can be established by lentiviral transgenesis. ..
  23. Welle S, Bhatt K, Pinkert C. Myofibrillar protein synthesis in myostatin-deficient mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E409-15 pubmed
    ..Thus the increased protein synthesis and RNA content per muscle in myostatin-deficient mice cannot be explained entirely by an increased number of myonuclei. ..
  24. Wilhelm F, Winkler U, Morawski M, Jäger C, Reinecke L, Rossner M, et al. The human ubiquitin C promoter drives selective expression in principal neurons in the brain of a transgenic mouse line. Neurochem Int. 2011;59:976-80 pubmed publisher
    ..We have generated transgenic mice with the expression of nuclear ?-galactosidase driven by the human ubiquitin C promoter thought to mediate ubiquitous expression...
  25. Griswold S, Sajja K, Jang C, Behringer R. Generation and characterization of iUBC-KikGR photoconvertible transgenic mice for live time-lapse imaging during development. Genesis. 2011;49:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..expresses the photoconvertible fluorescent protein Kikume Green-Red (KikGR) under the control of the human Ubiquitin C promoter...
  26. Li M, Husic N, Lin Y, Christensen H, Malik I, McIver S, et al. Optimal promoter usage for lentiviral vector-mediated transduction of cultured central nervous system cells. J Neurosci Methods. 2010;189:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In primary cortical neurons, constructs using the ubiquitin C promoter directed the highest level of transgene expression; the phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) promoter also ..
  27. Hamerli D, Birch R. Transgenic expression of trehalulose synthase results in high concentrations of the sucrose isomer trehalulose in mature stems of field-grown sugarcane. Plant Biotechnol J. 2011;9:32-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Plants remained vigorous, and trehalulose production in selected lines was retained over multiple vegetative generations under glasshouse and field conditions. ..
  28. Abolmaali S, Mitterbauer R, Spadiut O, Peruci M, Weindorfer H, Lucyshyn D, et al. Engineered bakers yeast as a sensitive bioassay indicator organism for the trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol. J Microbiol Methods. 2008;72:306-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of a simple two step assay for microbial DON degradation in 96 well microtiter format and its testing with the DON detoxifying bacterium BBSH 797 is reported...
  29. Park C, Ryu H, Ryu K. Locus coeruleus neurons are resistant to dysfunction and degeneration by maintaining free ubiquitin levels although total ubiquitin levels decrease upon disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:541-6 pubmed publisher
  30. Riezman H. Why do cells require heat shock proteins to survive heat stress?. Cell Cycle. 2004;3:61-3 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that accumulation of denatured or aggregated proteins is the reason for the loss of cell viability due to heat stress. ..
  31. Stammberger U, Bilici M, Gugger M, Gazdhar A, Hamacher J, Hyde S, et al. Prolonged amelioration of acute lung allograft rejection by overexpression of human interleukin-10 under control of a long acting ubiquitin C promoter in rats. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25:1474-9 pubmed
    ..05). Interleukin-10 overexpression under control of the constitutive ubiquitin C promoter ameliorates acute rejection and preserves lung graft function for a prolonged time.
  32. Laidlaw A, Copeland B, Ross C, Hardingham J. Extent of over-expression of hepatocyte growth factor receptor in colorectal tumours is dependent on the choice of normaliser. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;341:1017-21 pubmed
    ..This study quantified the mRNA expression of three putative reference genes (ubiquitin C, cyclophilin E, and porphobilinogen deaminase) and the target gene hepatocyte growth factor receptor (HGFR) in ..
  33. Chambers J, Behpouri A, Bird A, Ng C. Evaluation of the use of the polyubiquitin genes, Ubi4 and Ubi10 as reference genes for expression studies in Brachypodium distachyon. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49372 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that primers designed to target the 3'-UTRs of Ubi4 and Ubi10 are better suited for real-time normalization of steady-state expression levels in Brachypodium distachyon. ..
  34. Wu L, Lee S, Zhou B, Nguyen U, Muir T, Tan S, et al. ASH2L regulates ubiquitylation signaling to MLL: trans-regulation of H3 K4 methylation in higher eukaryotes. Mol Cell. 2013;49:1108-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results potentially expand the classic histone crosstalk to nonhistone proteins, which broadens the scope of chromatin regulation by ubiquitylation signaling. ..
  35. Serniwka S, Shaw G. The structure of the UbcH8-ubiquitin complex shows a unique ubiquitin interaction site. Biochemistry. 2009;48:12169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the results suggest the UbcH8-ubiquitin complex may provide an additional level of specificity in the ubiquitination pathway. ..
  36. Bai W, Chern M, Ruan D, Canlas P, Sze To W, Ronald P. Enhanced disease resistance and hypersensitivity to BTH by introduction of an NH1/OsNPR1 paralog. Plant Biotechnol J. 2011;9:205-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach avoids using undesirable constitutive, high-level expression and may prove to be more practical for engineering resistance. ..
  37. Hildenbrand M, Rhiemeier V, Hartenstein B, Lahrmann B, Grabe N, Angel P, et al. Impaired skin regeneration and remodeling after cutaneous injury and chemically induced hyperplasia in taps-transgenic mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:1922-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we generated a mouse model in which Taps transgene expression is under the control of the human ubiquitin C promoter (UBC-Taps)...
  38. Zhou H, Xia X, Xu Z. An RNA polymerase II construct synthesizes short-hairpin RNA with a quantitative indicator and mediates highly efficient RNAi. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:e62 pubmed
    ..This system may be adapted for in vivo shRNA expression and gene silencing. ..
  39. Li X, Strauss L, MAKELA S, Streng T, Huhtaniemi I, Santti R, et al. Multiple structural and functional abnormalities in the p450 aromatase expressing transgenic male mice are ameliorated by a p450 aromatase inhibitor. Am J Pathol. 2004;164:1039-48 pubmed
    ..inhibitor (finrozole) on 4-month-old transgenic mice expressing human P450 aromatase (P450arom) under the human ubiquitin C promoter (AROM+)...
  40. Baska K, Manandhar G, Feng D, Agca Y, Tengowski M, Sutovsky M, et al. Mechanism of extracellular ubiquitination in the mammalian epididymis. J Cell Physiol. 2008;215:684-96 pubmed
    ..intermediates, ubiquitin-carrier enzyme E2 and presumed E2-ubiquitin thiol-ester intermediates and the ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase PGP 9.5/UCHL1 in the isolated bovine EF...
  41. Chen J, Ruan R. Identifying stable reference genes for evaluation of antioxidative enzyme gene expression in auditory cortex and cochlea of young and old Fischer 344 rats. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:644-50 pubmed publisher
    ..levels of some common reference genes such as beta-actin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ubiquitin C, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase and eukaryotic translation elongation factor (EF) were quantified in ..
  42. Shimada I, Matsui K, Iida R, Tsubota E, Matsuki T. Time course of housekeeping gene expression changes in diffuse alveolar damage induced by hyperoxia exposure in mice. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2009;11 Suppl 1:S151-4 pubmed publisher
  43. Roig P, Gozalbo D. Depletion of polyubiquitin encoded by the UBI4 gene confers pleiotropic phenotype to Candida albicans cells. Fungal Genet Biol. 2003;39:70-81 pubmed
  44. Tornøe J, Kusk P, Johansen T, Jensen P. Generation of a synthetic mammalian promoter library by modification of sequences spacing transcription factor binding sites. Gene. 2002;297:21-32 pubmed
    ..a 200 bp chimeric promoter built from fragments of the viral SV40 early promoter and the human beta-actin and ubiquitin C promoters...
  45. Mehta R, Birerdinc A, Hossain N, Afendy A, Chandhoke V, Younossi Z, et al. Validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of human visceral adipose samples. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:39 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of these genes as a reference pair may further enhance the robustness of qRT-PCR in this model system. ..
  46. Moore C, Hebb A, Blanchard M, Crocker C, Liston P, Korneluk R, et al. Increased X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) expression exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). J Neuroimmunol. 2008;203:79-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies XIAP is an important apoptotic regulator in EAE and a potential pharmacological target for treating autoimmune diseases such as MS. ..
  47. Zhou R, Dean D. Gene transfer of interleukin 10 to the murine cornea using electroporation. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2007;232:362-9 pubmed
    ..In an attempt to increase the duration of expression, the long-acting ubiquitin C (UbC) promoter was used but, surprisingly, a similar half-life of gene expression was observed...
  48. Ryu H, Ryu K. Quantification of oxidative stress in live mouse embryonic fibroblasts by monitoring the responses of polyubiquitin genes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;404:470-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this simple assay may also be employed in the screening of potentially toxic reagents that induce the stress response pathways. ..
  49. Sehgal L, Budnar S, Bhatt K, Sansare S, Mukhopadhaya A, Kalraiya R, et al. Generation of HIV-1 based bi-cistronic lentiviral vectors for stable gene expression and live cell imaging. Indian J Exp Biol. 2012;50:669-76 pubmed
    ..These novel lentiviral vectors are improved delivery vehicles for gene transfer applications and are important tools for live cell imaging in vivo. ..
  50. Perelygin A, Kondrashov F, Rogozin I, Brinton M. Evolution of the mouse polyubiquitin-C gene. J Mol Evol. 2002;55:202-10 pubmed
    ..The sequence divergence of noncoding DNA was used to estimate the frequency of unequal crossing-over events (6.3 x 10(-5) events per generation) in the Ubc gene, as well as to provide evidence of apparent selection in the poly-u gene. ..
  51. Grando M, Smith R, Moreira C, Scully B, Shatters R. Developmental changes in abundance of the VSPbeta protein following nuclear transformation of maize with the soybean vspbeta cDNA. BMC Plant Biol. 2005;5:3 pubmed
  52. Wagner A, Phillips L, Narayan R, Moody J, Geddes B. Gene silencing studies in the gymnosperm species Pinus radiata. Plant Cell Rep. 2005;24:95-102 pubmed
    ..The obtained data are also consistent with a role for the expression level of the endogenous CAD gene in gene silencing. ..
  53. Kugawa F, Aoki M. Expression of the polyubiquitin gene early in the buprenorphine hydrochloride-induced apoptosis of NG108-15 cells. DNA Seq. 2004;15:237-45 pubmed
    ..Northern and western blots indicated the transcription and translation of polyubiquitin early in Bph-induced apoptosis. The polyubiquitination of apoptotic cellular proteins was also confirmed. ..