Summary: An oligomer formed from the repetitive linking of the C-terminal glycine of one UBIQUITIN molecule via an isopeptide bond to a lysine residue on a second ubiquitin molecule. It is structurally distinct from UBIQUITIN C, which is a single protein containing a tandemly arrayed ubiquitin peptide sequence.

Top Publications

  1. Lu J, Sivamani E, Li X, Qu R. Activity of the 5' regulatory regions of the rice polyubiquitin rubi3 gene in transgenic rice plants as analyzed by both GUS and GFP reporter genes. Plant Cell Rep. 2008;27:1587-600 pubmed publisher
    ..Ubiquitin is an abundant protein involved in protein degradation and cell cycle control in plants and rubi3 is a polyubiquitin gene isolated from rice (Oryza sativa L.)...
  2. Iwai K. Linear polyubiquitin chains: a new modifier involved in NF?B activation and chronic inflammation, including dermatitis. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:3095-104 pubmed
    ..phenomena, including protein degradation and signal transduction, by regulating protein function via polyubiquitin conjugation in most cases...
  3. Dammer E, Na C, Xu P, Seyfried N, Duong D, Cheng D, et al. Polyubiquitin linkage profiles in three models of proteolytic stress suggest the etiology of Alzheimer disease. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:10457-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyubiquitin chains on substrates are assembled through any of seven lysine residues or the N terminus of ubiquitin (Ub), generating diverse linkages in the chain structure...
  4. Zeng W, Sun L, Jiang X, Chen X, Hou F, Adhikari A, et al. Reconstitution of the RIG-I pathway reveals a signaling role of unanchored polyubiquitin chains in innate immunity. Cell. 2010;141:315-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of RIG-I requires not only RNA but also polyubiquitin chains linked through lysine 63 (K63) of ubiquitin...
  5. Higgs R, Ní Gabhann J, Ben Larbi N, Breen E, Fitzgerald K, Jefferies C. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Ro52 negatively regulates IFN-beta production post-pathogen recognition by polyubiquitin-mediated degradation of IRF3. J Immunol. 2008;181:1780-6 pubmed
    ..Collectively, this demonstrates a novel role for Ro52 in turning off and thus limiting IRF3-dependent type I IFN production by targeting the transcription factor for polyubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. ..
  6. Verhelst K, Carpentier I, Kreike M, Meloni L, Verstrepen L, Kensche T, et al. A20 inhibits LUBAC-mediated NF-?B activation by binding linear polyubiquitin chains via its zinc finger 7. EMBO J. 2012;31:3845-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that ZF7 preferentially binds linear polyubiquitin chains in vitro, indicating A20-ZF7 as a novel linear ubiquitin-binding domain (LUBID)...
  7. Kim H, Kim K, Lledias F, Kisselev A, Scaglione K, Skowyra D, et al. Certain pairs of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s) synthesize nondegradable forked ubiquitin chains containing all possible isopeptide linkages. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:17375-86 pubmed
    It is generally assumed that a specific ubiquitin ligase (E3) links protein substrates to polyubiquitin chains containing a single type of isopeptide linkage, and that chains composed of linkages through Lys(48), but not through Lys(63), ..
  8. Langie S, Knaapen A, Ramaekers C, Theys J, Brun J, Godschalk R, et al. Formation of lysine 63-linked poly-ubiquitin chains protects human lung cells against benzo[a]pyrene-diol-epoxide-induced mutagenicity. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:852-62 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that K63-polyubiquitination guards against chemical carcinogenesis by preventing mutagenesis and thus contributing to genomic stability. ..
  9. Kawadler H, Yang X. Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains: linking more than just ubiquitin. Cancer Biol Ther. 2006;5:1273-4 pubmed
    b>Polyubiquitin chains linked through the Lys48 residue of ubiquitin are most commonly associated with targeting proteins for proteosomal degradation...

More Information


  1. Ravid T, Hochstrasser M. Autoregulation of an E2 enzyme by ubiquitin-chain assembly on its catalytic residue. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:422-7 pubmed
    ..Ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s) work together to assemble polyubiquitin chains on misfolded or misassembled proteins, which are then degraded by the proteasome...
  2. Hernandez Garcia C, Martinelli A, Bouchard R, Finer J. A soybean (Glycine max) polyubiquitin promoter gives strong constitutive expression in transgenic soybean. Plant Cell Rep. 2009;28:837-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we analyzed gfp gene expression mediated by a polyubiquitin promoter (Gmubi) from soybean (Glycine max) in stably transformed soybean tissues...
  3. Zhang Y, Zhou C, Zhou Z, Song A, Hu H. Domain analysis reveals that a deubiquitinating enzyme USP13 performs non-activating catalysis for Lys63-linked polyubiquitin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29362 pubmed publisher
    ..that USP13, distinct from USP5, exhibits a weak deubiquitinating activity preferring to Lys63-linked polyubiquitin (K63-polyUb) in a non-activation manner...
  4. Ryu K, Park H, Rossi D, Weissman I, Kopito R. Perturbation of the hematopoietic system during embryonic liver development due to disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubc in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e32956 pubmed publisher
    Disruption of the polyubiquitin gene Ubc leads to a defect in fetal liver development, which can be partially rescued by increasing the amount of ubiquitin...
  5. Matiuhin Y, Kirkpatrick D, Ziv I, Kim W, Dakshinamurthy A, Kleifeld O, et al. Extraproteasomal Rpn10 restricts access of the polyubiquitin-binding protein Dsk2 to proteasome. Mol Cell. 2008;32:415-25 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyubiquitin is a diverse signal both in terms of chain length and linkage type...
  6. Stieglitz B, Morris Davies A, Koliopoulos M, Christodoulou E, Rittinger K. LUBAC synthesizes linear ubiquitin chains via a thioester intermediate. EMBO Rep. 2012;13:840-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that HOIP transfers ubiquitin to the substrate through a thioester intermediate formed by a conserved cysteine in the RING2 domain, supporting the notion that RBR ligases act as RING/HECT hybrids. ..
  7. Kee Y, Muñoz W, Lyon N, Huibregtse J. The deubiquitinating enzyme Ubp2 modulates Rsp5-dependent Lys63-linked polyubiquitin conjugates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:36724-31 pubmed
    The functions of Lys(63)-linked polyubiquitin chains are poorly understood, as are the enzymes that specifically generate Lys(63)-linked conjugates...
  8. Ikeda F, Dikic I. Atypical ubiquitin chains: new molecular signals. 'Protein Modifications: Beyond the Usual Suspects' review series. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:536-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we describe recent progress in the understanding of atypical Ub chain assembly and their recognition by Ub-binding domains, and we discuss further their functional roles in vivo. ..
  9. Xu P, Peng J. Characterization of polyubiquitin chain structure by middle-down mass spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2008;80:3438-44 pubmed publisher
    ..g., forked chains) is also discussed. Together, this middle-down MS strategy provides a novel complementary method for studying the length and linkages of complex polyUb chain structures. ..
  10. Boname J, Thomas M, Stagg H, Xu P, Peng J, Lehner P. Efficient internalization of MHC I requires lysine-11 and lysine-63 mixed linkage polyubiquitin chains. Traffic. 2010;11:210-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that K5 targets the membrane proximal lysine of MHC I for conjugation with mixed linkage polyubiquitin chains...
  11. Schwickart M, Huang X, Lill J, Liu J, Ferrando R, French D, et al. Deubiquitinase USP9X stabilizes MCL1 and promotes tumour cell survival. Nature. 2010;463:103-7 pubmed publisher
    ..USP9X binds MCL1 and removes the Lys 48-linked polyubiquitin chains that normally mark MCL1 for proteasomal degradation...
  12. Lu C, Kim J, Fuller M. The polyubiquitin gene Ubi-p63E is essential for male meiotic cell cycle progression and germ cell differentiation in Drosophila. Development. 2013;140:3522-31 pubmed publisher
    ..we show, via analysis of the magellan (magn) complementation group, that loss of function of the Drosophila polyubiquitin Ubi-p63E results specifically in meiotic arrest sterility in males...
  13. Olzmann J, Chin L. Parkin-mediated K63-linked polyubiquitination: a signal for targeting misfolded proteins to the aggresome-autophagy pathway. Autophagy. 2008;4:85-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying aggresome formation and suggest that parkin and K63-linked polyubiquitination may play a role in the autophagic clearance of misfolded proteins. ..
  14. Rodrigo Brenni M, Morgan D. Sequential E2s drive polyubiquitin chain assembly on APC targets. Cell. 2007;130:127-39 pubmed
    ..is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that collaborates with E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes to assemble polyubiquitin chains on proteins important for cell-cycle progression...
  15. Opitz E, Koch A, Klingel K, Schmidt F, Prokop S, Rahnefeld A, et al. Impairment of immunoproteasome function by ?5i/LMP7 subunit deficiency results in severe enterovirus myocarditis. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002233 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore demonstrates that IP formation primarily protects the target organ of CVB3 infection from excessive inflammatory tissue damage in a virus-induced proinflammatory cytokine milieu. ..
  16. Xia Z, Sun L, Chen X, Pineda G, Jiang X, Adhikari A, et al. Direct activation of protein kinases by unanchored polyubiquitin chains. Nature. 2009;461:114-9 pubmed publisher
    ..By reconstituting TAK1 activation in vitro using purified proteins, here we show that free Lys 63 polyubiquitin chains, which are not conjugated to any target protein, directly activate TAK1 by binding to the ubiquitin ..
  17. Trempe J. Reading the ubiquitin postal code. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2011;21:792-801 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyubiquitin chains are assembled through the formation of an isopeptide bond between a lysine side-chain or terminal amino group of a proximal ubiquitin moiety and the carboxy-terminal of a distal ubiquitin moiety...
  18. Castaneda C, Liu J, Kashyap T, Singh R, Fushman D, Cropp T. Controlled enzymatic synthesis of natural-linkage, defined-length polyubiquitin chains using lysines with removable protecting groups. Chem Commun (Camb). 2011;47:2026-8 pubmed publisher
    E2 enzymes catalyze the ATP-dependent polymerization of polyubiquitin chains which function as molecular signals in the regulation of numerous cellular processes...
  19. Adhikari A, Chen Z. Diversity of polyubiquitin chains. Dev Cell. 2009;16:485-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyubiquitin chains linked through different lysines of ubiquitin may exert both proteasome-dependent and -independent functions. In a recent Cell issue, Xu et al...
  20. Emmerich C, Ordureau A, Strickson S, Arthur J, Pedrioli P, Komander D, et al. Activation of the canonical IKK complex by K63/M1-linked hybrid ubiquitin chains. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:15247-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Polyubiquitin (pUb) chains formed between the C terminus of ubiquitin and lysine 63 (K63) or methionine 1 (M1) of another ubiquitin have been implicated in the activation of the canonical IκB kinase (IKK) complex...
  21. Lipinszki Z, Kovacs L, Deak P, Udvardy A. Ubiquitylation of Drosophila p54/Rpn10/S5a regulates its interaction with the UBA-UBL polyubiquitin receptors. Biochemistry. 2012;51:2461-70 pubmed publisher
    Analysis of the in vivo ubiquitylation of the p54/Rpn10 polyubiquitin receptor subunit of the Drosophila 26S proteasome revealed that the site of ubiquitylation is the C-terminal cluster of lysines, which is conserved in higher ..
  22. Cooper E, Cutcliffe C, Kristiansen T, Pandey A, Pickart C, Cohen R. K63-specific deubiquitination by two JAMM/MPN+ complexes: BRISC-associated Brcc36 and proteasomal Poh1. EMBO J. 2009;28:621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..DUB) activity exists in HeLa cell extracts that is highly specific for cleaving K63-linked but not K48-linked polyubiquitin chains...
  23. Al Hakim A, Zagorska A, Chapman L, Deak M, Peggie M, Alessi D. Control of AMPK-related kinases by USP9X and atypical Lys(29)/Lys(33)-linked polyubiquitin chains. Biochem J. 2008;411:249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..USP9X, catalysed the removal of polyubiquitin chains from wild-type NUAK1, but not from a non-USP9X-binding mutant...
  24. Zhang D, Raasi S, Fushman D. Affinity makes the difference: nonselective interaction of the UBA domain of Ubiquilin-1 with monomeric ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains. J Mol Biol. 2008;377:162-80 pubmed publisher
    ..To gain structural insights into UQ1-UBA's interactions with polyubiquitin chains, we have mapped the binding interface between UQ1-UBA and Lys48- and Lys63-linked di-ubiquitins and ..
  25. Hurley J, Lee S, Prag G. Ubiquitin-binding domains. Biochem J. 2006;399:361-72 pubmed
    ..Inroads into understanding polyubiquitin specificity have been made for two UBA domains, whose structures have been characterized in complex with Lys48-..
  26. Streich F, Ronchi V, Connick J, Haas A. Tripartite motif ligases catalyze polyubiquitin chain formation through a cooperative allosteric mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:8209-21 pubmed publisher
    Ligation of polyubiquitin chains to proteins is a fundamental post-translational modification, often resulting in targeted degradation of conjugated proteins...
  27. Keusekotten K, Elliott P, Glockner L, Fiil B, Damgaard R, Kulathu Y, et al. OTULIN antagonizes LUBAC signaling by specifically hydrolyzing Met1-linked polyubiquitin. Cell. 2013;153:1312-26 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that OTULIN binds LUBAC and that overexpression of OTULIN prevents TNF?-induced NEMO association with ubiquitinated RIPK1. Our data suggest that OTULIN regulates Met1-polyUb signaling. ..
  28. Li W, Tu D, Brunger A, Ye Y. A ubiquitin ligase transfers preformed polyubiquitin chains from a conjugating enzyme to a substrate. Nature. 2007;446:333-7 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, polyubiquitination of a substrate can be achieved by transferring preassembled ubiquitin chains from Ube2g2 to a lysine residue in a substrate. ..
  29. Park C, Ryu H, Ryu K. Locus coeruleus neurons are resistant to dysfunction and degeneration by maintaining free ubiquitin levels although total ubiquitin levels decrease upon disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;418:541-6 pubmed publisher
    Previously, we demonstrated that disruption of polyubiquitin gene Ubb leads to hypothalamic neurodegeneration and metabolic abnormalities associated with hypothalamic dysfunction...
  30. Matsumoto M, Dong K, Yu C, Phu L, Gao X, Hannoush R, et al. Engineering and structural characterization of a linear polyubiquitin-specific antibody. J Mol Biol. 2012;418:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..PolyUb (polyubiquitin) chains are formed by linking the carboxyl-terminus of one Ub (ubiquitin) subunit to either a lysine residue ..
  31. Waters S, Marchbank K, Solomon E, Whitehouse C, Gautel M. Interactions with LC3 and polyubiquitin chains link nbr1 to autophagic protein turnover. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1846-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here that the nbr1 UBA domain binds to lysine-48 and -63 linked polyubiquitin-B chains. Nbr1 also binds to the autophagic effector protein LC3-A via a novel binding site...
  32. Tran H, Bustos D, Yeh R, Rubinfeld B, Lam C, Shriver S, et al. HectD1 E3 ligase modifies adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) with polyubiquitin to promote the APC-axin interaction. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3753-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we identify HectD1 as a candidate E3 ubiquitin ligase that modifies APC with Lys-63 polyubiquitin. Knockdown of HectD1 diminished APC ubiquitylation, disrupted the APC-Axin interaction, and augmented Wnt3a-..
  33. Bhattacharyya J, Chowdhury A, Ray S, Jha J, Das S, Gayen S, et al. Native polyubiquitin promoter of rice provides increased constitutive expression in stable transgenic rice plants. Plant Cell Rep. 2012;31:271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study, thus, for the first time helped to demonstrate that the native Ubi1 promoter is a promising genetic element in transgenic approaches for constitutive expression of any gene in rice tissue. ..
  34. Ori D, Kato H, Sanjo H, Tartey S, Mino T, Akira S, et al. Essential roles of K63-linked polyubiquitin-binding proteins TAB2 and TAB3 in B cell activation via MAPKs. J Immunol. 2013;190:4037-45 pubmed publisher
    Polyubiquitination of proteins plays a critical role in the activation of immune cells. K63-linked polyubiquitin-binding proteins TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1)-binding protein (TAB)2 and TAB3 are implicated in NF-?B signaling via TAK1 ..
  35. Hau D, Lewis M, Saltibus L, Pastushok L, Xiao W, Spyracopoulos L. Structure and interactions of the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme variant human Uev1a: implications for enzymatic synthesis of polyubiquitin chains. Biochemistry. 2006;45:9866-77 pubmed
  36. Eddins M, Carlile C, Gomez K, Pickart C, Wolberger C. Mms2-Ubc13 covalently bound to ubiquitin reveals the structural basis of linkage-specific polyubiquitin chain formation. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:915-20 pubmed
    Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains participate in nonproteolytic signaling pathways, including regulation of DNA damage tolerance and NF-kappaB activation...
  37. Narendra D, Kane L, Hauser D, Fearnley I, Youle R. p62/SQSTM1 is required for Parkin-induced mitochondrial clustering but not mitophagy; VDAC1 is dispensable for both. Autophagy. 2010;6:1090-106 pubmed
    ..They also suggest that proteins other than p62 are likely required for mitophagy downstream of Parkin substrates other than VDAC1. ..
  38. Li X, Demartino G. Variably modulated gating of the 26S proteasome by ATP and polyubiquitin. Biochem J. 2009;421:397-404 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Polyubiquitin and a peptoid that binds selectively to a single ATPase subunit of PA700 also increased rates of peptide ..
  39. Boyault C, Gilquin B, Zhang Y, Rybin V, Garman E, Meyer Klaucke W, et al. HDAC6-p97/VCP controlled polyubiquitin chain turnover. EMBO J. 2006;25:3357-66 pubmed
    ..known affinity for ubiquitin monomers and mediates the ability of HDAC6 to negatively control the cellular polyubiquitin chain turnover...
  40. Sims J, Cohen R. Linkage-specific avidity defines the lysine 63-linked polyubiquitin-binding preference of rap80. Mol Cell. 2009;33:775-83 pubmed publisher
    Linkage-specific polyubiquitin recognition is thought to make possible the diverse set of functional outcomes associated with ubiquitination...
  41. Gazdoiu S, Yamoah K, Wu K, Pan Z. Human Cdc34 employs distinct sites to coordinate attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate and assembly of polyubiquitin chains. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7041-52 pubmed
    ..that human Cdc34 employs distinct sites to coordinate the transfer of Ub to a substrate and the assembly of polyubiquitin chains...
  42. Ryu K, Sinnar S, Reinholdt L, Vaccari S, Hall S, Garcia M, et al. The mouse polyubiquitin gene Ubb is essential for meiotic progression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:1136-46 pubmed
    Ubiquitin is encoded in mice by two polyubiquitin genes, Ubb and Ubc, that are considered to be stress inducible and two constitutively expressed monoubiquitin (Uba) genes...
  43. Bech Otschir D, Helfrich A, Enenkel C, Consiglieri G, Seeger M, Holzhütter H, et al. Polyubiquitin substrates allosterically activate their own degradation by the 26S proteasome. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..In consequence, polyUb substrates will allosterically stimulate their own degradation. ..
  44. Xu P, Peng J. Dissecting the ubiquitin pathway by mass spectrometry. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:1940-7 pubmed
    ..review the advances in analyzing ubiquitinated substrates, determining modified lysine residues, quantifying polyubiquitin chain topologies, as well as profiling deubiquitinating enzymes based on the activity...
  45. Kang Y, Chen X, Lary J, Cole J, Walters K. Defining how ubiquitin receptors hHR23a and S5a bind polyubiquitin. J Mol Biol. 2007;369:168-76 pubmed
    ..We report that UIM2 of S5a binds preferentially to hHR23a over polyubiquitin, and we provide a model for the ternary complex that we expect represents one of the mechanisms used by the ..
  46. Windheim M, Peggie M, Cohen P. Two different classes of E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes are required for the mono-ubiquitination of proteins and elongation by polyubiquitin chains with a specific topology. Biochem J. 2008;409:723-9 pubmed
    ..of ubiquitin to a lysine residue on the substrate or to one of the seven lysine residues of ubiquitin for polyubiquitin chain elongation. Different polyubiquitin chains have different functions...
  47. Kulathu Y, Komander D. Atypical ubiquitylation - the unexplored world of polyubiquitin beyond Lys48 and Lys63 linkages. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2012;13:508-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas the roles of Lys48- and Lys63-linked polyubiquitin in protein degradation and cellular signalling are well characterized, the functions of the remaining six '..
  48. Ikeda H, Kerppola T. Lysosomal localization of ubiquitinated Jun requires multiple determinants in a lysine-27-linked polyubiquitin conjugate. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4588-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Lysosomal localization of the conjugate requires determinants in Jun and in ubiquitin that are recognized in part by TSG101 and HRS, facilitating selective translocation and degradation of ubiquitinated Jun. ..
  49. Mann D, King Z, Liu W, Joyce B, Percifield R, Hawkins J, et al. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) polyubiquitin gene (PvUbi1 and PvUbi2) promoters for use in plant transformation. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:74 pubmed publisher
    ..e. PvUbi1 and PvUbi2 promoters) fused to the uidA coding region (GUS) and tested for transient and stable expression in a variety of plant species and tissues...
  50. Li W, Tu D, Li L, Wollert T, Ghirlando R, Brunger A, et al. Mechanistic insights into active site-associated polyubiquitination by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ube2g2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3722-7 pubmed publisher
    ..reticulum-associated RING finger ubiquitin ligase gp78 can mediate the preassembly of Lys-48-linked polyubiquitin chains on the catalytic cysteine of its cognate E2 Ube2g2 and subsequent transfer to a substrate...
  51. Bett J, Benn C, Ryu K, Kopito R, Bates G. The polyubiquitin Ubc gene modulates histone H2A monoubiquitylation in the R6/2 mouse model of Huntington's disease. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:2645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..that several neurodegenerative diseases are caused by mutations in ubiquitin-processing enzymes and that the polyubiquitin genes are required for resistance to cellular stress led us to investigate the effect of perturbing the ..
  52. Meyer Schwesinger C, Meyer T, Sievert H, Hoxha E, Sachs M, Klupp E, et al. Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-l1 activity induces polyubiquitin accumulation in podocytes and increases proteinuria in rat membranous nephropathy. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:2044-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Stable UCH-L1 overexpression in cultured podocytes resulted in accumulation of monoubiquitin and polyubiquitin proteins...
  53. Nanda S, Venigalla R, Ordureau A, Patterson Kane J, Powell D, Toth R, et al. Polyubiquitin binding to ABIN1 is required to prevent autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2011;208:1215-28 pubmed publisher
    The protein ABIN1 possesses a polyubiquitin-binding domain homologous to that present in nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) essential modulator (NEMO), a component of the inhibitor of NF-?B (I?B) kinase (IKK) complex...