sumo 1 protein


Summary: A 1.5-kDa small ubiquitin-related modifier protein that can covalently bind via an isopeptide link to a number of cellular proteins. It may play a role in intracellular protein transport and a number of other cellular processes.

Top Publications

  1. Lee C, Sun H, Hu S, Chiu C, Homhuan A, Liang S, et al. An improved SUMO fusion protein system for effective production of native proteins. Protein Sci. 2008;17:1241-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Such a one-column protocol is useful in developing a better high-throughput platform. Finally, this new system was shown to be effective for cloning, expression, and rapid purification of several difficult-to-produce authentic proteins. ..
  2. Matic I, Macek B, Hilger M, Walther T, Mann M. Phosphorylation of SUMO-1 occurs in vivo and is conserved through evolution. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:4050-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that SUMO can be modified may point to an additional level of complexity through modifying a protein-modifier. ..
  3. Sato Y, Miyake K, Kaneoka H, Iijima S. Sumoylation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha and its functional roles in hepatocyte differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:21629-39 pubmed
    ..This result suggests that BRG1 down-regulates the expression of the dihydrofolate reductase gene. These findings provide the insight that SUMO acts as a space regulator, which affects protein-protein interactions. ..
  4. Yunus A, Lima C. Lysine activation and functional analysis of E2-mediated conjugation in the SUMO pathway. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:491-9 pubmed
    ..It seems that Ubc9 uses an indirect mechanism to activate lysine for conjugation that may be conserved among E2 family members. ..
  5. Wang J, Ko C, Chen L, Wang W, Chang W. Functional role of NF-IL6beta and its sumoylation and acetylation modifications in promoter activation of cyclooxygenase 2 gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:217-31 pubmed
    ..These results indicated that NF-IL6beta plays a pivotal role in the regulation of basal and EGF-induced cox-2 transcription. ..
  6. Watts F. Sumoylation of PCNA: Wrestling with recombination at stalled replication forks. DNA Repair (Amst). 2006;5:399-403 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings for post-replication repair in S. cerevisiae and other eukaryotes are discussed. ..
  7. Owerbach D, McKay E, Yeh E, Gabbay K, Bohren K. A proline-90 residue unique to SUMO-4 prevents maturation and sumoylation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;337:517-20 pubmed
    ..Native SUMO-4, thus, appears to be unable to form covalent isopeptide bonds with substrates. A biological role of SUMO-4, through non-covalent interactions is proposed. ..
  8. Huang C, Han Y, Wang Y, Sun X, Yan S, Yeh E, et al. SENP3 is responsible for HIF-1 transactivation under mild oxidative stress via p300 de-SUMOylation. EMBO J. 2009;28:2748-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results identify SENP3 as a redox sensor that regulates HIF-1 transcriptional activity under oxidative stress through the de-SUMOylation of p300. ..
  9. Kuppuswamy M, Vijayalingam S, Zhao L, Zhou Y, Subramanian T, Ryerse J, et al. Role of the PLDLS-binding cleft region of CtBP1 in recruitment of core and auxiliary components of the corepressor complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:269-81 pubmed
    ..We also provide evidence that CtBP1 functions as a platform for sumoylation of cofactors. ..

More Information


  1. Iwasaki K, Hailemariam K, Tsuji Y. PIAS3 interacts with ATF1 and regulates the human ferritin H gene through an antioxidant-responsive element. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22335-43 pubmed
    ..Collectively our results suggest that PIAS3 is a new regulator of ATF1 that regulates the ARE-mediated transcription of the ferritin H gene. ..
  2. Li B, Zhou J, Liu P, Hu J, Jin H, Shimono Y, et al. Polycomb protein Cbx4 promotes SUMO modification of de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a. Biochem J. 2007;405:369-78 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Cbx4 functions as a SUMO E3 ligase for Dnmt3a and it might be involved in the functional regulation of DNA methyltransferases by promoting their SUMO modification. ..
  3. Ii T, Mullen J, Slagle C, Brill S. Stimulation of in vitro sumoylation by Slx5-Slx8: evidence for a functional interaction with the SUMO pathway. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:1679-91 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, a functional RING-finger domain is not required for this stimulation in vitro. These biochemical data demonstrate for the first time that the Slx5 and Slx8 complex is capable of interacting directly with the SUMO pathway. ..
  4. Seeler J, Bischof O, Nacerddine K, Dejean A. SUMO, the three Rs and cancer. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2007;313:49-71 pubmed
    ..Here we review recent evidence for SUMO's role in protecting genomic integrity at both the chromosomal and the DNA level. Furthermore, the involvement of sumoylation and of specific SUMO targets in cancer is discussed. ..
  5. Kabil O, Zhou Y, Banerjee R. Human cystathionine beta-synthase is a target for sumoylation. Biochemistry. 2006;45:13528-36 pubmed
    ..The discovery that CBS is a target of sumoylation adds another layer to the complex regulation of this enzyme and reveals a previously unknown residence for this protein, i.e., in the nucleus. ..
  6. Du J, Bialkowska A, McConnell B, Yang V. SUMOylation regulates nuclear localization of Krüppel-like factor 5. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:31991-2002 pubmed publisher
    ..A relatively common mechanism for SUMOylation to regulate nucleocytoplasmic transport may lie in the interplay between neighboring NES and SUMOylation motifs. ..
  7. Uzunova K, Göttsche K, Miteva M, Weisshaar S, Glanemann C, Schnellhardt M, et al. Ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic control of SUMO conjugates. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:34167-75 pubmed
    ..Simultaneous inhibition of both mechanisms leads to severe phenotypic defects. ..
  8. Sacher M, Pfander B, Hoege C, Jentsch S. Control of Rad52 recombination activity by double-strand break-induced SUMO modification. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:1284-90 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data indicate that sumoylation becomes particularly relevant for those Rad52 molecules that are engaged in recombination. ..
  9. Janssen K, Hofmann T, Jans D, Hay R, Schulze Osthoff K, Fischer U. Apoptin is modified by SUMO conjugation and targeted to promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies. Oncogene. 2007;26:1557-66 pubmed
    ..Our results therefore suggest that apoptin kills tumor cells independently of PML and sumoylation, however, the interaction of apoptin with PML and small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins might be relevant for CAV replication. ..
  10. Takahashi Y, Strunnikov A. In vivo modeling of polysumoylation uncovers targeting of Topoisomerase II to the nucleolus via optimal level of SUMO modification. Chromosoma. 2008;117:189-98 pubmed
    ..Further analysis has established that poly-sumoylation of Top2p is required for the stable maintenance of the nucleolar organizer, linking SUMO-mediated targeting to functional maintenance of ribosomal RNA gene cluster. ..
  11. Fei E, Jia N, Yan M, Ying Z, Sun Q, Wang H, et al. SUMO-1 modification increases human SOD1 stability and aggregation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;347:406-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results suggest that sumoylation of SOD1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of FALS associated with mutant SOD1. ..
  12. Kuo H, Chang C, Jeng J, Hu H, Lin D, Maul G, et al. SUMO modification negatively modulates the transcriptional activity of CREB-binding protein via the recruitment of Daxx. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:16973-8 pubmed
    ..Together, our findings indicate that SUMO modification and subsequent recruitment of Daxx represent a previously undescribed mechanism in modulating CBP transcriptional potential. ..
  13. Qu J, Liu G, Wu K, Han P, Wang P, Li J, et al. Nitric oxide destabilizes Pias3 and regulates sumoylation. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1085 pubmed
    ..This study reveals a novel crosstalk between S-nitrosation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, which may be crucial for NO-related physiological and pathological processes. ..
  14. Pungaliya P, Kulkarni D, Park H, Marshall H, Zheng H, Lackland H, et al. TOPORS functions as a SUMO-1 E3 ligase for chromatin-modifying proteins. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:3918-23 pubmed
    ..Transfection studies confirmed mammalian Sin3A as a sumoylation substrate for TOPORS. These findings suggest that TOPORS may function as a tumor suppressor by regulating mSin3A and other proteins involved in chromatin modification. ..
  15. Shimada K, Suzuki N, Ono Y, Tanaka K, Maeno M, Ito K. Ubc9 promotes the stability of Smad4 and the nuclear accumulation of Smad1 in osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells. Bone. 2008;42:886-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Ubc9 plays an important role in the up-regulation of the BMP signaling pathway. ..
  16. Langereis M, Rosas Acosta G, Mulder K, Wilson V. Production of sumoylated proteins using a baculovirus expression system. J Virol Methods. 2007;139:189-94 pubmed
    ..This system provides a simple and convenient means to produce sumoylated mammalian proteins in a eukaryotic environment. Large-scale cultures should provide quantities of sumoylated proteins sufficient for potential purification. ..
  17. Bossis G, Melchior F. Regulation of SUMOylation by reversible oxidation of SUMO conjugating enzymes. Mol Cell. 2006;21:349-57 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings add SUMO conjugating enzymes to the small list of specific direct effectors of H(2)O(2) and implicate ROS as key regulators of the sumoylation-desumoylation equilibrium. ..
  18. Takahashi Fujigasaki J, Arai K, Funata N, Fujigasaki H. SUMOylation substrates in neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease. Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol. 2006;32:92-100 pubmed
    ..This might be explained by different pathogenetic mechanisms underlying subcategories of NIID, which is very heterogeneous. ..
  19. Cloke B, Huhtinen K, Fusi L, Kajihara T, Yliheikkilä M, Ho K, et al. The androgen and progesterone receptors regulate distinct gene networks and cellular functions in decidualizing endometrium. Endocrinology. 2008;149:4462-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we show that PR regulates HESC differentiation, at least in part, by reprogramming growth factor and cytokine signal transduction. ..
  20. Stielow B, Sapetschnig A, Krüger I, Kunert N, Brehm A, Boutros M, et al. Identification of SUMO-dependent chromatin-associated transcriptional repression components by a genome-wide RNAi screen. Mol Cell. 2008;29:742-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that MEP-1, Mi-2, and Sfmbt are part of a common repression complex established by DNA-bound SUMO-modified transcription factors. ..
  21. Shyu Y, Lee T, Ting C, Wen S, Hsieh L, Li Y, et al. Sumoylation of p45/NF-E2: nuclear positioning and transcriptional activation of the mammalian beta-like globin gene locus. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10365-78 pubmed
    ..These data together point to a model of mammalian beta-like globin gene activation by sumoylated p45/NF-E2 in erythroid cells. ..
  22. Lallemand Breitenbach V, Jeanne M, Benhenda S, Nasr R, Lei M, Peres L, et al. Arsenic degrades PML or PML-RARalpha through a SUMO-triggered RNF4/ubiquitin-mediated pathway. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:547-55 pubmed publisher
    ..As PML SUMOylation recruits not only RNF4, ubiquitin and proteasomes, but also many SUMOylated proteins onto PML nuclear bodies, these domains could physically integrate the SUMOylation, ubiquitination and degradation pathways. ..
  23. Windecker H, Ulrich H. Architecture and assembly of poly-SUMO chains on PCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Mol Biol. 2008;376:221-31 pubmed
  24. Garaude J, Farras R, Bossis G, Charni S, Piechaczyk M, Hipskind R, et al. SUMOylation regulates the transcriptional activity of JunB in T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2008;180:5983-90 pubmed
    ..Thus, our work demonstrates that sumoylation of JunB regulates its ability to induce cytokine gene transcription and likely plays a critical role in T cell activation. ..
  25. Chen X, Silver H, Xiong L, Belichenko I, Adegite C, Johnson E. Topoisomerase I-dependent viability loss in saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants defective in both SUMO conjugation and DNA repair. Genetics. 2007;177:17-30 pubmed
    ..Sumoylation is also required for growth of top1Delta cells. These results suggest that the SUMO pathway has a complex effect on genome stability that involves several mechanistically distinct processes. ..
  26. Wang J, Qin H, Liang J, Zhu Y, Liang L, Zheng M, et al. The transcriptional repression activity of KyoT2 on the Notch/RBP-J pathway is regulated by PIAS1-catalyzed SUMOylation. J Mol Biol. 2007;370:27-38 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that KyoT2 is a substrate of SUMO modification catalyzed by PIAS1, and that SUMOylation may modulate the transcriptional repression effect of KyoT2 on the Notch/RBP-J signaling pathway. ..
  27. Stielow B, Sapetschnig A, Wink C, Krüger I, Suske G. SUMO-modified Sp3 represses transcription by provoking local heterochromatic gene silencing. EMBO Rep. 2008;9:899-906 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that SUMOylation has a crucial role in regulating gene expression by initiating chromatin structure changes that render DNA inaccessible to the transcription machinery. ..
  28. Reindle A, Belichenko I, Bylebyl G, Chen X, Gandhi N, Johnson E. Multiple domains in Siz SUMO ligases contribute to substrate selectivity. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4749-57 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that local concentration of the E3, rather than a single direct interaction with the substrate polypeptide, is the major factor in substrate selectivity by Siz proteins. ..
  29. Vertegaal A, Andersen J, Ogg S, Hay R, Mann M, Lamond A. Distinct and overlapping sets of SUMO-1 and SUMO-2 target proteins revealed by quantitative proteomics. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2006;5:2298-310 pubmed
  30. Binda O, Roy J, Branton P. RBP1 family proteins exhibit SUMOylation-dependent transcriptional repression and induce cell growth inhibition reminiscent of senescence. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1917-31 pubmed
  31. Matafora V, D Amato A, Mori S, Blasi F, Bachi A. Proteomics analysis of nucleolar SUMO-1 target proteins upon proteasome inhibition. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009;8:2243-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The analysis of the nature of the SUMO-1 targets identified in this study strongly indicates that sumoylation, acting in coordination with the ubiquitin-proteasome system, regulates the maintenance of nucleolar integrity. ..
  32. Hayashi N, Shirakura H, Uehara T, Nomura Y. Relationship between SUMO-1 modification of caspase-7 and its nuclear localization in human neuronal cells. Neurosci Lett. 2006;397:5-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that SUMO-1 modification in caspase-7 may be linked to specific its localization in the nucleus and may therefore contribute to the cleavage of nuclear substrates during neuronal apoptosis. ..
  33. van den Akker E, Ano S, Shih H, Wang L, Pironin M, Palvimo J, et al. FLI-1 functionally interacts with PIASxalpha, a member of the PIAS E3 SUMO ligase family. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:38035-46 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the properties of a series of ARIP3 mutants showed that the repressive properties of PIASxalpha/ARIP3 require its physical interaction with FLI-1, identifying PIASxalpha as a novel corepressor of FLI-1. ..
  34. Zhang F, Mikkonen L, Toppari J, Palvimo J, Thesleff I, Janne O. Sumo-1 function is dispensable in normal mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results support the notion that most, if not all, SUMO-1 functions are compensated for in vivo by SUMO-2 and SUMO-3. ..
  35. Yun C, Wang Y, Mukhopadhyay D, Backlund P, Kolli N, Yergey A, et al. Nucleolar protein B23/nucleophosmin regulates the vertebrate SUMO pathway through SENP3 and SENP5 proteases. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:589-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that regulation of SUMO deconjugation may be a major facet of B23/nucleophosmin function in vivo. ..
  36. Sarge K, Park Sarge O. Sumoylation and human disease pathogenesis. Trends Biochem Sci. 2009;34:200-5 pubmed publisher
  37. Golebiowski F, Matic I, Tatham M, Cole C, Yin Y, Nakamura A, et al. System-wide changes to SUMO modifications in response to heat shock. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra24 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive proteomic analysis of the substrates of a ubiquitin-like modifier (Ubl) identifies a pervasive role for SUMO proteins in the biologic response to hyperthermic stress. ..
  38. Lu X, Olsen S, Capili A, Cisar J, Lima C, Tan D. Designed semisynthetic protein inhibitors of Ub/Ubl E1 activating enzymes. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:1748-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These inhibitors are powerful tools to probe outstanding mechanistic questions in E1 function and can also be used to study the biological functions of E1 enzymes. ..
  39. Bartek J, Hodny Z. SUMO boosts the DNA damage response barrier against cancer. Cancer Cell. 2010;17:9-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Two recent articles published in Nature show that such genome maintenance requires modifications of tumor suppressor proteins BRCA1 and 53BP1 by the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO. ..
  40. Torres Rosell J, Sunjevaric I, De Piccoli G, Sacher M, Eckert Boulet N, Reid R, et al. The Smc5-Smc6 complex and SUMO modification of Rad52 regulates recombinational repair at the ribosomal gene locus. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:923-31 pubmed
    ..Our study also suggests a key role of sumoylation for nucleolar dynamics, perhaps in the compartmentalization of nuclear activities. ..
  41. Meinecke I, Cinski A, Baier A, Peters M, Dankbar B, Wille A, et al. Modification of nuclear PML protein by SUMO-1 regulates Fas-induced apoptosis in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5073-8 pubmed
    ..Accumulation of DAXX in PML NBs by SUMO-1 may, therefore, contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. ..
  42. Hecker C, Rabiller M, Haglund K, Bayer P, Dikic I. Specification of SUMO1- and SUMO2-interacting motifs. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:16117-27 pubmed
  43. Quimby B, Yong Gonzalez V, Anan T, Strunnikov A, Dasso M. The promyelocytic leukemia protein stimulates SUMO conjugation in yeast. Oncogene. 2006;25:2999-3005 pubmed
    ..These findings point toward a potential function of PML and PML:RARalpha as SUMO E3 enzymes or E3 regulators, and suggest that fusion of RARalpha to PML may affect this activity. ..
  44. Yurchenko V, Xue Z, Sadofsky M. SUMO modification of human XRCC4 regulates its localization and function in DNA double-strand break repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1786-94 pubmed
    ..The modification may serve a regulatory role. Our finding fits with an emerging literature associating SUMO modification with the control of the repair and recombination associated with DNA breaks. ..
  45. Tatham M, Geoffroy M, Shen L, Plechanovova A, Hattersley N, Jaffray E, et al. RNF4 is a poly-SUMO-specific E3 ubiquitin ligase required for arsenic-induced PML degradation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:538-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that poly-SUMO chains can act as discrete signals from mono-SUMOylation, in this case targeting a poly-SUMOylated substrate for ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. ..
  46. Saether T, Berge T, Ledsaak M, Matre V, Alm Kristiansen A, Dahle O, et al. The chromatin remodeling factor Mi-2alpha acts as a novel co-activator for human c-Myb. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13994-4005 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, desumoylation of c-Myb potentiated the Myb-Mi-2alpha transactivational co-operation, as did co-transfection with p300. ..
  47. Wrighton K, Liang M, Bryan B, Luo K, Liu M, Feng X, et al. Transforming growth factor-beta-independent regulation of myogenesis by SnoN sumoylation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:6517-24 pubmed
    ..Our study suggests a novel role for SUMO modification in the regulation of myogenic differentiation. ..
  48. Shen T, Lin H, Scaglioni P, Yung T, Pandolfi P. The mechanisms of PML-nuclear body formation. Mol Cell. 2006;24:331-9 pubmed
  49. Jones M, Fusi L, Higham J, Abdel Hafiz H, Horwitz K, Lam E, et al. Regulation of the SUMO pathway sensitizes differentiating human endometrial stromal cells to progesterone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:16272-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate how dynamic changes in the SUMO pathway mediated by cAMP signaling determine the endometrial response to progesterone. ..
  50. Bergink S, Jentsch S. Principles of ubiquitin and SUMO modifications in DNA repair. Nature. 2009;458:461-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Lee Y, Jang M, Lee J, Choi E, Kim E. SUMO-1 represses apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 activation through physical interaction and not through covalent modification. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:949-55 pubmed
    ..This study shows that SUMO-1 exerts a negative regulatory effect on ASK 1 activation through physical interaction and not through covalent modification. ..
  52. Gill G. Something about SUMO inhibits transcription. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2005;15:536-41 pubmed
    ..Histone deacetylase co-repressors have been found to function as substrates, effectors, and regulators of SUMOylation, suggesting that complex crosstalk between acetylation and SUMOylation is important for gene regulation. ..
  53. Ulrich H. The RAD6 pathway: control of DNA damage bypass and mutagenesis by ubiquitin and SUMO. Chembiochem. 2005;6:1735-43 pubmed