snail family transcription factors


Summary: A transcription factor family characterized by the presence of several C-terminal CYS2-HIS2 ZINC FINGERS. They function in many developmental processes including the induction of the EPITHELIAL-MESENCHYMAL TRANSITION; maintenance of embryonic MESODERM; growth arrest, CELL SURVIVAL; and CELL MIGRATION.

Top Publications

  1. Mendes G, Haag T, Trott G, Rech C, Ferreira N, Oliveira M, et al. Expression of E-cadherin, Slug and NCAM and its relationship to tumor invasiveness in patients with acromegaly. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017;51:e6808 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of Slug overexpression and of E-cadherin and NCAM suppression suggests that expression of these markers is not associated with tumor invasiveness in GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. ..
  2. Li J, Feng Q, Qi Y, Cui G, Zhao S. PPARGC1A is upregulated and facilitates lung cancer metastasis. Exp Cell Res. 2017;359:356-360 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that PPARGC1A might be a potential biomarker for lung cancer prognosis. ..
  3. Sun Y, Fan X, Zhang Q, Shi X, Xu G, Zou C. Cancer-associated fibroblasts secrete FGF-1 to promote ovarian proliferation, migration, and invasion through the activation of FGF-1/FGFR4 signaling. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317712592 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this fibroblast growth factor-1/fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 axis may become a potential target for the treatment of ovarian cancer. ..
  4. Wu J, Zhou X, Sun X, Xia T, Li X, Shi L, et al. RBM38 is involved in TGF-?-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by stabilising zonula occludens-1 mRNA in breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:675-684 pubmed publisher
    ..All the results clarified a linear regulation relationship among Snail, RBM38, and ZO-1, implicating RBM38 as a pivotal mediator in TGF-?-induced EMT in breast cancer. ..
  5. Takagi S, Ishikawa Y, Mizutani A, Iwasaki S, Matsumoto S, Kamada Y, et al. LSD1 Inhibitor T-3775440 Inhibits SCLC Cell Proliferation by Disrupting LSD1 Interactions with SNAG Domain Proteins INSM1 and GFI1B. Cancer Res. 2017;77:4652-4662 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting these critical interactions with LSD1 inhibitors offers a novel rational strategy to therapeutically manage SCLC. Cancer Res; 77(17); 4652-62. ©2017 AACR. ..
  6. Castañón E, Soltermann A, López I, Román M, Ecay M, Collantes M, et al. The inhibitor of differentiation-1 (Id1) enables lung cancer liver colonization through activation of an EMT program in tumor cells and establishment of the pre-metastatic niche. Cancer Lett. 2017;402:43-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Id1 enables both LLC and the host microenvironment for an effective liver colonization, and may represent a novel therapeutic target to avoid NSCLC liver metastasis. ..
  7. Rokavec M, Oner M, Li H, Jackstadt R, Jiang L, Lodygin D, et al. IL-6R/STAT3/miR-34a feedback loop promotes EMT-mediated colorectal cancer invasion and metastasis. J Clin Invest. 2014;124:1853-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data indicate that p53-dependent expression of miR-34a suppresses tumor progression by inhibiting a IL-6R/STAT3/miR-34a feedback loop. ..
  8. Moon H, Ju H, Chung S, Cho K, Eun J, Nam S, et al. Transforming Growth Factor-β Promotes Liver Tumorigenesis in Mice via Up-regulation of Snail. Gastroenterology. 2017;153:1378-1391.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Snail is the TGF-β target that is required for hepatic tumorigenesis in these models. ..
  9. Du J, Zhang X, Zhou H, Miao Y, Han Y, Han Q, et al. Alex3 suppresses non-small cell lung cancer invasion via AKT/Slug/E-cadherin pathway. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317701441 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of Alex3 on inhibiting invasion and migration may attribute to upregulation of E-cadherin expression through AKT-Slug pathway inactivation. ..

More Information


  1. Wang P, Voronkova M, Luanpitpong S, He X, Riedel H, Dinu C, et al. Induction of Slug by Chronic Exposure to Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Promotes Tumor Formation and Metastasis. Chem Res Toxicol. 2017;30:1396-1405 pubmed publisher
  2. Mitra T, Roy S. Co-Activation of TGF? and Wnt Signalling Pathways Abrogates EMT in Ovarian Cancer Cells. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;41:1336-1345 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, tumourigenesis might be affected by the concentration of ligand/ growth factors for the respective signalling pathways activated in the tumour microenvironment and interaction between them might alter tumourigenesis. ..
  3. Krebs A, Mitschke J, Lasierra Losada M, Schmalhofer O, Boerries M, Busch H, et al. The EMT-activator Zeb1 is a key factor for cell plasticity and promotes metastasis in pancreatic cancer. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:518-529 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic strategies should consider these potential specificities of EMT-TFs to target these factors simultaneously. ..
  4. Pomp V, Leo C, Mauracher A, Korol D, Guo W, Varga Z. Differential expression of epithelial–mesenchymal transition and stem cell markers in intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2015;154:45-55 pubmed
    ..This information is important in understanding the biology of triple negative breast cancer, also in terms of future studies dealing with targeted therapies based on the alterations of EMT and stem cell markers. ..
  5. Kaufhold S, Bonavida B. Central role of Snail1 in the regulation of EMT and resistance in cancer: a target for therapeutic intervention. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2014;33:62 pubmed publisher
  6. Wang H, Liang X, Li M, Tao X, Tai S, Fan Z, et al. Chemokine (CC motif) ligand 18 upregulates Slug expression to promote stem-cell like features by activating the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Sci. 2017;108:1584-1593 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new potential targets for the early diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. ..
  7. Ying Y, Qingwu L, Mingming X, Zhenju S, Chaoyang T, Zhengang T. Emodin: One Main Ingredient of Shufeng Jiedu Capsule Reverses Chemoresistance of Lung Cancer Cells Through Inhibition of EMT. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:1063-1072 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Emodin can effectively reverse the resistance of H69AR to Dox, an effect paralleled by inhibition of EMT, cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion. ..
  8. Sun G, Guzman E, Balasanyan V, Conner C, Wong K, Zhou H, et al. A molecular signature for anastasis, recovery from the brink of apoptotic cell death. J Cell Biol. 2017;216:3355-3368 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals similarities in the anastasis genes, pathways, and cell behaviors to those activated in wound healing and identifies a repertoire of potential targets for therapeutic manipulation. ..
  9. Colín Val Z, González Puertos V, Mendoza Milla C, Gómez E, Huesca Gomez C, López Marure R. DHEA increases epithelial markers and decreases mesenchymal proteins in breast cancer cells and reduces xenograft growth. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;333:26-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, DHEA could be useful in the treatment of breast cancer with mesenchymal phenotype. ..
  10. Qian Y, Yao W, Yang T, Yang Y, Liu Y, Shen Q, et al. aPKC-?/P-Sp1/Snail signaling induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and immunosuppression in cholangiocarcinoma. Hepatology. 2017;66:1165-1182 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that aPKC-? promotes EMT and induces immunosuppression through the aPKC-?/P-Sp1/Snail signaling pathway and may be a potential therapeutic target for CCA. (Hepatology 2017;66:1165-1182). ..
  11. Liu P, Kang B, Wu Y, Sun J, Yen L, Fu T, et al. Vimentin is a potential prognostic factor for tongue squamous cell carcinoma among five epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related proteins. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178581 pubmed publisher
    ..Snail, E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and Vimentin were associated with tumorigenesis and pathological outcomes. Among the five EMT-related proteins, Vimentin was a potential prognostic factor for TSCC patients. ..
  12. Liu X, Ling M, Chen C, Luo F, Yang P, Wang D, et al. Impaired autophagic flux and p62-mediated EMT are involved in arsenite-induced transformation of L-02 cells. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2017;334:75-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide a previously unknown mechanism underlying arsenic toxicity and carcinogenicity. ..
  13. Lee J, Jung S, Yang K, Bae E, Ahn S, Park J, et al. A20 promotes metastasis of aggressive basal-like breast cancers through multi-monoubiquitylation of Snail1. Nat Cell Biol. 2017;19:1260-1273 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings uncover an essential role of the A20-Snail1 axis in TGF-?1-induced EMT and metastasis of basal-like breast cancers. ..
  14. Hao M, Li Y, Wang J, Qin J, Wang Y, Ding Y, et al. HIC1 loss promotes prostate cancer metastasis by triggering epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Pathol. 2017;242:409-420 pubmed publisher
    ..Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  15. Chen Y, Wang D, Wu Y, Su D, Zhou T, Gai R, et al. MDM2 promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of ovarian cancer SKOV3 cells. Br J Cancer. 2017;117:1192-1201 pubmed publisher
    ..This study suggests that MDM2 activates Smad pathway to promote EMT in ovarian cancer metastasis, and targeting the N-terminal of MDM2 can reprogram EMT and impede the mobility of cancer cells. ..
  16. York J, Yuan T, Zehnder K, McCauley D. Lamprey neural crest migration is Snail-dependent and occurs without a differential shift in cadherin expression. Dev Biol. 2017;428:176-187 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results point to the coupling of mesenchymal state and multipotency as a key event facilitating the origin of migratory neural crest cells. ..
  17. Jin Y, Wang J, Han J, Luo D, Sun Z. MiR-122 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma by targeting Snail1 and Snail2 and suppressing WNT/?-cadherin signaling pathway. Exp Cell Res. 2017;360:210-217 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results indicated that miR-122 may be a biomarker for predicting prognosis of HCC and therapeutic target for HCC patients. ..
  18. Sauer R, Kirchner J, Yang S, Hu L, Leinders M, Sommer C, et al. Blood-spinal cord barrier breakdown and pericyte deficiency in peripheral neuropathy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2017;1405:71-88 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of these pathways and mechanisms in neuropathic pain might foster the design of novel treatments to maintain spinal cord homeostasis. ..
  19. Nagaraja S, Krishnamoorthy V, Raviraj R, Paramasivam A, Nagarajan D. Effect of Trichostatin A on radiation induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;493:1534-1541 pubmed publisher
  20. Wang T, Xuan X, Pian L, Gao P, Hu H, Zheng Y, et al. Notch-1-mediated esophageal carcinoma EC-9706 cell invasion and metastasis by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition through Snail. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:1193-201 pubmed
    ..This study indicated that Notch-1 might be a useful target for esophageal carcinoma prevention and therapy. ..
  21. Setiawan M, Tan X, Goh T, Hin Fai Yam G, Mehta J. Inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase-3 and transforming growth factor-? signaling to promote epithelial transition of human adipose mesenchymal stem cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;490:1381-1388 pubmed publisher
    ..Human ADSCs were transited to epithelial lineage by inhibiting GSK3 and TGF? signaling. It can be an adult stem cell source for epithelial cell-based therapy. ..
  22. Lee A, Chen M, Chen C, Yang C, Huang M, Liu Y. Reverse epithelial-mesenchymal transition contributes to the regain of drug sensitivity in tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant non-small cell lung cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0180383 pubmed publisher
  23. Coste C, Neirinckx V, Sharma A, Agirman G, Rogister B, Foguenne J, et al. Human bone marrow harbors cells with neural crest-associated characteristics like human adipose and dermis tissues. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177962 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the phenotypic characterization and migration abilities strongly suggest the presence of neural crest-derived cells in human adult bone marrow. ..
  24. Huang Q, Pu M, Zhao G, Dai B, Bian Z, Tang H, et al. Tg737 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cell properties via a negative feedback circuit between Snail and HNF4α during liver stem cell malignant transformation. Cancer Lett. 2017;402:52-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results showed that Tg737 regulates a Wnt/β-catenin/Snail-HNF4α negative feedback circuit, thereby blocking EMT and the malignant transformation of liver stem cells to liver cancer stem cells. ..
  25. Chang T, Tsai M, Gow C, Wu S, Liu Y, Chang Y, et al. Upregulation of microRNA-137 expression by Slug promotes tumor invasion and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer cells through suppression of TFAP2C. Cancer Lett. 2017;402:190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings add new components to the Slug-mediated regulatory network in lung cancer, and suggest that Slug, miR-137, and TFAP2C may be useful prognostic markers in lung adenocarcinoma. ..
  26. Kim B, Hancock B, Bermudez A, Del Cid N, Reyes E, van Sorge N, et al. Bacterial induction of Snail1 contributes to blood-brain barrier disruption. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:2473-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data support a Snail1-dependent mechanism of BBB disruption and penetration by meningeal pathogens. ..
  27. Padthaisong S, Thanee M, Techasen A, Namwat N, Yongvanit P, Liwatthakun A, et al. Nimotuzumab Inhibits Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Metastasis via Suppression of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Process. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:3591-3597 pubmed
    ..Nimotuzumab appears to inhibit cell metastasis via suppression of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process. Therefore, nimotuzumab should be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against CCA. ..
  28. Ma X, Li L, Jia T, Chen M, Liu G, Li C, et al. miR-203a controls keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation via targeting the stemness-associated factor ?Np63 and establishing a regulatory circuit with SNAI2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;491:241-249 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data highlights a coherent cross-talk between two transcription factors (SNAI2 and ?Np63) and miR-203a in keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal development. ..
  29. Abnave P, Aboukhatwa E, Kosaka N, Thompson J, Hill M, Aboobaker A. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition transcription factors control pluripotent adult stem cell migration in vivo in planarians. Development. 2017;144:3440-3453 pubmed publisher
    ..This requires the polarity determinant notum Our work establishes planarians as a suitable model for further in-depth study of the processes controlling stem cell migration in vivo. ..
  30. Wieczorek K, Wiktorska M, Sacewicz Hofman I, Boncela J, Lewinski A, Kowalska M, et al. Filamin A upregulation correlates with Snail-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell adhesion but its inhibition increases the migration of colon adenocarcinoma HT29 cells. Exp Cell Res. 2017;359:163-170 pubmed publisher
    ..FLNA upregulation, which correlates with cell metastatic properties, maybe an additional target for combination therapy in colorectal carcinoma tumor progression. ..
  31. Hu B, Xie S, Hu Y, Chen W, Chen X, Zheng Y, et al. Hepatitis C virus NS4B protein induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition by upregulation of Snail. Virol J. 2017;14:83 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that HCV NS4B protein induces EMT progression via the upregulation of Snail in HCC, which may be a novel underlying mechanism for HCV-associated HCC development, invasion and metastasis. ..
  32. Semina S, Scherbakov A, Kovalev S, Shevchenko V, Krasil nikov M. Horizontal Transfer of Tamoxifen Resistance in MCF-7 Cell Derivates: Proteome Study. Cancer Invest. 2017;35:506-518 pubmed publisher
  33. Liu X, Ji Q, Deng W, Chai N, Feng Y, Zhou L, et al. JianPi JieDu Recipe Inhibits Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition in Colorectal Cancer through TGF-?/Smad Mediated Snail/E-Cadherin Expression. Biomed Res Int. 2017;2017:2613198 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusions, our new findings provided evidence that JPJD could inhibit TGF-?-induced EMT in CRC through TGF-?/Smad mediated Snail/E-cadherin expression. ..
  34. Xiao J, Yan T, Yu R, Gao Y, Zeng W, Lu S, et al. Long non-coding RNA UCA1 regulates the expression of Snail2 by miR-203 to promote hepatocellular carcinoma progression. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2017;143:981-990 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identified that UCA1/miR-203/Snail2 pathway might involve in HCC progression. Inhibition of UCA1 acted as a promising therapeutic target for HCC patients. ..
  35. Jiang Y, Zhao X, Xiao Q, Liu Q, Ding K, Yu F, et al. Snail and Slug mediate tamoxifen resistance in breast cancer cells through activation of EGFR-ERK independent of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Mol Cell Biol. 2014;6:352-4 pubmed publisher
  36. Shao Y, Taniguchi K, Townshend R, Miki T, Gumucio D, Fu J. A pluripotent stem cell-based model for post-implantation human amniotic sac development. Nat Commun. 2017;8:208 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the authors use a human pluripotent stem cell-based model, termed the post-implantation amniotic sac embryoid, to recapitulate early embryogenic events of human amniotic sac development. ..
  37. Li J, Li T, Lu Y, Shen G, Guo H, Wu J, et al. MiR-2392 suppresses metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting MAML3 and WHSC1 in gastric cancer. FASEB J. 2017;31:3774-3786 pubmed publisher
    ..Li, J., Li, T., Lu, Y., Shen, G., Guo, H., Wu, J., Lei, C., Du, F., Zhou, F., Zhao, X., Nie, Y., Fan, D. MiR-2392 suppresses metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition by targeting MAML3 and WHSC1 in gastric cancer. ..
  38. Li J, Gao H, Meng L, Yin L. Mithramycin inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and invasion by downregulating SP1 and SNAI1 in salivary adenoid cystic carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317708697 pubmed publisher
  39. Kim M, Jang K, Miller P, Picon Ruiz M, Yeasky T, El Ashry D, et al. VEGFA links self-renewal and metastasis by inducing Sox2 to repress miR-452, driving Slug. Oncogene. 2017;36:5199-5211 pubmed publisher
    ..Prior work showed EMT transcription factor overexpression upregulates CSC. Present work indicates that stemness and metastasis are a two-way street: Sox2, a major mediator of CSC self-renewal, also governs the metastatic process. ..
  40. Fan M, Xu Y, Hong F, Gao X, Xin G, Hong H, et al. Rac1/?-Catenin Signalling Pathway Contributes to Trophoblast Cell Invasion by Targeting Snail and MMP9. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2016;38:1319-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that Rac1-mediated activation of ?-catenin might regulate Snail and MMP9 expression subsequently promoting trophoblast invasion in pregnancy. ..
  41. Zhang J, Yan Y, Cui X, Zhang J, Yang Y, Li H, et al. CCL2 expression correlates with Snail expression and affects the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. Pathol Res Pract. 2017;213:217-221 pubmed publisher
    ..The exactly mechanism between CCL2 and Snail in the process of EMT in GC need further investigation. ..
  42. Göppel J, Möckelmann N, Münscher A, Sauter G, Schumacher U. Expression of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Regulating Transcription Factors in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:5435-5440 pubmed
    ..The aim of this analysis was to investigate in parallel the expression of all of these transcription factors in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) in order to gain insight into their possible co-expression...