polycomb repressive complex 1


Summary: A multisubunit polycomb protein complex with affinity for CHROMATIN that contains methylated HISTONE H3. It contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase activity that is specific for HISTONE H2A and works in conjunction with POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 to effect EPIGENETIC REPRESSION.

Top Publications

  1. Furlong E. Molecular biology: A fly in the face of genomics. Nature. 2011;471:458-9 pubmed publisher
  2. Zhou Y, Romero Campero F, Gómez Zambrano A, Turck F, Calonje M. H2A monoubiquitination in Arabidopsis thaliana is generally independent of LHP1 and PRC2 activity. Genome Biol. 2017;18:69 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana genome and unveil that ubiquitination by PRC1 is largely independent of PRC2 activity in plants, while the inverse is true for H3K27 trimethylation. ..
  3. Lau M, Schwartz M, Kundu S, Savol A, Wang P, Marr S, et al. Mutation of a nucleosome compaction region disrupts Polycomb-mediated axial patterning. Science. 2017;355:1081-1084 pubmed publisher
    ..CBX2, a component of the mammalian Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), contains a compaction region that has the biochemically defined activity of bridging adjacent ..
  4. Jaensch E, Kundu S, Kingston R. Multitasking by Polycomb response elements. Genes Dev. 2017;31:1069-1072 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PcG targeting elements overlap with enhancers...
  5. Haupt Y, Bath M, Harris A, Adams J. bmi-1 transgene induces lymphomas and collaborates with myc in tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 1993;8:3161-4 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate directly that bmi-1 can contribute to lymphomagenesis in the T and B cell lineages and collaborate with the myc gene in tumor development. ..
  6. March E, Farrona S. Polycomb silencing mediated by specific DNA-binding recruiters. Nat Genet. 2017;49:1416-1417 pubmed publisher
    ..A recent study demonstrates a global mechanism of tethering Polycomb group (PcG) proteins through sequence-specific DNA-binding factors. ..
  7. Yu G, Li A, Li X, Yang Z, Peng H. Bispecific antibody suppresses osteosarcoma aggressiveness through regulation of NF-?B signaling pathway. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317705572 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, these results provided new evidence that BsAbBmi/TRIM inhibited the progression of osteosarcoma, which suggest that BsAbBmi/TRIM may be a novel anti-cancer agent for osteosarcoma therapy. ..
  8. Rapisarda V, Borghesan M, Miguela V, Encheva V, Snijders A, Lujambio A, et al. Integrin Beta 3 Regulates Cellular Senescence by Activating the TGF-β Pathway. Cell Rep. 2017;18:2480-2493 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show an increase in β3 levels in a subset of tissues during aging. Altogether, our data show that integrin β3 subunit is a marker and regulator of senescence. ..
  9. Ning B, Zhao W, Qian C, Liu P, Li Q, Li W, et al. USP26 functions as a negative regulator of cellular reprogramming by stabilising PRC1 complex components. Nat Commun. 2017;8:349 pubmed publisher
    ..Here the authors report that the post-translational regulation of PRC1 components CBX4 and CBX6 by ubiquitination influences reprogramming. ..

More Information


  1. Nishida Y, Maeda A, Kim M, Cao L, Kubota Y, Ishizawa J, et al. The novel BMI-1 inhibitor PTC596 downregulates MCL-1 and induces p53-independent mitochondrial apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia progenitor cells. Blood Cancer J. 2017;7:e527 pubmed publisher
  2. Chen J, Wang Y, Zhuo L, Liu Z, Liu T, Li W, et al. Fas signaling induces stemness properties in colorectal cancer by regulation of Bmi1. Mol Carcinog. 2017;56:2267-2278 pubmed publisher
  3. Almozyan S, Colak D, Mansour F, Alaiya A, Al Harazi O, Qattan A, et al. PD-L1 promotes OCT4 and Nanog expression in breast cancer stem cells by sustaining PI3K/AKT pathway activation. Int J Cancer. 2017;141:1402-1412 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates a novel role for PD-L1 in sustaining stemness of breast cancer cells and identifies the subpopulation and its associated molecular pathways that would be targeted upon anti-PD-L1 therapy. ..
  4. Luo H, Yang R, Li C, Tong Y, Fan L, Liu X, et al. MicroRNA-139-5p inhibits bladder cancer proliferation and self-renewal by targeting the Bmi1 oncogene. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317718414 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study also suggests that miR-139-5p has the potential to be used as a therapeutic molecule for bladder cancer treatment. ..
  5. Zhang Y, Kim M, Jia B, Yan J, Zuniga Hertz J, Han C, et al. Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs. Nature. 2017;548:52-57 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, ageing speed is substantially controlled by hypothalamic stem cells, partially through the release of exosomal miRNAs. ..
  6. Pemberton H, Anderton E, Patel H, Brookes S, Chandler H, Palermo R, et al. Genome-wide co-localization of Polycomb orthologs and their effects on gene expression in human fibroblasts. Genome Biol. 2014;15:R23 pubmed publisher
    ..Mammalian cells encode multiple permutations of the prototypic Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) with little evidence for functional specialization...
  7. Wicha M. Targeting self-renewal, an Achilles' heel of cancer stem cells. Nat Med. 2014;20:14-5 pubmed publisher
  8. Itahana Y, Neo S, Itahana K. miR-141, a new player, joins the senescence orchestra. Cell Cycle. 2013;12:3586-7 pubmed publisher
  9. Klose R, Cooper S, Farcas A, Blackledge N, Brockdorff N. Chromatin sampling--an emerging perspective on targeting polycomb repressor proteins. PLoS Genet. 2013;9:e1003717 pubmed publisher
  10. Pintacuda G, Wei G, Roustan C, Kirmizitas B, Solcan N, Cerase A, et al. hnRNPK Recruits PCGF3/5-PRC1 to the Xist RNA B-Repeat to Establish Polycomb-Mediated Chromosomal Silencing. Mol Cell. 2017;68:955-969.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings define a key pathway for Polycomb recruitment by Xist RNA, providing important insights into mechanisms of chromatin modification by non-coding RNA. ..
  11. Maezawa S, Hasegawa K, Yukawa M, Sakashita A, Alavattam K, Andreassen P, et al. Polycomb directs timely activation of germline genes in spermatogenesis. Genes Dev. 2017;31:1693-1703 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study identifies a novel mechanism by which Polycomb directs the developmental process by activating a group of lineage-specific genes. ..
  12. Kaneta Y, Arai M, Ishikawa N, Toume K, Koyano T, Kowithayakorn T, et al. Identification of BMI1 Promoter Inhibitors from Beaumontia murtonii and Eugenia operculata. J Nat Prod. 2017;80:1853-1859 pubmed publisher
    B-Cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion region 1 (BMI1) is a core component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)...
  13. Nishioka K, Wang X, Miyazaki H, Soejima H, Hirose S. Mbf1 ensures Polycomb silencing by protecting E(z) mRNA from degradation by Pacman. Development. 2018;145: pubmed publisher
    ..i>In vitro, Mbf1 protected E(z) RNA from Pcm activity. Our results suggest that Mbf1 buffers fluctuations in Pcm activity to maintain an E(z) mRNA expression level sufficient for Polycomb silencing. ..
  14. Zhang R, Real C, Liu C, Baba H, Gerken G, Lu M, et al. Hepatic expression of oncogenes Bmi1 and Dkk1 is up-regulated in hepatitis B virus surface antigen-transgenic mice and can be induced by treatment with HBV particles or lipopolysaccharides in vitro. Int J Cancer. 2017;141:354-363 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that innate immunity may link inflammation and tumor progression during chronic HBV infection, involving the oncogenes BMI1 and DKK1. ..
  15. Lee J, Won H, Park J, Kim H, Choi H, Shin D, et al. MEL-18 loss mediates estrogen receptor-α downregulation and hormone independence. J Clin Invest. 2015;125:1801-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that MEL-18 is a SUMO-dependent regulator of hormone receptors and suggest MEL-18 expression as a marker for determining the antihormonal therapy response in patients with breast cancer. ..
  16. Martin A, Cano A. Tumorigenesis: Twist1 links EMT to self-renewal. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:924-5 pubmed publisher
    ..A molecular link between EMT and stemness now emerges with the finding that Bmi1, a polycomb protein that promotes self-renewal of certain stem-cell populations, is a direct transcriptional target of the EMT inducer, Twist1. ..
  17. Ohtaka M, Itoh M, Tohda S. BMI1 Inhibitors Down-regulate NOTCH Signaling and Suppress Proliferation of Acute Leukemia Cells. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:6047-6053 pubmed
    ..B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) is up-regulated in several cancers; therefore, we investigated the effects of BMI1 inhibitors on leukemia cells...
  18. Gherardi S, Ripoche D, Mikaelian I, Chanal M, Teinturier R, Goehrig D, et al. Menin regulates Inhbb expression through an Akt/Ezh2-mediated H3K27 histone modification. Biochim Biophys Acta Gene Regul Mech. 2017;1860:427-437 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggests therefore that Menin could take an important part to the Ezh2-epigenetic repressive landscape in many cells and tissues through its capacity to modulate Akt phosphorylation. ..
  19. Zhang X, Tian T, Sun W, Liu C, Fang X. Bmi-1 overexpression as an efficient prognostic marker in patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7346 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, Bmi-1 overexpression was correlated with tumor size, poor differentiation, distant metastasis, and worse OS in NSCLC. Therefore, Bmi-1 could be recommended as an efficient prognostic marker for NSCLC. ..
  20. Chen D, Wu M, Li Y, Chang I, Yuan Q, Ekimyan Salvo M, et al. Targeting BMI1+ Cancer Stem Cells Overcomes Chemoresistance and Inhibits Metastases in Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Cell Stem Cell. 2017;20:621-634.e6 pubmed publisher
  21. Wu T, Li Y, Ma S, Bing Liu -, Zhang W, Sun Z. Expression and associations of TRAF1, BMI-1, ALDH1, and Lin28B in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2017;39:1010428317695930 pubmed publisher
  22. Kar G, Kim J, Kolodziejczyk A, Natarajan K, Torlai Triglia E, Mifsud B, et al. Flipping between Polycomb repressed and active transcriptional states introduces noise in gene expression. Nat Commun. 2017;8:36 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the authors use single-cell RNAseq and ChIPseq to find that actively transcribed genes with Polycomb marks have greater cell-to-cell variation in expression. ..
  23. Chen J, Peng C, Lei L, Zhang J, Zeng W, Chen X. Nuclear envelope-distributed CD147 interacts with and inhibits the transcriptional function of RING1 and promotes melanoma cell motility. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183689 pubmed publisher
  24. . Large-scale discovery of novel genetic causes of developmental disorders. Nature. 2015;519:223-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate the value of adopting a comprehensive strategy, both genome-wide and nationwide, to elucidate the underlying causes of rare genetic disorders. ..
  25. Dong Q, Sharma S, Liu H, Chen L, Gu B, Sun X, et al. HDAC inhibitors reverse acquired radio resistance of KYSE-150R esophageal carcinoma cells by modulating Bmi-1 expression. Toxicol Lett. 2014;224:121-9 pubmed
    ..When combined with IR, HDIs inhibited Bmi-1 expression in KYSE-150R cells and their ability to repair DNA damage. The results demonstrate the potential utility of HDIs in augmenting the efficacy of fractionated radiotherapy. ..
  26. Chen S, Liu S, Xu L, Yang L, Jin Z, Ma Y, et al. The characteristic expression pattern of BMI-1 and SALL4 genes in placenta tissue and cord blood. Stem Cell Res Ther. 2013;4:49 pubmed publisher
    ..Placental tissue with higher expression level of both genes may be considered as a potential resource for SALL4-related HPC expansion. ..
  27. Hu P, Xia Q, Wu F, Li D, Qi Y, Hu Y, et al. NSPc1 promotes cancer stem cell self-renewal by repressing the synthesis of all-trans retinoic acid via targeting RDH16 in malignant glioma. Oncogene. 2017;36:4706-4718 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate that NSPc1 promotes cancer stem cell self-renewal by repressing the synthesis of ATRA via targeting RDH16 and may provide novel targets for glioma treatment in the future. ..
  28. Simoes Da Silva C, Fereres S, Simón R, Busturia A. Drosophila SCE/dRING E3-ligase inhibits apoptosis in a Dp53 dependent manner. Dev Biol. 2017;429:81-91 pubmed publisher
    ..This function may generate a homeostatic balance between apoptosis and proliferation during development that provides cell survival during the initiation and progression of disease processes. ..
  29. Li X, Song Y, Liu D, Zhao J, Xu J, Ren J, et al. MiR-495 Promotes Senescence of Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Targeting Bmi-1. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2017;42:780-796 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular mechanism studies confirmed that Bmi-1 mediated these effects of miR-495 on MSCs. Taken together, our data demonstrated that miR-495 induced senescence of MSCs may be involved in the pathogenesis of PE. ..
  30. Jang K, Kim M, Gilbert C, Simpkins F, Ince T, Slingerland J. VEGFA activates an epigenetic pathway upregulating ovarian cancer-initiating cells. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:304-318 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, VEGFA stimulates OVCA stem-like cells through Src-DNMT3A-driven miR-128-2 methylation and Bmi1 upregulation. ..
  31. Lu J, Ma Y, Kong N, Alipio Z, Gao C, Krause D, et al. Dissecting the role of SALL4, a newly identified stem cell factor, in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Leukemia. 2011;25:1211-3 pubmed publisher
  32. Li L, Zhao Y, Zhang H. P16INK4a upregulation mediated by TBK1 induces retinal ganglion cell senescence in ischemic injury. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2752 pubmed publisher
    ..This study therefore elucidates a novel mechanism whereby TBK1 regulates p16 expression and RGC senescence, suggesting a potential novel treatment strategy for minimizing RGC senescence in retinal ischemia and glaucoma. ..