ppar gamma


Summary: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.

Top Publications

  1. Li S, Zhou Q, He H, Zhao Y, Liu Z. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonists induce cell cycle arrest through transcriptional regulation of Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4). J Biol Chem. 2013;288:4076-84 pubmed publisher
  2. Wang X, Liu J, Ouyang Y, Fang M, Gao H, Liu L. The association between the Pro12Ala variant in the PPARγ2 gene and type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity in a Chinese population. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71985 pubmed publisher
    ..64, 95% CI 0.42-0.96; P = 0.030). Our results suggested that the presence of the Ala allele may contribute to improved insulin secretory capacity and may confer protection from type 2 diabetes and obesity in the Chinese population. ..
  3. Ma Z, Ji W, Fu Q, Ma S. Formononetin inhibited the inflammation of LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice associated with induction of PPAR gamma expression. Inflammation. 2013;36:1560-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The histological changes of the lungs were also significantly improved by formononetin compared to LPS group. The results indicated that formononetin has a protective effect on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. ..
  4. Reel B, Guzeloglu M, Bagriyanik A, Atmaca S, Aykut K, Albayrak G, et al. The effects of PPAR-? agonist pioglitazone on renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. J Surg Res. 2013;182:176-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Pioglitazone diminished p47-phox/p67-phox expression, whereas it enhanced SOD1 expression. Our results suggest that pioglitazone might be helpful to reduce renal IR injury because of its antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects. ..
  5. Ahmadian M, Suh J, Hah N, Liddle C, Atkins A, Downes M, et al. PPAR? signaling and metabolism: the good, the bad and the future. Nat Med. 2013;19:557-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights key advances in understanding PPAR? signaling in energy homeostasis and metabolic disease and also provides new explanations for adverse events linked to TZD-based therapy. ..
  6. Viladomiu M, Hontecillas R, Pedragosa M, Carbo A, Hoops S, Michalak P, et al. Modeling the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? and microRNA-146 in mucosal immune responses to Clostridium difficile. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e47525 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data indicates that miRNA-146b and PPAR? activation may be implicated in the regulation of Th17 responses and colitis in C. difficile-infected mice. ..
  7. Shiota A, Shimabukuro M, Fukuda D, Soeki T, Sato H, Uematsu E, et al. Telmisartan ameliorates insulin sensitivity by activating the AMPK/SIRT1 pathway in skeletal muscle of obese db/db mice. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2012;11:139 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the pathways through which telmisartan acts on skeletal muscle, in vitro as well as in vivo...
  8. Attia Y, Elalkamy E, Hammam O, Mahmoud S, El Khatib A. Telmisartan, an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR gamma activator, alleviates liver fibrosis induced experimentally by Schistosoma mansoni infection. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:199 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study has aimed at testing the anti-fibrogenic effects of telmisartan; an AT1 receptor blocker and a PPAR? partial agonist, alone or combined with praziquantel (PZQ) on Schistosoma mansoni-induced liver fibrosis in mice...
  9. Atanasov A, Blunder M, Fakhrudin N, Liu X, Noha S, Malainer C, et al. Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum--new selective partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e61755 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we identified falcarindiol-type polyacetylenes as a novel class of natural partial PPAR? agonists, having potential to be further explored as pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements. ..

More Information


  1. Oishi P, Sharma S, Datar S, Kumar S, Aggarwal S, Lu Q, et al. Rosiglitazone preserves pulmonary vascular function in lambs with increased pulmonary blood flow. Pediatr Res. 2013;73:54-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The PPAR-? agonist RG prevents the loss of agonist-induced endothelium-dependent pulmonary vascular relaxation in lambs with increased PBF, in part, due to decreased oxidative stress and/or increased NO production. ..
  2. Kusunoki H, Taniyama Y, Rakugi H, Morishita R. Cardiac and renal protective effects of irbesartan via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor?-hepatocyte growth factor pathway independent of angiotensin II Type 1a receptor blockade in mouse model of salt-sensitive hypertension. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000103 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the organ-protective effects of irbesartan in a salt-sensitive hypertension model using AT1aR knockout mice...
  3. Itariu B, Zeyda M, Hochbrugger E, Neuhofer A, Prager G, Schindler K, et al. Long-chain n-3 PUFAs reduce adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in severely obese nondiabetic patients: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:1137-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects may be beneficial in the long-term treatment of obesity. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00760760. ..
  4. Yin K, Fan Y, Hamblin M, Zhang J, Zhu T, Li S, et al. KLF11 mediates PPAR? cerebrovascular protection in ischaemic stroke. Brain. 2013;136:1274-87 pubmed publisher
  5. Suzuki S, Suzuki M, Sembon S, Fuchimoto D, Onishi A. Characterization of actions of octanoate on porcine preadipocytes and adipocytes differentiated in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;432:92-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results suggested that the action of octanoate was complicated and may be dependent on the targeted genes and cellular status...
  6. Drosatos K, Khan R, Trent C, Jiang H, Son N, Blaner W, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation prevents sepsis-related cardiac dysfunction and mortality in mice. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6:550-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Cardiac dysfunction with sepsis is associated with both inflammation and reduced fatty acid oxidation. We hypothesized that energy deprivation accounts for sepsis-related cardiac dysfunction...
  7. Keuper M, Wernstedt Asterholm I, Scherer P, Westhoff M, Moller P, Debatin K, et al. TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) regulates adipocyte metabolism by caspase-mediated cleavage of PPARgamma. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e474 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results imply that TRAIL/TRAIL-R system might provide a new target for the prevention and treatment of obesity and its co-morbidities...
  8. Meierhofer D, Weidner C, Hartmann L, Mayr J, Han C, Schroeder F, et al. Protein sets define disease states and predict in vivo effects of drug treatment. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2013;12:1965-79 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo protein set detection can provide new avenues for monitoring complex disease processes, and for evaluating preclinical drug candidates. ..
  9. Sinagra T, Tamburella A, Urso V, Siarkos I, Drago F, Bucolo C, et al. Reversible inhibition of vasoconstriction by thiazolidinediones related to PI3K/Akt inhibition in vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85:551-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thiazolidinediones decrease vasoconstriction of isolated vessels possibly by inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway. Such an effect of glitazones, if occurring in vivo, may impact cardiovascular syndromes related to vasospasm in diabetic patients. ..
  10. Hatanaka H, Koizumi N, Okumura N, Kay E, Mizuhara E, Hamuro J, et al. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition-like phenotypic changes of retinal pigment epithelium induced by TGF-? are prevented by PPAR-? agonists. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:6955-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Pioglitazone might prove to be a clinically applicable and effective pharmaceutic treatment for proliferative eye diseases. ..
  11. da Silva F, dos Santos J, Campos J, Mafud A, Polikarpov I, Figueira A, et al. Structure-based identification of novel PPAR gamma ligands. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013;23:5795-802 pubmed publisher
    ..Molecular dynamic simulations showed that the residues H323, H449, Y327, Y473, K367 and S289 are key structural elements for the molecular recognition of these ligands and the polar arm of PPAR? binding pocket. ..
  12. Wang X, Sun Y, Wong J, Conklin D. PPAR? maintains ERBB2-positive breast cancer stem cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:5512-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, GW9662 pre-treatment inhibits the tumor-seeding ability of BT474 cells. Together, these results show that the PPAR? pathway is critical for the cancer stem cell properties of ERBB2-positive breast cancer cells. ..
  13. Hou X, Zhang Y, Shen Y, Liu T, Song S, Cui L, et al. PPAR-? activation by rosiglitazone suppresses angiotensin II-mediated proliferation and phenotypictransition in cardiac fibroblasts via inhibition of activation of activator protein 1. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;715:196-203 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggests PPAR-? activation could have an anti-fibrotic effect through limiting cardiac fibroblast proliferation and differentiation, which are the critical steps in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis...
  14. Atanasov A, Wang J, Gu S, Bu J, Kramer M, Baumgartner L, et al. Honokiol: a non-adipogenic PPAR? agonist from nature. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1830:4813-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This observed activity profile suggests honokiol as promising new pharmaceutical lead or dietary supplement to combat metabolic disease, and provides a molecular explanation for the use of Magnolia in traditional medicine. ..
  15. Carbo A, Hontecillas R, Kronsteiner B, Viladomiu M, Pedragosa M, Lu P, et al. Systems modeling of molecular mechanisms controlling cytokine-driven CD4+ T cell differentiation and phenotype plasticity. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1003027 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, for the first time we provide novel molecular evidence in vivo demonstrating that PPAR? in addition to regulating CD4+ T cell differentiation also plays a major role controlling Th17 and iTreg plasticity in the gut mucosa. ..
  16. Qiang L, Wang L, Kon N, Zhao W, Lee S, Zhang Y, et al. Brown remodeling of white adipose tissue by SirT1-dependent deacetylation of Ppar?. Cell. 2012;150:620-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that SirT1-dependent Ppar? deacetylation is a form of selective Ppar? modulation of potential therapeutic import. ..
  17. Philipson C, Bassaganya Riera J, Viladomiu M, Pedragosa M, Guerrant R, Roche J, et al. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in immune responses to enteroaggregative Escherichia coli infection. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e57812 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide in vivo evidence supporting the beneficial role of mucosal innate and effector T cell responses on EAEC burden and suggest pharmacological blockade of PPAR? as a novel therapeutic intervention for EAEC infection. ..
  18. Kishi T, Hirooka Y, Sunagawa K. Telmisartan protects against cognitive decline via up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor/tropomyosin-related kinase B in hippocampus of hypertensive rats. J Cardiol. 2012;60:489-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Telmisartan protects against cognitive decline via up-regulation of BDNF/TrkB in the hippocampus of SHRSPs, partly because of PPAR-gamma activation independent of blood pressure-lowering effect. ..
  19. Rosenson R, Wright R, Farkouh M, Plutzky J. Modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for therapeutic benefit? Biology, clinical experience, and future prospects. Am Heart J. 2012;164:672-80 pubmed publisher
  20. Zhang L, Wang S, Xu W, Wang R, Wang J. Scaffold-based pan-agonist design for the PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR? receptors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48453 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings can provide a new strategy or useful insights for designing the effective pan-agonists against the type 2 diabetes. ..
  21. Reddy A, Lakshmi S, Kleinhenz J, Sutliff R, Hart C, Reddy R. Endothelial cell peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? reduces endotoxemic pulmonary inflammation and injury. J Immunol. 2012;189:5411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a key protective role of ePPAR? against endotoxemic injury and a potential ePPAR?-mediated anti-inflammatory role for NFAs. ..
  22. Sahebkar A. Does PPAR?2 gene Pro12Ala polymorphism affect nonalcoholic fatty liver disease risk? Evidence from a meta-analysis. DNA Cell Biol. 2013;32:188-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Evidence from the current meta-analysis indicated that rs1801282 variants are not associated with NAFLD risk. Future large-scale studies are required to substantiate the present findings. ..
  23. Liu F, Tsai Y, Yu H. Maraviroc attenuates trauma-hemorrhage-induced hepatic injury through PPAR gamma-dependent pathway in rats. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e78861 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the protective effect of maraviroc administration on alleviation of hepatic injury after trauma-hemorrhage, which is, at least in part, through PPAR(?)-dependent pathway. ..
  24. Hu P, Chen X, Whitener R, Boder E, Jones J, Porollo A, et al. Effects of parabens on adipocyte differentiation. Toxicol Sci. 2013;131:56-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that parabens may contribute to obesity epidemic, and the role of parabens in adipogenesis in vivo needs to be examined further. ..
  25. Wang J, Guo X, Wu P, Song J, Ye C, Yu S, et al. Association between the Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-? gene and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a meta-analysis. Gene. 2013;528:328-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This meta-analysis indicated that the Pro12Ala polymorphism is not associated with NAFLD risk. Large and well-designed studies are warranted to validate our findings. ..
  26. Trombetta M, Bonetti S, Boselli M, Miccoli R, Trabetti E, Malerba G, et al. PPARG2 Pro12Ala and ADAMTS9 rs4607103 as "insulin resistance loci" and "insulin secretion loci" in Italian individuals. The GENFIEV study and the Verona Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes Study (VNDS) 4. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50:401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PPARG2 and ADAMTS9 variants are both associated with T2DM and with insulin resistance, whereas only ADAMTS9 may be related to ?F. Thus, at least in Italians, they may be considered bona fide "insulin resistance genes". ..
  27. Guasch L, Sala E, Castell Auví A, Cedó L, Liedl K, Wolber G, et al. Identification of PPARgamma partial agonists of natural origin (I): development of a virtual screening procedure and in vitro validation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50816 pubmed publisher
    ..We have demonstrated that our virtual screening protocol was successful in identifying novel scaffolds for PPAR? partial agonists. ..
  28. Deepa P, Vandhana S, Krishnakumar S. Fatty acid synthase inhibition induces differential expression of genes involved in apoptosis and cell proliferation in ocular cancer cells. Nutr Cancer. 2013;65:311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..FASN inhibition may thus be a potential strategy in retinoblastoma management...
  29. Li X, Pham H, Janesick A, Blumberg B. Triflumizole is an obesogen in mice that acts through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR?). Environ Health Perspect. 2012;120:1720-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Prenatal TFZ exposure increases adipose depot weight and diverts MSC fate toward the adipocyte lineage; therefore, we conclude that TFZ is an obesogen in vivo. ..
  30. Vasheghani F, Monemdjou R, Fahmi H, Zhang Y, Perez G, Blati M, et al. Adult cartilage-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma knockout mice exhibit the spontaneous osteoarthritis phenotype. Am J Pathol. 2013;182:1099-106 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PPAR? is a critical regulator of cartilage health, the lack of which leads to an accelerated spontaneous OA phenotype. ..
  31. Wang J, Zhang C, Fu L, Zhang D, Wang B, Zhang Z, et al. Protective effect of rosiglitazone against acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury is associated with down-regulation of hepatic NADPH oxidases. Toxicol Lett. 2017;265:38-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that synthetic PPAR-? agonists might be effective agents for preventing the progression of APAP-induced acute liver injury. ..
  32. Thomson N. Novel approaches to the management of noneosinophilic asthma. Ther Adv Respir Dis. 2016;10:211-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Greater understanding of the mechanisms of noneosinophilic inflammation in asthma should lead to improved therapies. ..
  33. Fledrich R, Mannil M, Leha A, Ehbrecht C, Solari A, Pelayo Negro A, et al. Biomarkers predict outcome in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1A. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2017;88:941-952 pubmed publisher
  34. Fischer T. [Pharmacological therapy of age-related macular degeneration based on etiopathogenesis]. Orv Hetil. 2015;156:1847-58 pubmed publisher
    ..However, randomised prospective clinical trials are still needed to elucidate the potential role of these drug treatments in the prevention and treatment of age-related macular degeneration. ..
  35. Shan H, Zhang S, Wei X, Li X, Qi H, He Y, et al. Protection of endothelial cells against Ang II-induced impairment: Involvement of both PPAR? and PPAR? via PI3K/Akt pathway. Clin Exp Hypertens. 2016;38:571-577 pubmed
    ..Our study may help to understand the mechanism of endothelial dysfunction, contributing to the treatment of hypertension and other endothelial-related diseases. ..
  36. Zhang H, Chen S, Wang A, Yao A, Fu J, Zhao J, et al. Sulforaphane induces adipocyte browning and promotes glucose and lipid utilization. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2016;60:2185-2197 pubmed publisher
    ..SFN-induced browning of white adipocytes enhanced the utilization of cellular fuel, and application of SFN is a promising strategy to combat obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorder. ..
  37. Nobs S, Natali S, Pohlmeier L, Okreglicka K, Schneider C, Kurrer M, et al. PPARγ in dendritic cells and T cells drives pathogenic type-2 effector responses in lung inflammation. J Exp Med. 2017;214:3015-3035 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we uncover a surprising proinflammatory role for PPARγ and establish it as a novel, important mediator of DC-T cell interactions in type-2 immunity. ..
  38. McCall J, Gehring D, Clymer B, Fisher K, Das B, Kelly D, et al. KSR1 and EPHB4 Regulate Myc and PGC1β To Promote Survival of Human Colon Tumors. Mol Cell Biol. 2016;36:2246-61 pubmed publisher
  39. Elfakhani M, Torabi S, Hussein D, Mills N, Verbeck G, Mo H. Mevalonate deprivation mediates the impact of lovastatin on the differentiation of murine 3T3-F442A preadipocytes. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2014;239:293-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Mevalonate-derived metabolites have essential roles in promoting adipogenic gene expression and adipocyte differentiation. ..
  40. Vergotine Z, Yako Y, Kengne A, Erasmus R, Matsha T. Proliferator-activated receptor gamma Pro12Ala interacts with the insulin receptor substrate 1 Gly972Arg and increase the risk of insulin resistance and diabetes in the mixed ancestry population from South Africa. BMC Genet. 2014;15:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings require replication in a larger study before any generalisation and possible application for risk stratification. ..
  41. Zhang L, Zhou Y, Wu W, Hou L, Chen H, Zuo B, et al. Skeletal Muscle-Specific Overexpression of PGC-1? Induces Fiber-Type Conversion through Enhanced Mitochondrial Respiration and Fatty Acid Oxidation in Mice and Pigs. Int J Biol Sci. 2017;13:1152-1162 pubmed publisher
  42. Sun L, Yang X, Li Q, Zeng P, Liu Y, Liu L, et al. Activation of Adiponectin Receptor Regulates Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Expression and Inhibits Lesions in ApoE-Deficient Mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1290-1300 pubmed publisher
    ..However, ADP355 activated hepatic LDLR expression and ameliorated lipid metabolism in both types of mice and inhibited atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. ..
  43. Kim J, Sato M, Choi J, Kim H, Yeh B, Larsen J, et al. Nuclear Receptor Expression and Function in Human Lung Cancer Pathogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2015;10:e0134842 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that ligand-mediated sumoylation of PPARγ plays an important role in lung cancer pathogenesis by modulating prostaglandin metabolism. ..
  44. Choi S, Park S, Jang S, Cho H, Lee S, You S, et al. Cascade regulation of PPAR?(2) and C/EBP? signaling pathways by celastrol impairs adipocyte differentiation and stimulates lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Metabolism. 2016;65:646-54 pubmed publisher
  45. Gliem M, Klotz L, Van Rooijen N, Hartung H, Jander S. Hyperglycemia and PPARγ Antagonistically Influence Macrophage Polarization and Infarct Healing After Ischemic Stroke. Stroke. 2015;46:2935-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Hyperglycemia and macrophage-specific PPARγ activation exert opposing effects on MO/MP polarization in ischemic stroke lesions and, thereby, critically determine the risk of hemorrhagic infarct transformation. ..
  46. Dinh C, Szabo A, Yu Y, Camer D, Zhang Q, Wang H, et al. Bardoxolone Methyl Prevents Fat Deposition and Inflammation in Brown Adipose Tissue and Enhances Sympathetic Activity in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet. Nutrients. 2015;7:4705-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, oral BARD prevented fat deposition and inflammation in BAT, and stimulated sympathetic nerve activity. ..
  47. Strekalova T, Costa Nunes J, Veniaminova E, Kubatiev A, Lesch K, Chekhonin V, et al. Insulin receptor sensitizer, dicholine succinate, prevents both Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) upregulation and affective changes induced by a high-cholesterol diet in mice. J Affect Disord. 2016;196:109-16 pubmed publisher
    ..DS treatment did not alter the patho-morphological substrates of NAFLD syndrome in mice, but ameliorated its molecular and behavioral consequences, likely by activating mitochondrial functions and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. ..
  48. Yu K, Mo D, Wu M, Chen H, Chen L, Li M, et al. Activating transcription factor 4 regulates adipocyte differentiation via altering the coordinate expression of CCATT/enhancer binding protein ? and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?. FEBS J. 2014;281:2399-409 pubmed publisher
    ..This notion is also supported by the results of the present study showing that the expression of ATF4 is induced during adipocyte differentiation. Thus, ATF4 could be an important regulator of energy homeostasis. ..
  49. Spassov S, Faller S, Hummel M, Helo K, Ihle A, Ryter S, et al. Hydrogen Sulfide Confers Lung Protection During Mechanical Ventilation via Cyclooxygenase 2, 15-deoxy ?12,14-Prostaglandin J2, and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:e849-e857 pubmed publisher
  50. Bai L, Li Z, Li Q, Guan H, Zhao S, Liu R, et al. Mediator 1 Is Atherosclerosis Protective by Regulating Macrophage Polarization. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1470-1481 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that MED1 is required for the PPAR?-mediated M2 phenotype switch, with M2 marker genes induced but M1 marker genes suppressed. MED1 in macrophages has an antiatherosclerotic role via PPAR?-regulated transactivation. ..
  51. Katic M, Kennedy A, Leykin I, Norris A, McGettrick A, Gesta S, et al. Mitochondrial gene expression and increased oxidative metabolism: role in increased lifespan of fat-specific insulin receptor knock-out mice. Aging Cell. 2007;6:827-39 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that maintenance of mitochondrial activity and metabolic rates in adipose tissue may be important contributors to the increased lifespan of the FIRKO mouse...
  52. Grygiel Gorniak B, Kaczmarek E, Mosor M, Przysławski J, Nowak J. Gene-diet-related factors of hyperglycaemia in postmenopausal women. J Appl Genet. 2018;59:169-177 pubmed publisher
    ..However, not only the genetic background but also the dietary habits (intake of fat, carbohydrates and B vitamins) determine the risk of hyperglycaemia. ..
  53. Karahanian E, Rivera Meza M, Quintanilla M, Munoz D, Fernandez K, Israel Y. PPAR? Agonists Reduce Alcohol Drinking: Do They Act in the Brain or in the Liver?. Alcohol Alcohol. 2015;50:717-8 pubmed publisher
  54. Lee K, Hsieh Y, Yang Y, Chan C, Huang Y, Lin H. Aliskiren Reduces Hepatic steatosis and Epididymal Fat Mass and Increases Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity in High-Fat Diet-Fed Mice. Sci Rep. 2016;6:18899 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these beneficial effects on liver, peripheral fat and skeletal muscle, aliskiren is a promising therapeutic agent for patients with NAFLD. ..
  55. Serra D, Almeida L, Dinis T. Anti-inflammatory protection afforded by cyanidin-3-glucoside and resveratrol in human intestinal cells via Nrf2 and PPAR-?: Comparison with 5-aminosalicylic acid. Chem Biol Interact. 2016;260:102-109 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, both polyphenols might be interesting as nutraceuticals, giving complementary benefits to conventional drugs against intestinal inflammation, typically present in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. ..
  56. Firmin F, Oger F, Gheeraert C, Dubois Chevalier J, Vercoutter Edouart A, Alzaid F, et al. The RBM14/CoAA-interacting, long intergenic non-coding RNA Paral1 regulates adipogenesis and coactivates the nuclear receptor PPAR?. Sci Rep. 2017;7:14087 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have identified a novel component of the adipogenic transcriptional regulatory network defining the lincRNA Paral1 as an obesity-sensitive regulator of adipocyte differentiation and function. ..
  57. Jin H, Lian N, Zhang F, Chen L, Chen Q, Lu C, et al. Activation of PPAR?/P53 signaling is required for curcumin to induce hepatic stellate cell senescence. Cell Death Dis. 2016;7:e2189 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provided a novel insight into the mechanisms underlying curcumin inhibition of HSC activation through inducing senescence. ..
  58. Sun H, Zhu X, Cai W, Qiu L. Hypaphorine Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Endothelial Inflammation via Regulation of TLR4 and PPAR-? Dependent on PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signal Pathway. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18: pubmed publisher
    ..Hy may be considered as a therapeutic agent that can potentially relieve or ameliorate endothelial inflammation-associated diseases. ..
  59. Mwangi S, Peng S, Nezami B, Thorn N, Farris A, Jain S, et al. Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis by suppressing hepatic PPAR-γ expression. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2016;310:G103-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that GDNF acts directly in the liver to protect against HFD-induced cellular stress and that GDNF may have a role in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. ..
  60. Belcher S, Cookman C, Patisaul H, Stapleton H. In vitro assessment of human nuclear hormone receptor activity and cytotoxicity of the flame retardant mixture FM 550 and its triarylphosphate and brominated components. Toxicol Lett. 2014;228:93-102 pubmed publisher
  61. de Brito G, Lupinacci F, Beraldo F, Santos T, Roffe M, Lopes M, et al. Loss of prion protein is associated with the development of insulin resistance and obesity. Biochem J. 2017;474:2981-2991 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results suggest that PrPC reflects susceptibility to the development of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. ..
  62. Mahmoud A, Mohammed H, Khadrawy S, Galaly S. Hesperidin protects against chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis via modulation of Nrf2/ARE/HO-1, PPAR? and TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling, and amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation. Chem Biol Interact. 2017;277:146-158 pubmed publisher
    ..These effects are suggested to be mediated by activating Nrf2/ARE/HO-1 and PPAR? pathways. ..
  63. Kai M, Miyoshi M, Fujiwara M, Nishiyama Y, Inoue T, Maeshige N, et al. A lard-rich high-fat diet increases hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in endotoxemic rats. J Surg Res. 2017;212:22-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Consumption of a lard-rich diet for 12 wk worsened liver injury and increased hepatic PPAR? and PPAR? expression in endotoxemic rats. ..
  64. Mastrofrancesco A, Ottaviani M, Cardinali G, Flori E, Briganti S, Ludovici M, et al. Pharmacological PPAR? modulation regulates sebogenesis and inflammation in SZ95 human sebocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;138:96-106 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated that selective modulation of PPAR? activity is likely to represent a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of acne. ..
  65. Serizawa M, Murakami H, Watanabe M, Takahashi T, Yamamoto N, Koh Y. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist efatutazone impairs transforming growth factor ?2-induced motility of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor-resistant lung cancer cells. Cancer Sci. 2014;105:683-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that efatutazone inhibits cell motility by antagonizing the TGF-?/Smad2 pathway and effectively prevents metastasis in NSCLC patients with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKI regardless of the resistance mechanism. ..
  66. Mukohda M, Stump M, Ketsawatsomkron P, Hu C, Quelle F, Sigmund C. Endothelial PPAR-γ provides vascular protection from IL-1β-induced oxidative stress. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2016;310:H39-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PPAR-γ protects against IL-1β-mediated endothelial dysfunction through a reduction of oxidative stress responses but not by blunting IL-1β-mediated NF-κB activity. ..
  67. Han Y, Li Z, Um J, Liu X, Hong S. Anti-adipogenic effect of Glycoside St-E2 and Glycoside St-C1 isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax henryi (Oliv.) Harms in 3T3-L1 cells. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2016;80:2391-2400 pubmed
    ..henryi (Oliv.) Harms can inhibit adipogenesis through the AMPK-PPAR?-C/EBP? mechanism. Thus, this study suggests that Glycoside St-C1 and Glycoside St-E2 have a therapeutic effect due to activation of the AMPK?. ..
  68. Toupchian O, Sotoudeh G, Mansoori A, Djalali M, Keshavarz S, Nasli Esfahani E, et al. Effects of DHA Supplementation on Vascular Function, Telomerase Activity in PBMC, Expression of Inflammatory Cytokines, and PPAR?-LXR?-ABCA1 Pathway in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Study Protocol for Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. Acta Med Iran. 2016;54:410-7 pubmed
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