ppar beta


Summary: One of the PPAR nuclear transcription factors.

Top Publications

  1. Reed K, Sansom O, Hayes A, Gescher A, Winton D, Peters J, et al. PPARdelta status and Apc-mediated tumourigenesis in the mouse intestine. Oncogene. 2004;23:8992-6 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that PPARdelta is not directly regulated by beta-catenin, and that inhibition of PPARdelta activity is unlikely to be an appropriate strategy for the chemoprevention or chemotherapy of intestinal malignancies. ..
  2. Degenhardt T, Saramaki A, Malinen M, Rieck M, Väisänen S, Huotari A, et al. Three members of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase gene family are direct targets of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:341-55 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PDK2, PDK3 and PDK4 are primary PPARbeta/delta target genes in humans underlining the importance of the receptor in the control of metabolism. ..
  3. Burdick A, Bility M, Girroir E, Billin A, Willson T, Gonzalez F, et al. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta(PPARbeta/delta) inhibits cell growth of human N/TERT-1 keratinocytes. Cell Signal. 2007;19:1163-71 pubmed
  4. Marin H, Peraza M, Billin A, Willson T, Ward J, Kennett M, et al. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta inhibits colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 2006;66:4394-401 pubmed
  5. Planavila A, Rodríguez Calvo R, Jové M, Michalik L, Wahli W, Laguna J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta activation inhibits hypertrophy in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2005;65:832-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PPARbeta/delta activation inhibits PE-induced cardiac hypertrophy and LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation. ..
  6. Nadra K, Anghel S, Joye E, Tan N, Basu Modak S, Trono D, et al. Differentiation of trophoblast giant cells and their metabolic functions are dependent on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3266-81 pubmed
    ..Altogether, this important role of PPARbeta/delta in placenta development and giant cell differentiation should be considered when contemplating the potency of PPARbeta/delta agonist as therapeutic agents of broad application. ..
  7. Letavernier E, Perez J, Joye E, Bellocq A, Fouqueray B, Haymann J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta exerts a strong protection from ischemic acute renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:2395-402 pubmed
    ..These results point to PPARbeta/delta as a remarkable new target for preconditioning strategies. ..
  8. Gaudel C, Schwartz C, Giordano C, Abumrad N, Grimaldi P. Pharmacological activation of PPARbeta promotes rapid and calcineurin-dependent fiber remodeling and angiogenesis in mouse skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E297-304 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the data indicate that PPARbeta activation is associated with a calcineurin-dependent effect on muscle morphology that enhances the oxidative phenotype. ..
  9. Tan N, Michalik L, Di Poï N, Ng C, Mermod N, Roberts A, et al. Essential role of Smad3 in the inhibition of inflammation-induced PPARbeta/delta expression. EMBO J. 2004;23:4211-21 pubmed

More Information


  1. Michalik L, Wahli W. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in skin health, repair and disease. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:991-8 pubmed
    ..Due to their collective diverse functions in skin biology, PPARs represent a major research target for the understanding and treatment of many skin diseases, such as benign epidermal tumors, papillomas, acne vulgaris and psoriasis. ..
  2. Man M, Barish G, Schmuth M, Crumrine D, Barak Y, Chang S, et al. Deficiency of PPARbeta/delta in the epidermis results in defective cutaneous permeability barrier homeostasis and increased inflammation. J Invest Dermatol. 2008;128:370-7 pubmed
    ..Together, these results further demonstrate that PPARbeta/delta in the epidermis: (1) is required for permeability barrier homeostasis; (2) regulates keratinocyte proliferation; and (3) modulates cutaneous inflammation. ..
  3. Burkart E, Sambandam N, Han X, Gross R, Courtois M, Gierasch C, et al. Nuclear receptors PPARbeta/delta and PPARalpha direct distinct metabolic regulatory programs in the mouse heart. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:3930-9 pubmed
  4. Girroir E, Hollingshead H, Billin A, Willson T, Robertson G, Sharma A, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) ligands inhibit growth of UACC903 and MCF7 human cancer cell lines. Toxicology. 2008;243:236-43 pubmed
  5. Ahmed N, Riley C, Quinn M. An immunohistochemical perspective of PPAR beta and one of its putative targets PDK1 in normal ovaries, benign and malignant ovarian tumours. Br J Cancer. 2008;98:1415-24 pubmed publisher
    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPAR beta) is a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family and is a ligand-activated transcription factor with few known molecular targets including 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein ..
  6. Abbott B. Review of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha (PPAR alpha), beta (PPAR beta), and gamma (PPAR gamma) in rodent and human development. Reprod Toxicol. 2009;27:246-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The features of the PPAR nuclear receptor family are introduced and what is known or inferred about their roles in development is discussed relative to insights from genetically modified mice and studies in the adult. ..
  7. Planavila A, Laguna J, Vázquez Carrera M. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation leads to down-regulation of fatty acid oxidation during cardiac hypertrophy. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:17464-71 pubmed
  8. Di Poï N, Ng C, Tan N, Yang Z, Hemmings B, Desvergne B, et al. Epithelium-mesenchyme interactions control the activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta during hair follicle development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1696-712 pubmed
  9. Tan N, Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W. Genetic- or transforming growth factor-beta 1-induced changes in epidermal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta expression dictate wound repair kinetics. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18163-70 pubmed
    ..Also, they provide insight into the so far reported paradoxical effects of the application of exogenous TGF-beta1 at wound sites. ..
  10. Arsenijevic D, de Bilbao F, Plamondon J, Paradis E, Vallet P, Richard D, et al. Increased infarct size and lack of hyperphagic response after focal cerebral ischemia in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta-deficient mice. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2006;26:433-45 pubmed
  11. Schug T, Berry D, Shaw N, Travis S, Noy N. Opposing effects of retinoic acid on cell growth result from alternate activation of two different nuclear receptors. Cell. 2007;129:723-33 pubmed
    ..Opposing effects of RA on cell growth thus emanate from alternate activation of two different nuclear receptors. ..
  12. Aung C, Faddy H, Lister E, Monteith G, Roberts Thomson S. Isoform specific changes in PPAR alpha and beta in colon and breast cancer with differentiation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;340:656-60 pubmed
    ..Moreover, these studies show that changes in PPARalpha levels are not required for the differentiation of colon cancer cell lines, whereas changes in PPARbeta are more closely associated with differentiation. ..
  13. Wagner N, Jehl Pietri C, Lopez P, Murdaca J, Giordano C, Schwartz C, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta stimulation induces rapid cardiac growth and angiogenesis via direct activation of calcineurin. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;83:61-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest PPARbeta pharmacological activation as a novel approach to increase cardiac vascularization and cardiac muscle mass. ..
  14. Kim D, Murray I, Burns A, Gonzalez F, Perdew G, Peters J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta inhibits epidermal cell proliferation by down-regulation of kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9519-27 pubmed
    ..Combined, these studies provide strong evidence that PPARbeta attenuates cell proliferation by modulating PKCalpha/Raf1/MEK/ERK activity that may be due in part to reduced ubiquitin-dependent turnover of PKCalpha. ..
  15. Burdick A, Kim D, Peraza M, Gonzalez F, Peters J. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta in epithelial cell growth and differentiation. Cell Signal. 2006;18:9-20 pubmed
  16. Mensink M, Hesselink M, Russell A, Schaart G, Sels J, Schrauwen P. Improved skeletal muscle oxidative enzyme activity and restoration of PGC-1 alpha and PPAR beta/delta gene expression upon rosiglitazone treatment in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Obes (Lond). 2007;31:1302-10 pubmed
    ..Skeletal-muscle mRNA of PGC-1 alpha and PPAR beta/delta--but not of other genes involved in glucose, fat and oxidative metabolism--was significantly lower in ..
  17. Tan N, Icre G, Montagner A, Bordier ten Heggeler B, Wahli W, Michalik L. The nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta potentiates cell chemotactism, polarization, and migration. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:7161-75 pubmed
    ..The implications of our findings may be far-reaching, considering that the mechanisms described here are important in many physiological and pathological situations. ..
  18. Bility M, Devlin Durante M, Blazanin N, Glick A, Ward J, Kang B, et al. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPAR beta/delta) inhibits chemically induced skin tumorigenesis. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:2406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies suggest that topical administration of PPARbeta/delta ligands may be useful as both a chemopreventive and/or a chemotherapeutic approach to inhibit skin cancer. ..
  19. Okazaki M, Iwasaki Y, Nishiyama M, Taguchi T, Tsugita M, Nakayama S, et al. PPARbeta/delta regulates the human SIRT1 gene transcription via Sp1. Endocr J. 2010;57:403-13 pubmed
  20. Michalik L, Wahli W. Guiding ligands to nuclear receptors. Cell. 2007;129:649-51 pubmed
    ..Remarkably, retinoic acid signaling through RAR or PPARbeta/delta-which depends on cytoplasmic retinoic acid transporters-commits the cell to opposite fates, apoptosis or survival, respectively. ..
  21. Kapadia R, Yi J, Vemuganti R. Mechanisms of anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective actions of PPAR-gamma agonists. Front Biosci. 2008;13:1813-26 pubmed
    ..This review article discusses the multiple mechanisms of TZD-induced neuroprotection in various animal models of CNS injury with an emphasis on stroke. ..
  22. Liu S, Ishikawa H, Li F, Ma Z, Otsuyama K, Asaoku H, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone can inhibit the proliferation of myeloma cells and the interleukin-6 production of bone marrow mononuclear cells from patients with myeloma. Cancer Res. 2005;65:2269-76 pubmed
    ..DHEA up-regulated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), PPAR beta, but not PPARgamma or PPARalpha, and the expression of IkappaBalpha gene in myeloma cells and bone marrow ..
  23. Tsai M, Chen H, Tseng M, Chang R. Cloning of peroxisome proliferators activated receptors in the cobia (Rachycentron canadum) and their expression at different life-cycle stages under cage aquaculture. Gene. 2008;425:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..These results showed that PPARgamma and alpha played a pivotal role in the control of lipid metabolic and storage functions in the liver, muscle and visceral fat depot of the cobia. ..
  24. Hollingshead H, Borland M, Billin A, Willson T, Gonzalez F, Peters J. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) and inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) attenuate colon carcinogenesis through independent signaling mechanisms. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29:169-76 pubmed
    ..Results from these studies effectively dissociate COX2 inhibition and PPARbeta/delta activity during colon carcinogenesis. ..
  25. Peters J, Hollingshead H, Gonzalez F. Role of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) in gastrointestinal tract function and disease. Clin Sci (Lond). 2008;115:107-27 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we summarize the role of PPARbeta/delta in gastrointestinal physiology and disease with an emphasis on findings in experimental models using both high-affinity ligands and null-mouse models. ..
  26. Nishii N, Takasu M, Soe O, Maeda S, Ohba Y, Inoue Murayama M, et al. Cloning, expression and investigation for polymorphisms of canine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;147:690-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that PPARgamma may play an important role in adipocyte differentiation in dogs. Investigations for polymorphisms of PPARgamma revealed a silent polymorphism, C1362T, in 3 of 92 dogs. ..
  27. Defaux A, Zurich M, Braissant O, Honegger P, Monnet Tschudi F. Effects of the PPAR-beta agonist GW501516 in an in vitro model of brain inflammation and antibody-induced demyelination. J Neuroinflammation. 2009;6:15 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that the protective effects of PPAR-beta agonists observed in vivo can be attributed to their anti-inflammatory properties rather than to a direct protective or trophic effect on oligodendrocytes. ..
  28. Yang Y, Hou J, Ju H, Yu Z, Zhao Z, Yang S, et al. [The relation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptorbeta and Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma]. Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007;23:630-2 pubmed
    ..05). High expression of PPARbeta may be related with the differentiation and metastasis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. ..
  29. Schuler M, Ali F, Chambon C, Duteil D, Bornert J, Tardivel A, et al. PGC1alpha expression is controlled in skeletal muscles by PPARbeta, whose ablation results in fiber-type switching, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Cell Metab. 2006;4:407-14 pubmed
  30. Rizzo G, Fiorucci S. PPARs and other nuclear receptors in inflammation. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2006;6:421-7 pubmed
  31. Pialat J, Cho T, Beuf O, Joye E, Moucharrafie S, Moucharaffie S, et al. MRI monitoring of focal cerebral ischemia in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-deficient mice. NMR Biomed. 2007;20:335-42 pubmed
    ..These data validate high-resolution MRI for monitoring cerebral ischemic lesions, and confirm the neuroprotective role of PPARalpha and PPARbeta in the brain. ..
  32. Coleman J, Prabhu K, Thompson J, Reddy P, Peters J, Peterson B, et al. The oxidative stress mediator 4-hydroxynonenal is an intracellular agonist of the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta). Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;42:1155-64 pubmed
    ..This research established 4-HNE as an endogenous modulator of PPARbeta/delta activity and raises the possibility that agonists of this nuclear receptor may be utilized to prevent or treat liver disease associated with oxidative damage. ..
  33. Miura P, Chakkalakal J, Boudreault L, Belanger G, Hébert R, Renaud J, et al. Pharmacological activation of PPARbeta/delta stimulates utrophin A expression in skeletal muscle fibers and restores sarcolemmal integrity in mature mdx mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:4640-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that pharmacological activation of PPARbeta/delta might provide functional benefits to DMD patients through enhancement of utrophin A expression...
  34. Schweitzer A, Knauer S, Stauber R. Nuclear receptors in head and neck cancer: current knowledge and perspectives. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:801-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, this review provides a general overview of nuclear receptors' molecular functions and summarizes their potential prognostic and therapeutic relevance for this tumor entity. ..
  35. Kim D, Prabhu K, Gonzalez F, Peters J. Inhibition of chemically induced skin carcinogenesis by sulindac is independent of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta). Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:1105-12 pubmed
    ..Additionally, results from these studies do not support the hypothesis that ligand activation of PPARbeta by COX-derived metabolites potentiates chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. ..
  36. Wiart M, Davoust N, Pialat J, Berthezene Y, Nighoghossian N. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of inflammation in stroke. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2007;2007:4316-9 pubmed
    ..Despite current limitations, MRI of inflammation may become an important tool for the investigation of novel ischemic stroke therapeutics targeted at inflammation. ..
  37. Davidson B, Hadar R, Stavnes H, Trope C, Reich R. Expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha, -beta, and -gamma in ovarian carcinoma effusions is associated with poor chemoresponse and shorter survival. Hum Pathol. 2009;40:705-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression in effusions is associated with poor response to chemotherapy at disease recurrence and poor survival, suggesting a role in tumor biology at this unique microenvironment. ..
  38. Pereira R, Gaudon C, Iglesias B, Germain P, Gronemeyer H, de Lera A. Synthesis of the PPARbeta/delta-selective agonist GW501516 and C4-thiazole-substituted analogs. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:49-54 pubmed
  39. Masternak M, Al Regaiey K, Del Rosario Lim M, Bonkowski M, Panici J, Przybylski G, et al. Caloric restriction results in decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor superfamily in muscle of normal and long-lived growth hormone receptor/binding protein knockout mice. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60:1238-45 pubmed
    ..This suggested metabolic change clearly does not affect whole-body insulin action. These findings suggest that whole-animal insulin sensitivity is not regulated through skeletal muscle insulin action. ..
  40. Yang Q, Wang R, Xiao W, Sun F, Yuan H, Pan Q. Cellular Retinoic Acid Binding Protein 2 Is Strikingly Downregulated in Human Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Functions as a Tumor Suppressor. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0148381 pubmed publisher
    ..All in all, our finding simplicate that CRABP2 is possibly an efficient molecular marker for diagnosing and predicting the development of ESCC. ..
  41. Li A, Binder C, Gutierrez A, Brown K, Plotkin C, Pattison J, et al. Differential inhibition of macrophage foam-cell formation and atherosclerosis in mice by PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:1564-76 pubmed
    ..In the future, these mechanisms may be exploited pharmacologically to inhibit the development of atherosclerosis. ..
  42. Giordano C, Rousseau A, Wagner N, Gaudel C, Murdaca J, Jehl Pietri C, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta activation promotes myonuclear accretion in skeletal muscle of adult and aged mice. Pflugers Arch. 2009;458:901-13 pubmed publisher
    ..PPARbeta pharmacological activation counteracts, at least in part, the ageing-driven muscle remodelling. ..
  43. Müller Brüsselbach S, Ebrahimsade S, Jäkel J, Eckhardt J, Rapp U, Peters J, et al. Growth of transgenic RAF-induced lung adenomas is increased in mice with a disrupted PPARbeta/delta gene. Int J Oncol. 2007;31:607-11 pubmed
    ..These results are relevant with respect to the clinical application of drugs modulating the activity of PPARbeta or PPARgamma. ..
  44. Zhang H, Pi R, Li R, Wang P, Tang F, Zhou S, et al. PPARbeta/delta activation inhibits angiotensin II-induced collagen type I expression in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2007;460:25-32 pubmed
    ..PPARbeta/delta may be a promising therapeutic target for myocardial fibrosis. ..
  45. Masternak M, Al Regaiey K, Del Rosario Lim M, Jimenez Ortega V, Panici J, Bonkowski M, et al. Caloric restriction and growth hormone receptor knockout: effects on expression of genes involved in insulin action in the heart. Exp Gerontol. 2006;41:417-29 pubmed
  46. Ali F, Davidson S, Moraes L, Traves S, Paul Clark M, Bishop Bailey D, et al. Role of nuclear receptor signaling in platelets: antithrombotic effects of PPARbeta. FASEB J. 2006;20:326-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results identify PPARbeta as a novel antiplatelet target that may mediate some of the effects of prostacyclin in blood. ..
  47. Borland M, Foreman J, Girroir E, Zolfaghari R, Sharma A, Amin S, et al. Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta inhibits cell proliferation in human HaCaT keratinocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:1429-42 pubmed publisher
  48. Takacs M, Abbott B. Activation of mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (alpha, beta/delta, gamma) by perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate. Toxicol Sci. 2007;95:108-17 pubmed
  49. Grimaldi P. Regulatory functions of PPARbeta in metabolism: implications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:983-90 pubmed
  50. Glatz T, Stöck I, Nguyen Ngoc M, Gohlke P, Herdegen T, Culman J, et al. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors gamma and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors beta/delta and the regulation of interleukin 1 receptor antagonist expression by pioglitazone in ischaemic brain. J Hypertens. 2010;28:1488-97 pubmed publisher
    ..under excitotoxic neuronal injury were studied in primary cortical neurones expressing PPARgamma and PPAR beta/delta. Cerebral ischaemia increased the expression of IL-1beta, IL-1RI and IL-1ra in the ischaemic cortex...
  51. Bedu E, Desplanches D, Pequignot J, Bordier B, Desvergne B. Double gene deletion reveals the lack of cooperation between PPARalpha and PPARbeta in skeletal muscle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:877-81 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PPARbeta is not required for maintaining skeletal muscle metabolic activity and does not compensate the lack of PPARalpha in PPARalpha null mice. ..
  52. Wagner K, Wagner N. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) acts as regulator of metabolism linked to multiple cellular functions. Pharmacol Ther. 2010;125:423-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We will focus here on functions of PPARbeta in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart, angiogenesis and cancer related to modifications in metabolism and the identified underlying molecular mechanisms. ..
  53. Zhu D, Wu J, Li H, Yan J, Guo M, Wo Y, et al. PPAR-beta facilitating maturation of hepatic-like tissue derived from mouse embryonic stem cells accompanied by mitochondriogenesis and membrane potential retention. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:498-508 pubmed publisher
    ..The stimulation of PPAR-beta but not -gamma enhanced hepatogenesis, hepatocytes maturation, and mitochondriogenesis. PPAR-beta took an important role in cellular energy metabolism of hepatogenesis. ..
  54. Billin A. PPAR-beta/delta agonists for Type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: an adopted orphan still looking for a home. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2008;17:1465-71 pubmed
    ..Major challenges for the development of PPAR-beta/delta agonists exist and the path forward is as yet undefined. ..
  55. Müller Brüsselbach S, Kömhoff M, Rieck M, Meissner W, Kaddatz K, Adamkiewicz J, et al. Deregulation of tumor angiogenesis and blockade of tumor growth in PPARbeta-deficient mice. EMBO J. 2007;26:3686-98 pubmed
    ..Our data point to an unexpected essential role for PPARbeta in constraining tumor endothelial cell proliferation to allow for the formation of functional tumor microvessels. ..
  56. Sharifpanah F, Wartenberg M, Hannig M, Piper H, Sauer H. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonists enhance cardiomyogenesis of mouse ES cells by utilization of a reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism. Stem Cells. 2008;26:64-71 pubmed
    ..In summary, our data indicate that stimulation of PPARalpha but not PPARbeta and -gamma enhances cardiomyogenesis in ES cells using a pathway that involves ROS and NADPH oxidase activity. ..
  57. Cai Z, Liu Q, Li P, Guo Z, Shen Z. Synthesis and anti-diabetic activity of (RS)-2-ethoxy-3-{4-[2-(4-trifluoro-methanesulfonyloxy-phenyl)-ethoxy]-phenyl}-propionic acid. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2006;27:597-602 pubmed
    ..Both in vitro and in vivo anti-diabetic activity studies for compound I were conducted and the data suggest that this compound is a potentially effective anti-diabetic agent. ..
  58. Pereira R, Furst A, Iglesias B, Germain P, Gronemeyer H, de Lera A. Insights into the mechanism of the site-selective sequential palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of dibromothiophenes/dibromothiazoles and arylboronic acids. Synthesis of PPARbeta/delta agonists. Org Biomol Chem. 2006;4:4514-25 pubmed
    ..An additional Stille reaction then replaced the second halogen, providing the trisubstituted heterocyclic scaffolds of PPAR ligands, which displayed PPARbeta/delta agonist activity, as revealed by reporter assays in living cells. ..
  59. Pedchenko T, Gonzalez A, Wang D, DuBois R, Massion P. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta expression and activation in lung cancer. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2008;39:689-96 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PPARbeta/delta is strongly expressed in the majority of lung cancers, and its activation induces proliferative and survival response in non-small cell lung cancer. ..
  60. Marcil V, Delvin E, Sane A, Tremblay A, Levy E. Oxidative stress influences cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophages: role of ATP-binding cassette A1 and nuclear factors. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;72:473-82 pubmed
    ..Our results show that oxidative stress can directly be induced in macrophages and concomitantly impairs the expression of receptors involved in cholesterol flux, which could influence foam cell formation and atherosclerosis development. ..
  61. Genovese S, Foreman J, Borland M, Epifano F, Gonzalez F, Curini M, et al. A natural propenoic acid derivative activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta). Life Sci. 2010;86:493-8 pubmed publisher
  62. Palomer X, Alvarez Guardia D, Rodríguez Calvo R, Coll T, Laguna J, Davidson M, et al. TNF-alpha reduces PGC-1alpha expression through NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK leading to increased glucose oxidation in a human cardiac cell model. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;81:703-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to PGC-1alpha downregulation as a potential contributor to cardiac dysfunction and heart failure in metabolic disorders with an inflammatory background. ..
  63. Adida A, Spener F. Adipocyte-type fatty acid-binding protein as inter-compartmental shuttle for peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma agonists in cultured cell. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1761:172-81 pubmed
    ..Moreover, A-FABP binds not only to the ligand-binding domain including hinge domain (domains DEF), but also to the DNA-binding domain including AB domains (domains ABC) of PPARgamma. ..
  64. Maggiora M, Bologna M, Ceru M, Possati L, Angelucci A, Cimini A, et al. An overview of the effect of linoleic and conjugated-linoleic acids on the growth of several human tumor cell lines. Int J Cancer. 2004;112:909-19 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, CLA may be regarded as a component of the diet that exerts antineoplastic activity and its effect may be antiproliferative or pro-apoptotic. ..
  65. Liang P, Huang X, Chen B, Jiang B, Long J, Zhang P, et al. [Inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor on apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocytes induced by TNF-alpha]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2007;23:284-7 pubmed
    ..EGF can inhibit the apoptosis of HaCaT keratinocytes induced by TNF-alpha, and it can also increase the expression of PPARbeta. ..
  66. Zhang X, Chen L, Guan Y. [PPAR family and its relationship to metabolic syndrome]. Sheng Li Ke Xue Jin Zhan. 2005;36:6-12 pubmed
    ..Particular emphasis is placed on their pathogenic roles in the metabolic syndrome and the therapeutic utility of PPAR modulators in the treatment of type II diabetes. ..
  67. Kapoor A, Collino M, Castiglia S, Fantozzi R, Thiemermann C. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta/delta attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat. Shock. 2010;34:117-24 pubmed publisher
  68. Zhou J, Liang P, Jiang B, Huang X. [Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta in the inhibitory effect of epidermal growth factor on apoptosis of HaCaT]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2009;25:294-7 pubmed
    ..01). EGF inhibits HaCaT KC apoptosis caused by TNF-alpha in a PPARbeta-dependent manner. ..
  69. Rieck M, Meissner W, Ries S, Müller Brüsselbach S, Muller R. Ligand-mediated regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) beta/delta: a comparative analysis of PPAR-selective agonists and all-trans retinoic acid. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;74:1269-77 pubmed publisher
  70. Di Loreto S, D Angelo B, D Amico M, Benedetti E, Cristiano L, Cinque B, et al. PPARbeta agonists trigger neuronal differentiation in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. J Cell Physiol. 2007;211:837-47 pubmed
  71. Jahoor A, Patel R, Bryan A, Do C, Krier J, Watters C, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors mediate host cell proinflammatory responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa autoinducer. J Bacteriol. 2008;190:4408-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data identify PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma as putative mammalian 3OC(12)-HSL receptors and suggest that PPARgamma agonists may be employed as anti-inflammatory therapeutics for P. aeruginosa infections. ..
  72. Bouhlel M, Brozek J, Derudas B, Zawadzki C, Jude B, Staels B, et al. Unlike PPARgamma, PPARalpha or PPARbeta/delta activation does not promote human monocyte differentiation toward alternative macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;386:459-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, PPARalpha and PPARbeta/delta do not appear to modulate the alternative differentiation of human macrophages. ..
  73. Ibabe A, Bilbao E, Cajaraville M. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in zebrafish (Danio rerio) depending on gender and developmental stage. Histochem Cell Biol. 2005;123:75-87 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results indicate that PPAR expression, the activity of its target gene AOX, and peroxisomal biogenesis are developmentally modulated in zebrafish. ..
  74. Jouzeau J, Moulin D, Koufany M, Sebillaud S, Bianchi A, Netter P. [Pathophysiological relevance of peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPAR) to joint diseases - the pro and con of agonists]. J Soc Biol. 2008;202:289-312 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, cellular and animal studies are required to assess whether partial agonists of PPAR (SPPARMs) may preserve therapeutical properties with potentially less safety concern. ..
  75. Bedu E, Wahli W, Desvergne B. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta as a therapeutic target for metabolic diseases. Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2005;9:861-73 pubmed
    ..Thus, it appears that further exploration of PPARbeta/delta functions is necessary to better define its potential as a therapeutic target. ..
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    ..These findings indicate that activation of PPARbeta/delta inhibits enhanced cytokine production in adipocytes by preventing NF-kappaB activation via ERK1/2, an effect that may help prevent insulin resistance. ..
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    ..Rosiglitazone is shown for the first time to exacerbate pancreatic fat infiltration; therefore, precaution has to be taken when rosiglitazone is prescribed to obese patients. ..