peroxisome proliferator activated receptors


Summary: TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that are activated by ligands and heterodimerize with RETINOID X RECEPTORS and bind to peroxisome proliferator response elements in the promoter regions of target genes.

Top Publications

  1. Nagasawa T, Inada Y, Nakano S, Tamura T, Takahashi T, Maruyama K, et al. Effects of bezafibrate, PPAR pan-agonist, and GW501516, PPARdelta agonist, on development of steatohepatitis in mice fed a methionine- and choline-deficient diet. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006;536:182-91 pubmed
  2. O Sullivan S. Cannabinoids go nuclear: evidence for activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:576-82 pubmed
  3. Grimaldi P. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as sensors of fatty acids and derivatives. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:2459-64 pubmed
  4. Hyyti O, Portman M. Molecular mechanisms of cross-talk between thyroid hormone and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors: focus on the heart. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2006;20:463-9 pubmed
    Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) regulate cardiac metabolism...
  5. Brown J, Plutzky J. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as transcriptional nodal points and therapeutic targets. Circulation. 2007;115:518-33 pubmed
    ..Such analysis of the existing PPAR data, the appropriate use of currently approved PPAR agonists, and continued progress in PPAR therapeutics will be predicated on a better understanding of PPAR biology. ..
  6. Zoete V, Grosdidier A, Michielin O. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor structures: ligand specificity, molecular switch and interactions with regulators. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:915-25 pubmed
    ..Finally, the interactions of PPARs LBD with co-activators or co-repressors, as well as with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) are described and considered in relation to PPARs activation. ..
  7. Rubenstrunk A, Hanf R, Hum D, Fruchart J, Staels B. Safety issues and prospects for future generations of PPAR modulators. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:1065-81 pubmed
    ..The selective modulation of PPAR activities is a promising approach to develop new drugs with preserved efficacy but diminished adverse effects. ..
  8. Chang F, Jaber L, Berlie H, O Connell M. Evolution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists. Ann Pharmacother. 2007;41:973-83 pubmed
    ..Although the dual PPAR compounds have been associated with unacceptable toxicities, new PPAR agonist medications continue to be developed and investigated to discover a safe drug with benefits in multiple disease states. ..
  9. Bensinger S, Tontonoz P. Integration of metabolism and inflammation by lipid-activated nuclear receptors. Nature. 2008;454:470-7 pubmed publisher

More Information

Publications104 found, 100 shown here

  1. Na T, Shin Y, Roh K, Kang S, Hong I, Oh S, et al. Liver X receptor mediates hepatitis B virus X protein-induced lipogenesis in hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatology. 2009;49:1122-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a novel association between HBx and LXR that may represent an important mechanism explaining HBx-induced hepatic lipogenesis during HBV-associated hepatic carcinogenesis. ..
  2. Fernandes Santos C, Carneiro R, de Souza Mendonca L, Aguila M, Mandarim de Lacerda C. Pan-PPAR agonist beneficial effects in overweight mice fed a high-fat high-sucrose diet. Nutrition. 2009;25:818-27 pubmed publisher
  3. Rockwell C, Snider N, Thompson J, Vanden Heuvel J, Kaminski N. Interleukin-2 suppression by 2-arachidonyl glycerol is mediated through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma independently of cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:101-11 pubmed
    ..Together, the aforementioned studies identify PPARgamma as a novel intracellular target of 2-AG, which mediates the suppression of IL-2 by 2-AG in a manner that is independent of CB1 and/or CB2. ..
  4. Feige J, Gelman L, Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W. From molecular action to physiological outputs: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions. Prog Lipid Res. 2006;45:120-59 pubmed
    ..Finally, we discuss how the integration of various intra-cellular signaling pathways allows PPARs to participate to whole-body homeostasis by mediating regulatory crosstalks between organs. ..
  5. Lemay D, Hwang D. Genome-wide identification of peroxisome proliferator response elements using integrated computational genomics. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:1583-7 pubmed
    ..g., chromatin remodeling, DNA damage response, Wnt, and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling). This first genome-wide library of high-confidence predicted PPAR target genes will be a valuable resource to PPAR biologists. ..
  6. Tenenbaum A, Fisman E, Boyko V, Benderly M, Tanne D, Haim M, et al. Attenuation of progression of insulin resistance in patients with coronary artery disease by bezafibrate. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166:737-41 pubmed
    ..The present analysis aimed to investigate the effect of bezafibrate on IR in patients with coronary artery disease enrolled in the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention Study...
  7. Chan B, Gartland A, Wilson P, Buckley K, Dillon J, Fraser W, et al. PPAR agonists modulate human osteoclast formation and activity in vitro. Bone. 2007;40:149-59 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study highlights the potential of PPARs as therapeutic targets in diseases with accelerated osteoclast formation and resorption. ..
  8. Degenhardt T, Matilainen M, Herzig K, Dunlop T, Carlberg C. The insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 gene is a primary target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39607-19 pubmed
    ..We also show that these additional PPAR binding genes contain a number of candidate PPREs and that their mRNA levels respond quickly to the presence of PPAR ligands, indicating that they are also primary PPAR target genes. ..
  9. Michalik L, Auwerx J, Berger J, Chatterjee V, Glass C, Gonzalez F, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. LXI. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:726-41 pubmed
  10. Rau O, Zettl H, Popescu L, Steinhilber D, Schubert Zsilavecz M. [New targets and drugs for treatment of lipid metabolism disorders]. Pharm Unserer Zeit. 2007;36:142-8 pubmed
  11. Dhar Mascareno M, Ramirez S, Rozenberg I, Rouille Y, Kral J, Mascareno E. Hexim1, a Novel Regulator of Leptin Function, Modulates Obesity and Glucose Disposal. Mol Endocrinol. 2016;30:314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We postulate that Hexim1 might be a novel factor involved in maintaining whole-body energy balance. ..
  12. Videla L, Fernandez V, Vargas R, Cornejo P, Tapia G, Varela N, et al. Upregulation of rat liver PPAR?-FGF21 signaling by a docosahexaenoic acid and thyroid hormone combined protocol. Biofactors. 2016;42:638-646 pubmed publisher
    ..2016 BioFactors, 42(6):638-646, 2016. ..
  13. Szatmari I, Vámosi G, Brazda P, Balint B, Benko S, Szeles L, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-regulated ABCG2 expression confers cytoprotection to human dendritic cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23812-23 pubmed
    ..The increased expression of the promiscuous ABCG2 transporter can significantly modify the xenobiotic and drug resistance of human myeloid dendritic cells...
  14. Chen Y, Huang A, Ruan X. Nuclear transcription factors and lipid homeostasis in liver. Chin Med J (Engl). 2007;120:2290-6 pubmed
  15. Hecker M, Behnk A, Morty R, Sommer N, Vadász I, Herold S, et al. PPAR-α activation reduced LPS-induced inflammation in alveolar epithelial cells. Exp Lung Res. 2015;41:393-403 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may facilitate further studies investigating the translation of pharmacological PPAR-α activation into clinical therapy of ARDS. ..
  16. Li X, Sun Y, Bao J, Chen X, Li Y, Yang Y, et al. Functional role of PPAR-? on the proliferation and migration of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. Sci Rep. 2017;7:12671 pubmed publisher
    ..Further study indicates that PPAR-? may induce activation Wnt/?-catenin signaling. In short, these results indicate that PPAR-? may play a pivotal role during FLSs activation and activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway...
  17. Liu X, Liu J, Liang S, Schlüter A, Fourcade S, Aslibekyan S, et al. ABCD2 alters peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α signaling in vitro, but does not impair responses to fenofibrate therapy in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. Mol Pharmacol. 2014;86:505-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that D2 can modulate genomic responses to fibrates, but that these effects are not sufficiently robust to alter the effects of fibrates on diet-induced obesity phenotypes. ..
  18. Peng Y, Zeng Y, Xu J, Huang X, Zhang W, Xu X. PPAR-? is involved in the protective effect of 2,3,4',5-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-beta-D-glucoside against cardiac fibrosis in pressure-overloaded rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;791:105-114 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that upregualtion of endogenous PPAR-? expression by TSG may be involved in its beneficial effect on pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis. ..
  19. Vella V, Nicolosi M, Giuliano S, Bellomo M, Belfiore A, Malaguarnera R. PPAR-? Agonists As Antineoplastic Agents in Cancers with Dysregulated IGF Axis. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2017;8:31 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the use of PPAR-? agonists in combined therapies of IGF-driven malignancies looks promising but requires future developments. ..
  20. Ku Y, Cho B, Kim M, Lim S, Park Y, Jang H, et al. Rosiglitazone increases endothelial cell migration and vascular permeability through Akt phosphorylation. BMC Pharmacol Toxicol. 2017;18:62 pubmed publisher
    ..These phenomena were reduced by Akt inhibition. Vascular endothelial cell migration and permeability change through Akt phosphorylation might be a mechanism of induced fluid retention and peripheral tissue edema by TZD. ..
  21. de Wilde J, Smit E, Snepvangers F, de Wit N, Mohren R, Hulshof M, et al. Adipophilin protein expression in muscle--a possible protective role against insulin resistance. FEBS J. 2010;277:761-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the results obtained in the present study indicate that adipophilin protein expression in muscle is involved in maintaining insulin sensitivity. ..
  22. Bonfleur M, Borck P, Ribeiro R, Caetano L, Soares G, Carneiro E, et al. Improvement in the expression of hepatic genes involved in fatty acid metabolism in obese rats supplemented with taurine. Life Sci. 2015;135:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Tau supplementation prevented obesity and hepatic TG deposition by upregulating MTP mRNA, ameliorating hepatic lipid efflux, and consequently enhancing PPAR-α which increases lipid oxidation through ACO and CPT-1a gene expressions. ..
  23. Hou J, Wang L, Hou J, Guo T, Xing Y, Zheng S, et al. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Promotes Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Express Connexin43 via the Inhibition of TGF-β1/Smads Signaling in a Rat Model of Myocardial Infarction. Stem Cell Rev. 2015;11:885-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of PPAR-γ could promote MSCs to express Cx43. Inhibition of TGF-β1/Smads signaling pathway might be involved in the process. ..
  24. Araújo S, Soares E Silva A, Gomes F, Ribeiro E, Oliveira W, Oliveira A, et al. Effects of the new thiazolidine derivative LPSF/GQ-02 on hepatic lipid metabolism pathways in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;788:306-314 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that LPSF/GQ-02 acts directly on the hepatic lipid metabolism through the activation of the PPAR-?/AMPK/FoxO1/ATGL lipolytic pathway, and the inhibition of the AMPK/LXR/SREBP-1c/ACC/FAS lipogenic pathway. ..
  25. Torres R, Magalhães N, E Silva P, Martins M, Carvalho V. Activation of PPAR-? reduces HPA axis activity in diabetic rats by up-regulating PI3K expression. Exp Mol Pathol. 2016;101:290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings revealed that rosiglitazone down-regulates HPA axis hyperactivity in diabetic rats via a mechanism dependent on PI3K activation in pituitary and adrenal glands. ..
  26. Markt P, Petersen R, Flindt E, Kristiansen K, Kirchmair J, Spitzer G, et al. Discovery of novel PPAR ligands by a virtual screening approach based on pharmacophore modeling, 3D shape, and electrostatic similarity screening. J Med Chem. 2008;51:6303-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that our virtual screening protocol is able to enrich novel scaffolds for PPAR ligands that could be useful for drug development in the area of atherosclerosis, dyslipidaemia, and type 2 diabetes. ..
  27. Vanden Heuvel J. Cardiovascular disease-related genes and regulation by diet. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2009;11:448-55 pubmed
  28. Soni N, Nookaew I, Sandberg A, Gabrielsson B. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched high fat diet delays the development of fatty liver in mice. Lipids Health Dis. 2015;14:74 pubmed publisher
    ..The liver transcriptome data implicate that the quality of dietary fat could modulate Ppar-related gene expression that in turn affects hepatic lipid storage and maintenance of metabolic health. ..
  29. Schaaf M. Nuclear receptor research in zebrafish. J Mol Endocrinol. 2017;59:R65-R76 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the use of the zebrafish in NR research is still relatively limited, it is expected that in the next decade the full potential of this animal model will be exploited. ..
  30. Cazanave S, Podtelezhnikov A, Jensen K, Seneshaw M, Kumar D, Min H, et al. The Transcriptomic Signature Of Disease Development And Progression Of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Sci Rep. 2017;7:17193 pubmed publisher
    ..Over time, inflammation and fibrogenic pathways become dominant while in advanced disease an inflammatory-oncogenic profile dominates. ..
  31. Zhao J, Cheng Q, Ye P, Yang G, Liu S, Ao Q, et al. Atorvastatin improves pathological changes in the aged kidney by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor expression and reducing matrix metalloproteinase-9 and transforming growth factor-β1 levels. Exp Gerontol. 2016;74:37-42 pubmed publisher
    ..AVT may reduce the levels of MMP-9 and TGF-β in aged rats by upregulating the expression of PPARs. ..
  32. Zhu W, Tang C, Xiao Z, Zhu J, Lin Q, Fu Y, et al. Targeting EZH1 and EZH2 contributes to the suppression of fibrosis-associated genes by miR-214-3p in cardiac myofibroblasts. Oncotarget. 2016;7:78331-78342 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results revealed that EZH1 and -2 were novel targets of miR-214-3p, and miR-214-3p might be one potential miRNA for the prevention of cardiac fibrosis. ..
  33. Rom O, Khoo N, Chen Y, Villacorta L. Inflammatory signaling and metabolic regulation by nitro-fatty acids. Nitric Oxide. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the engagement of novel signaling and metabolic pathways influenced by NO2-FA, beyond NF-?B and PPAR signaling, is discussed herein. ..
  34. Chen M, Li H, Wang G, Shen X, Zhao S, Su W. Atorvastatin prevents advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced cardiac fibrosis via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ). Metabolism. 2016;65:441-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we demonstrated that AGEs-induced fibroblast proliferation and differentiation were dependent on AGEs-RAGE-ERK1/2 pathway and that atorvastatin could block this pathway via activating PPAR-γ. ..
  35. Cheng A, Yin H, Chen A, Liu Y, Chuang M, He H, et al. Celecoxib and Pioglitazone as Potential Therapeutics for Regulating TGF-?-Induced Hyaluronan in Dysthyroid Myopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2016;57:1951-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor and PPAR-? agonist in this study are potential treatments for GO due to their ability to suppress TNF-?-induced TGF-?, HAS, and HA upregulation. ..
  36. Krishnan M, Wang Z, Aljabar P, Ball G, Mirza G, Saxena A, et al. Machine learning shows association between genetic variability in PPARG and cerebral connectivity in preterm infants. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114:13744-13749 pubmed publisher
  37. Wray J, Bishop Bailey D. Epoxygenases and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in mammalian vascular biology. Exp Physiol. 2008;93:148-54 pubmed
    ..The epoxygenase-EET-PPAR pathway may therefore represent a novel endogenous protective pathway by which short-lived lipid mediators control vascular cell activation. ..
  38. Bargut T, Mandarim de Lacerda C, Aguila M. A high-fish-oil diet prevents adiposity and modulates white adipose tissue inflammation pathways in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2015;26:960-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, fish oil activates PPAR (the three isoforms) and AMPK, decreases WAT insulin resistance and inflammation, and inhibits MAPK and RAS pathways activation. ..
  39. Dasgupta S, Rai R. PPAR-? and Akt regulate GLUT1 and GLUT3 surface localization during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Mol Cell Biochem. 2018;440:127-138 pubmed publisher
  40. Nagasawa M, Hara T, Kashino A, Akasaka Y, Ide T, Murakami K. Identification of a functional peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element (PPRE) in the human apolipoprotein A-IV gene. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay confirmed that ligand-induced binding of PPARalpha to endogenous -2979/-2967 PPRE. These results indicate that human apoA-IV is regulated directly by PPARalphavia the -2979/-2967 PPRE. ..
  41. Grimaldi M, Boulahtouf A, Delfosse V, Thouennon E, Bourguet W, Balaguer P. Reporter cell lines to evaluate the selectivity of chemicals for human and zebrafish estrogen and peroxysome proliferator activated γ receptors. Front Neurosci. 2015;9:212 pubmed publisher
  42. Chen M, Chang J, Lin Y, Pan K, Ho W, Liu W, et al. Deciphering the gene expression profile of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway in the left atria of patients with mitral regurgitation. J Transl Med. 2016;14:157 pubmed publisher
    ..Differentially expressed genes of the PPAR pathway have been identified in the left atria of MR patients compared with patients with aortic valve disease and normal controls. ..
  43. Lu Y, Sun Y, Zhu J, Yu L, Jiang X, Zhang J, et al. Oridonin exerts anticancer effect on osteosarcoma by activating PPAR-γ and inhibiting Nrf2 pathway. Cell Death Dis. 2018;9:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, oridonin may be a promising and effective agent for human osteosarcoma in the future clinical applications. ..
  44. Hoekstra M, Kruijt J, Van Eck M, Van Berkel T. Specific gene expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters and nuclear hormone receptors in rat liver parenchymal, endothelial, and Kupffer cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:25448-53 pubmed
  45. Choi Y, Jang S, Choi M, Ryoo Z, Park T. Increased expression of FGF1-mediated signaling molecules in adipose tissue of obese mice. J Physiol Biochem. 2016;72:157-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These new findings regarding the molecular mechanisms controlling adipose tissue plasticity provide a novel insight about the functional network with potential therapeutic application against obesity. ..
  46. Jarosz M, Olbert M, Wyszogrodzka G, Młyniec K, Librowski T. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of zinc. Zinc-dependent NF-?B signaling. Inflammopharmacology. 2017;25:11-24 pubmed publisher
  47. Zarei M, Barroso E, Palomer X, Dai J, Rada P, Quesada López T, et al. Hepatic regulation of VLDL receptor by PPAR?/? and FGF21 modulates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Mol Metab. 2018;8:117-131 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings provide new mechanisms by which PPAR?/? and FGF21 regulate VLDLR levels and influence hepatic steatosis development. ..
  48. Shaw P, Clarke A. Murine models of intestinal cancer: recent advances. DNA Repair (Amst). 2007;6:1403-12 pubmed
    ..This review highlights some of notable recent advances using these approaches, with particular focus upon the role of a number of key signalling pathways, DNA repair mechanisms and inflammation. ..
  49. Villarroya J, Flachs P, Redondo Angulo I, Giralt M, Medrikova D, Villarroya F, et al. Fibroblast growth factor-21 and the beneficial effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Lipids. 2014;49:1081-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings indicate that increased Fgf21 levels do not appear to be a major mechanism through which LC n-3 PUFA ameliorates high-fat-diet-associated metabolic disorders. ..
  50. Wincewicz D, Juchniewicz A, Waszkiewicz N, Braszko J. Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade by telmisartan prevents stress-induced impairment of memory via HPA axis deactivation and up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene expression. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2016;148:108-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirms the dual activities of TLM that controls hypertension and cognition through AT1 blockade. ..
  51. Huang C, Yang Y, Li W, Wu X, Li X, Ma T, et al. Hyperin attenuates inflammation by activating PPAR-γ in mice with acute liver injury (ALI) and LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2015;29:440-447 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, all the above results indicate that HP may serve as an effective modulator of PPAR-γ, further down-regulating ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK during the pathogenesis of inflammation. ..
  52. Corton J. Evaluation of the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) in mouse liver tumor induction by trichloroethylene and metabolites. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2008;38:857-75 pubmed
    ..Although the TCE MOA is likely dominated by a PPARalpha-dependent contribution from TCA, the contribution of a PPARalpha-independent MOA from DCA cannot be ruled out. ..
  53. Patel M, Ulrich C, Forschner T. Genetically determined susceptibility to COX-2 inhibitors: a report of exaggerated responders to diclofenac 3% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156 Suppl 3:57-61 pubmed
  54. Hu Q, Zhang Y, Zhang X. [Rosiglitazone enhances the anti-atherosclerotic effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma1 gene transfer in apolipoprotein-knock out mice]. Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi. 2007;35:1050-6 pubmed
    ..05). Anti-atherosclerotic effects of PPARgamma1 gene transfer in ApoE-knock out mice could be enhanced by PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone. ..
  55. Remels A, Gosker H, Schrauwen P, Langen R, Schols A. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: a therapeutic target in COPD?. Eur Respir J. 2008;31:502-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Proposed mechanisms will be outlined in the present article, as well as the therapeutic potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulation in the treatment of skeletal muscle dysfunction. ..
  56. Hossain M, Tsujita M, Gonzalez F, Yokoyama S. Effects of fibrate drugs on expression of ABCA1 and HDL biogenesis in hepatocytes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2008;51:258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that fibrates enhance expression of ABCA1 in hepatocytes to contribute to increase of the HDL biogenesis in a PPAR-dependent manner, whether exclusively or nonexclusively on PPARalpha. ..
  57. Lee T, Kao Y, Chen Y, Chen Y. Proinflammatory cytokine and ligands modulate cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Eur J Clin Invest. 2009;39:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative stress causes the regulations of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma in the TNF-alpha-treated cardiomyocytes. The up-regulation of PPAR-gamma by PPAR ligands may contribute to their anti-inflammation effects. ..
  58. Koytak E, Mizrak D, Bektas M, Verdi H, Arslan Ergul A, Idilman R, et al. PPAR-alpha L162V polymorphism in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Turk J Gastroenterol. 2008;19:245-9 pubmed
    ..Frequent occurrence of advanced disease in patients with L162V polymorphism suggests a role for this polymorphism in tumor progression. ..
  59. Robinson E, Grieve D. Significance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. Pharmacol Ther. 2009;122:246-63 pubmed publisher
    ..It will also examine the evidence supporting the involvement of the different PPAR isoforms in cardiovascular disease and discuss the current and potential future clinical applications of PPAR activators. ..
  60. Brennan K, Michal J, Ramsey J, Johnson K. Body weight loss in beef cows: I. The effect of increased beta-oxidation on messenger ribonucleic acid levels of uncoupling proteins two and three and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in skeletal muscle. J Anim Sci. 2009;87:2860-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data support previous findings in nonruminants and suggest that these genes play a role in the same physiological processes in ruminants. ..
  61. Zouboulis C. [Modern aspects of acne pathogenesis]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2010;8 Suppl 1:S7-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Proinflammatory lipids, chemokines and cytokines overtake the role of mediators for the development of acne lesions. Bacterial antigens can potentate the inflammatory phenomena. ..
  62. Takenouchi Y, Kobayashi T, Taguchi K, Matsumoto T, Kamata K. Relationship among superoxide-related enzyme, PPARs, and endothelium-dependent relaxation in murine aortas previously organ-cultured in high-glucose conditions. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2010;88:760-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, such protein changes in gp91phox and Mn-SOD may be secondary to a decreased expression of PPARgamma protein. ..
  63. van Heyningen C. Lipid metabolism: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Curr Opin Lipidol. 2007;18:470-2 pubmed
  64. Niino M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists as potential therapeutic agents in multiple sclerosis. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007;7:1129-35 pubmed
    ..This article will outline current experimental evidence suggesting potential clinical benefits for patients with MS. ..
  65. Zhang H, Matsuda H, Nakamura S, Yoshikawa M. Effects of amide constituents from pepper on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:3272-7 pubmed publisher
  66. Ramsay T, Mitchell A, Richards M. Uncoupling protein expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in response to in vivo porcine somatotropin treatment. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2008;35:130-41 pubmed publisher
    ..05) with pST. In contrast, IGF-I increased UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA abundance in both MSQ and OSQ slices (P<0.05). These experiments suggest pST, IGF-I and metabolic adaptations to pST contribute to regulating UCP2 and UCP3. ..
  67. Mansilla M, Banchio C, de Mendoza D. Signalling pathways controlling fatty acid desaturation. Subcell Biochem. 2008;49:71-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recently discovered components and mechanisms of the regulatory machinery governing the transcription of fatty acid desaturases in bacteria, yeast and animals. ..
  68. Fang X, Feng Y, Shi Z, Dai J. Alterations of cytokines and MAPK signaling pathways are related to the immunotoxic effect of perfluorononanoic acid. Toxicol Sci. 2009;108:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, increased serum cortisol and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in thymus likely contributed to the PFNA-induced thymocyte apoptosis. ..
  69. Djouadi F, Lecarpentier Y, Hebert J, Charron P, Bastin J, Coirault C. A potential link between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signalling and the pathogenesis of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. Cardiovasc Res. 2009;84:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..ARVC is associated with major disturbances in the PPARalpha and PPARgamma signalling pathway in the RV that may contribute to intracellular lipid overload and severe myosin dysfunction. ..
  70. Balakumar P, Arora M, Singh M. Emerging role of PPAR ligands in the management of diabetic nephropathy. Pharmacol Res. 2009;60:170-3 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we discussed the novel role of PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists in the management of diabetic nephropathy. ..
  71. Barg E. [Roles of PPARs in the origin of metabolic disturbances in children with low birth weight (below 2500 g)]. Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab. 2009;15:108-13 pubmed
  72. Kusminski C, Scherer P. The road from discovery to clinic: adiponectin as a biomarker of metabolic status. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009;86:592-5 pubmed publisher
  73. Li N, Wang J, Gao F, Tian Y, Song R, Zhu S. The role of uncoupling protein 2 in the apoptosis induced by free fatty acid in rat cardiomyocytes. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2010;55:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, free fatty acids induced UCP2 expression through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in adult rat cardiomyocytes. ..
  74. Chegary M, te Brinke H, Doolaard M, IJlst L, Wijburg F, Wanders R, et al. Characterization of L-aminocarnitine, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. Mol Genet Metab. 2008;93:403-10 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we conclude that in intact cells L-AC inhibits CPT2. Combined with our observation that l-AC does not activate PPAR, we suggest that L-AC is useful to simulate a FAO defect in cells from different origin. ..
  75. Kasuga J, Oyama T, Hirakawa Y, Makishima M, Morikawa K, Hashimoto Y, et al. Improvement of the transactivation activity of phenylpropanoic acid-type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pan agonists: effect of introduction of fluorine at the linker part. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:4525-8 pubmed publisher
  76. Holdsworth Carson S, Permezel M, Riley C, Rice G, Lappas M. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and retinoid X receptor-alpha in term human gestational tissues: tissue specific and labour-associated changes. Placenta. 2009;30:176-86 pubmed publisher
    ..This data is consistent with the hypothesis that PPAR:RXR are involved in regulating of the processes of human term parturition. ..
  77. Duan S, Usher M, Mortensen R. PPARs: the vasculature, inflammation and hypertension. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2009;18:128-33 pubmed publisher
    ..PPAR agonists may be beneficial, alone or in combination with other drugs that modify the inflammatory response, in treating hypertension, atherosclerosis and metabolic derangements associated with obesity. ..
  78. Wagner J, Wright E, Ennis M, Prince M, Kochan J, Nunez D, et al. Utility of adiponectin as a biomarker predictive of glycemic efficacy is demonstrated by collaborative pooling of data from clinical trials conducted by multiple sponsors. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009;86:619-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Cross-company precompetitive collaboration is a feasible and powerful approach to biomarker qualification. ..
  79. Chopra B, Georgopoulos N, Nicholl A, Hinley J, Oleksiewicz M, Southgate J. Structurally diverse peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists induce apoptosis in human uro-epithelial cells by a receptor-independent mechanism involving store-operated calcium channels. Cell Prolif. 2009;42:688-700 pubmed publisher
  80. Dubourdeau M, Pipy B, Rousseau D. [Roles of PPAR and p21WAF1/CIP1 in monocyte/macrophage differentiation: are circulating monocytes able to proliferate?]. Med Sci (Paris). 2010;26:481-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It could also be involved in the control of the proliferation of monocytes/macrophages, even if these cells are classically described as devoided of any proliferative capacity. ..
  81. Hassanpour H, Khalaji Pirbalouty V, Adibi M, Nazari H. Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the estradiol production of ovine Sertoli cells. Vet Res Forum. 2017;8:251-257 pubmed
    ..Probably, this effect of FSH in the estradiol production via PPAR? is only a servo-assist mechanism which if it was inhibited, the estradiol production was not considerably affected...
  82. Delarue J, Magnan C. Free fatty acids and insulin resistance. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2007;10:142-8 pubmed
    ..Alleviating the excess of free fatty acids is a target for the treatment of insulin resistance. ..
  83. Barnes P. Emerging targets for COPD therapy. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005;4:675-83 pubmed
    ..Effective delivery of drugs to the sites of disease in the peripheral lung is an important consideration, and there is the need for validated biomarkers and monitoring techniques in early clinical studies with new therapies for COPD. ..
  84. Shearer B, Billin A. The next generation of PPAR drugs: do we have the tools to find them?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1771:1082-93 pubmed
    ..In this review we will discuss the side effects associated the PPARs, how the current drugs in clinical development were discovered and new concepts in how to screen for PPAR drugs. ..
  85. Andersson C, Zaman M, Jones A, Freedman S. Alterations in immune response and PPAR/LXR regulation in cystic fibrosis macrophages. J Cyst Fibros. 2008;7:68-78 pubmed
    ..The effects of DHA could be reproduced by PPAR agonists and blocked by a PPARalpha antagonist. Impaired regulation of nuclear receptors may contribute to the abnormal LPS induced signaling in CF macrophages and is reversed by DHA. ..
  86. Capobianco E, Martinez N, Higa R, White V, Jawerbaum A. The effects of maternal dietary treatments with natural PPAR ligands on lipid metabolism in fetuses from control and diabetic rats. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2008;79:191-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, olive oil- and safflower oil-supplemented diets provide beneficial effects in maternal diabetes, as they prevent fetal impairments in 15dPGJ2 concentrations, lipid synthesis and lipid accumulation. ..
  87. Reza J, Doosti M, Salehipour M, Packnejad M, Mojarrad M, Heidari M. Modulation peroxisome proliferators activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) and acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase1 (ACAT1) gene expression by fatty acids in foam cell. Lipids Health Dis. 2009;8:38 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, it seems that different fatty acids have different effects on gene expression and lipid metabolism and for complete conception study of the genes involved in lipid metabolism in foam cell all at once maybe is benefit. ..
  88. Trombetta A, Maggiora M, Martinasso G, Cotogni P, Canuto R, Muzio G. Arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acids reduce the growth of A549 human lung-tumor cells increasing lipid peroxidation and PPARs. Chem Biol Interact. 2007;165:239-50 pubmed
    ..From these results it may be hypothesized that n-6 PUFAs, like n-3 PUFAs, are able to inhibit tumor growth. ..
  89. Zahradka P. Cardiovascular actions of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) agonist Wy14,643. Cardiovasc Drug Rev. 2007;25:99-122 pubmed
    ..Finally, the pharmacology of Wy14,643 is discussed within the context of PPARalpha-dependent and -independent mechanisms. ..
  90. Glatz J, Lagarde M. Lipid sensing and lipid sensors. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007;64:2449-51 pubmed
  91. Gomez Cabrera M, Domenech E, Romagnoli M, Arduini A, Borras C, Pallardo F, et al. Oral administration of vitamin C decreases muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and hampers training-induced adaptations in endurance performance. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87:142-9 pubmed
    ..Vitamin C supplementation decreases training efficiency because it prevents some cellular adaptations to exercise. ..
  92. Carmel J, Tarnus E, Cohn J, Bourdon E, Davignon J, Bernier L. High expression of apolipoprotein E impairs lipid storage and promotes cell proliferation in human adipocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2009;106:608-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results bring new evidence of apoE-involvement in metabolic disorders at the adipocyte level. ..