nf kappa b p50 subunit


Summary: A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein and is capable of forming dimeric complexes with itself or with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELA. It regulates expression of GENES involved in immune and inflammatory responses.

Top Publications

  1. Zhou B, Rao L, Peng Y, Wang Y, Li Y, Gao L, et al. Functional polymorphism of the NFKB1 gene promoter is related to the risk of dilated cardiomyopathy. BMC Med Genet. 2009;10:47 pubmed publisher
    ..015) and the ATTG2 carrier (ATTG1/ATTG2 + ATTG2/ATTG2) was susceptible to DCM. Our data suggested that NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion ATTG polymorphism is associated with DCM. ..
  2. Zhang P, Wei Q, Li X, Wang K, Zeng H, Bu H, et al. A functional insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of the NFKB1 gene increases susceptibility for prostate cancer. Cancer Genet Cytogenet. 2009;191:73-7 pubmed publisher
    ..275 times higher risk for prostate cancer, compared to the control group (P=0.001). The functional NFKB1 promoter polymorphism is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. ..
  3. Yu Y, Wan Y, Huang C. The biological functions of NF-kappaB1 (p50) and its potential as an anti-cancer target. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2009;9:566-71 pubmed
    ..Recent studies by our group and others have highlighted the novel functions of the p50 protein. In this review, we will focus on the regulation and functions of NF-kappaB p50. ..
  4. Choi Y, Hur J, Lee H, Jeong S. The RNA aptamer disrupts protein-protein interaction between beta-catenin and nuclear factor-kappaB p50 and regulates the expression of C-reactive protein. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:1415-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, beta-catenin binding RNA aptamer was an effective regulator of beta-catenin and NF-kappaB p50 mediated transcription. ..
  5. Porta C, Rimoldi M, Raes G, Brys L, Ghezzi P, Di Liberto D, et al. Tolerance and M2 (alternative) macrophage polarization are related processes orchestrated by p50 nuclear factor kappaB. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:14978-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, NF-kappaB p50 is a key component in the orchestration of M2-driven inflammatory reactions. ..
  6. Zhong H, May M, Jimi E, Ghosh S. The phosphorylation status of nuclear NF-kappa B determines its association with CBP/p300 or HDAC-1. Mol Cell. 2002;9:625-36 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that phosphorylation of p65 determines whether it associates with either CBP or HDAC-1, ensuring that only p65 entering the nucleus from cytoplasmic NF-kappa B:Ikappa B complexes can activate transcription. ..
  7. Brown V, Elborn J, Bradley J, Ennis M. Dysregulated apoptosis and NFkappaB expression in COPD subjects. Respir Res. 2009;10:24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that apoptosis is reduced in the sputum of COPD subjects and in healthy control smokers and may be regulated by an associated activation of NFkappaB. ..
  8. Seo S, Song S, Kang M, Kim M, Oh J, Kim Y, et al. Immunohistochemical analysis of NF-kappaB signaling proteins IKKepsilon, p50/p105, p52/p100 and RelA in prostate cancers. APMIS. 2009;117:623-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Gasparini C, Foxwell B, Feldmann M. RelB/p50 regulates CCL19 production, but fails to promote human DC maturation. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrated that RelB/p50 was active only in DC expressing both RelB and p50, and induced CCL19 production, but not DC maturation. ..

More Information


  1. Wang D, Paz Priel I, Friedman A. NF-kappa B p50 regulates C/EBP alpha expression and inflammatory cytokine-induced neutrophil production. J Immunol. 2009;182:5757-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that acute inflammation not only activates mature myeloid cells, but also stimulates neutrophil production via NF-kappaB p50 induction of C/EBPalpha transcription. ..
  2. Zhou B, Qie M, Wang Y, Yan L, Zhang Z, Liang A, et al. Relationship between NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion ATTG polymorphism and susceptibility of cervical squamous cell carcinoma risk. Ann Oncol. 2010;21:506-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the functional NFKB1 -94 insertion/deletion ATTG polymorphism is associated with CSCC, especially with younger age (< or =35 years) and positive parametrial invasion of CSCC patients. ..
  3. Kang M, Kim M, Kim S, Ahn C, Yoo N, Lee S. NF-kappaB signalling proteins p50/p105, p52/p100, RelA, and IKKepsilon are over-expressed in oesophageal squamous cell carcinomas. Pathology. 2009;41:622-5 pubmed publisher
  4. Jana S, Jailwala P, Haribhai D, Waukau J, Glisic S, Grossman W, et al. The role of NF-kappaB and Smad3 in TGF-beta-mediated Foxp3 expression. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2571-83 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of Foxp3 regulation could be useful in dissecting the cause of Treg dysfunction in several autoimmune diseases and for generating more potent TGF-beta1-induced-Treg cells for therapeutic purposes. ..
  5. Cohen S, Ciechanover A, Kravtsova Ivantsiv Y, Lapid D, Lahav Baratz S. ABIN-1 negatively regulates NF-kappaB by inhibiting processing of the p105 precursor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;389:205-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, the effects of ABIN-1 on p105 processing and of p105 on stabilizing ABIN-1 act to potentiate the NF-kappaB inhibitory activity of ABIN-1. ..
  6. Sampaio M, Vettore A, Yamamoto M, Chauffaille M, Zago M, Colleoni G. Expression of eight genes of nuclear factor-kappa B pathway in multiple myeloma using bone marrow aspirates obtained at diagnosis. Histol Histopathol. 2009;24:991-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, ICAM1 was overexpressed in 26% of cases and its level was associated with ISS scores. ..
  7. Langley R, Mishra N, Pena Philippides J, Hutt J, Sopori M. Granuloma formation induced by low-dose chronic silica inhalation is associated with an anti-apoptotic response in Lewis rats. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73:669-83 pubmed publisher
  8. Lehmann M, Brachman R, Listwak S, Herkenham M. NF-kappaB activity affects learning in aversive tasks: possible actions via modulation of the stress axis. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24:1008-17 pubmed publisher
  9. Ying S, Kojima T, Kawada A, Nachat R, Serre G, Simon M, et al. An intronic enhancer driven by NF-?B contributes to transcriptional regulation of peptidylarginine deiminase type I gene in human keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence that an NF-?B-mediated signaling pathway is involved in PADI1 regulation in human epidermal KCs. ..
  10. Milovanovic M, Drozdenko G, Weise C, Babina M, Worm M. Interleukin-17A promotes IgE production in human B cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2010;130:2621-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, IL-17A might be a target for the treatment of IgE-dependent diseases, including atopic dermatitis. ..
  11. Paz Priel I, Cai D, Wang D, Kowalski J, Blackford A, Liu H, et al. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha) and C/EBPalpha myeloid oncoproteins induce bcl-2 via interaction of their basic regions with nuclear factor-kappaB p50. Mol Cancer Res. 2005;3:585-96 pubmed
    ..Targeting interaction between C/EBPalpha basic region and NF-kappaB p50 may contribute to the therapy of AML and other malignancies expressing C/EBPs. ..
  12. Nie J, Lu Y, Liu X, Guo S. Immunoreactivity of progesterone receptor isoform B, nuclear factor kappaB, and IkappaBalpha in adenomyosis. Fertil Steril. 2009;92:886-9 pubmed publisher
  13. Pan X, Chen X, Zhu Y, Chen L, Zhang J, Huang T, et al. Tripchlorolide protects neuronal cells from microglia-mediated beta-amyloid neurotoxicity through inhibiting NF-kappaB and JNK signaling. Glia. 2009;57:1227-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, T4 may be an effective agent in modulating neuroinflammatory process in AD. ..
  14. Bowick G, Fennewald S, Zhang L, Yang X, Aronson J, Shope R, et al. Attenuated and lethal variants of Pichindé virus induce differential patterns of NF-kappaB activation suggesting a potential target for novel therapeutics. Viral Immunol. 2009;22:457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we further define the potential mechanism for NF-kappaB inhibition as involving increased levels of repressive p50/p50 homodimers, and suggest a novel therapeutic strategy that acts via modulation of host signaling...
  15. Charalambous M, Lightfoot T, Speirs V, Horgan K, Gooderham N. Expression of COX-2, NF-kappaB-p65, NF-kappaB-p50 and IKKalpha in malignant and adjacent normal human colorectal tissue. Br J Cancer. 2009;101:106-15 pubmed publisher
  16. Tang T, Cui S, Deng X, Gong Z, Jiang G, Wang P, et al. Insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of NFKB1 gene increases susceptibility for superficial bladder cancer in Chinese. DNA Cell Biol. 2010;29:9-12 pubmed publisher
    ..2% vs. 56.1%, p = 0.006, odds ratio = 1.465), suggesting that the functional NFKB1 promoter polymorphism is associated with increased risk for superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. ..
  17. Park H, Kim I, Lee K, Choi J, Park M, Joo C. Effects of nuclear factor-kappaB small interfering RNA on posterior capsule opacification. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4707-15 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-kappaB siRNA was effective in inhibiting the migration and proliferation of LECs in vitro and decreased PCO formation after cataract surgery in an in vivo rabbit model. ..
  18. Kobayashi T, Yoshimori A, Kino K, Komori R, Miyazawa H, Tanuma S. A new small molecule that directly inhibits the DNA binding of NF-kappaB. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:5293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NI241 with structural novelty may serve as a useful scaffold for the creation of new NF-kappaB inhibitors by rational optimization. ..
  19. Misra U, Kaczowka S, Pizzo S. Inhibition of NF-kappaB1 and NF-kappaB2 activation in prostate cancer cells treated with antibody against the carboxyl terminal domain of GRP78: effect of p53 upregulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;392:538-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies demonstrate that antibody directed against the carboxyl terminal domain of GRP78 inhibits the pro-proliferative NF-kappaB signaling cascade in cancer cells. ..
  20. Anan I, Kiuru Enari S, Obayashi K, Ranløv P, Ando Y. Investigation of AGE, their receptor and NF-kappaB activation and apoptosis in patients with ATTR and Gelsolin amyloidosis. Histol Histopathol. 2010;25:691-9 pubmed publisher
  21. Creus K, De Paepe B, De Bleecker J. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies and the classical NF-kappaB complex: current insights and implications for therapy. Autoimmun Rev. 2009;8:627-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Unravelling the precise involvement of NF-kappaB subunits in IIM immunopathogenesis can shed new light onto the etiology of these diseases and may offer a novel therapeutic target. ..
  22. Creus K, De Paepe B, Werbrouck B, Vervaet V, Weis J, De Bleecker J. Distribution of the NF-kappaB complex in the inflammatory exudates characterizing the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:370-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results shed further light on the immunopathology of PM, sIBM and DM. CD4(+) and CD68(+) mononuclear cells may play a more prominent role than previously assumed. ..
  23. Luo S, Fang R, Hsieh H, Chi P, Lin C, Hsiao L, et al. Involvement of MAPKs and NF-kappaB in tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 expression in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:105-16 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the roles of MAPKs and NF-kappaB in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)-induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts (RASFs)...
  24. Mohamed M, Rahman M, Rice A, Moyer R, Werden S, McFadden G. Cowpox virus expresses a novel ankyrin repeat NF-kappaB inhibitor that controls inflammatory cell influx into virus-infected tissues and is critical for virus pathogenesis. J Virol. 2009;83:9223-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that members of this ANK repeat family are utilized specifically by pathogenic orthopoxviruses to repress the NF-kappaB signaling pathway at tissue sites of virus replication in situ. ..
  25. Gionet N, Jansson D, Mader S, Pratt M. NF-kappaB and estrogen receptor alpha interactions: Differential function in estrogen receptor-negative and -positive hormone-independent breast cancer cells. J Cell Biochem. 2009;107:448-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the p50 homodimer is less sensitive to the presence of the ER, this may allow for the activation of both pathways in the same cell. ..
  26. Zhang H, Ding J, Fan Q, Liu S. TRPC6 up-regulation in Ang II-induced podocyte apoptosis might result from ERK activation and NF-kappaB translocation. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2009;234:1029-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The activation of ERK pathway and subsequent translocation of NF-kappaB was possibly necessary for the up-regulation TRPC6 induced by Ang II. ..
  27. Kim J, Lee E, Park G, Kim M, Yokozawa T, Yu B, et al. Morin modulates the oxidative stress-induced NF-kappaB pathway through its anti-oxidant activity. Free Radic Res. 2010;44:454-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The significance of the current study is the new revelation that morin may have potential as an effective anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent. ..
  28. Keutgens A, Zhang X, Shostak K, Robert I, Olivier S, Vanderplasschen A, et al. BCL-3 degradation involves its polyubiquitination through a FBW7-independent pathway and its binding to the proteasome subunit PSMB1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:25831-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data defined a unique motif of BCL-3 that is needed for its recruitment to the proteasome and identified PSMB1 as a key protein required for the proteasome-mediated degradation of a nuclear and oncogenic IkappaB protein. ..
  29. Yu Y, Lin H. Curcumin prevents human aortic smooth muscle cells migration by inhibiting of MMP-9 expression. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2010;20:125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that curcumin has anti-inflammatory properties and may prevent the migration of HASMCs by suppressing MMP-9 expression through down-regulation of NF-kappaB. ..
  30. Zhang L, Zhao Y, Cheng G, Guo T, Chin Y, Liu P, et al. Targeted deletion of NF-kappaB p50 diminishes the cardioprotection of histone deacetylase inhibition. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;298:H2154-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that NF-kappaB p50 acetylation and activation play a pivotal role in HDAC inhibition-induced cardioprotection. ..
  31. Cheng Y, Li J, Martinka M, Li G. The expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 is increased along with NF-kappaB p105/p50 in human cutaneous melanomas. Oncol Rep. 2010;23:973-9 pubmed
    ..032, chi2 test). Our findings suggest that NQO1 may play an important role in the initiation stage of melanoma development. ..
  32. Mohamed M, Rahman M, Lanchbury J, Shattuck D, Neff C, Dufford M, et al. Proteomic screening of variola virus reveals a unique NF-kappaB inhibitor that is highly conserved among pathogenic orthopoxviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:9045-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, proteomic screening of variola virus has the potential to uncover modulators of the human innate antiviral responses...
  33. Piccagli L, Fabbri E, Borgatti M, Bianchi N, Bezzerri V, Mancini I, et al. Virtual screening against p50 NF-kappaB transcription factor for the identification of inhibitors of the NF-kappaB-DNA interaction and expression of NF-kappaB upregulated genes. ChemMedChem. 2009;4:2024-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Information deduced from the discovery of the new lead compound and its binding mode could result in further lead optimization resulting in more potent NF-kappaB inhibitors. ..
  34. Hu W, Xie J, Zhao J, Xu Y, Yang S, Ni W. Involvement of Bcl-2 family in apoptosis and signal pathways induced by cigarette smoke extract in the human airway smooth muscle cells. DNA Cell Biol. 2009;28:13-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Oxidative stress and inhibition of NF-kappaB expression caused by CSE may play important roles in apoptosis and inhibition of cell growth in HASMCs. ..
  35. Bi X, Yan B, Fang S, Yang Y, He J, Li X, et al. Quetiapine regulates neurogenesis in ischemic mice by inhibiting NF-kappaB p65/p50 expression. Neurol Res. 2009;31:159-66 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-kappaB plays a key role in regulating neuron damage and neurogenesis. This work suggests that down-regulation of NF-kappaB expression may be one of the mechanisms by which quetiapine inhibits neurogenesis. ..
  36. Newton H, Pearson J, Badea L, Kelly M, Lucas M, Holloway G, et al. The type III effectors NleE and NleB from enteropathogenic E. coli and OspZ from Shigella block nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB p65. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000898 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall our data show that EPEC and Shigella have evolved similar T3SS-dependent means to manipulate host inflammatory pathways by interfering with the activation of selected host transcriptional regulators...
  37. von Vietinghoff S, Asagiri M, Azar D, Hoffmann A, Ley K. Defective regulation of CXCR2 facilitates neutrophil release from bone marrow causing spontaneous inflammation in severely NF-kappa B-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2010;185:670-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These neutrophil effects may limit the usefulness of global NF-kappaB inhibitors for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. ..
  38. Wall E, Zavzavadjian J, Chang M, Randhawa B, Zhu X, Hsueh R, et al. Suppression of LPS-induced TNF-alpha production in macrophages by cAMP is mediated by PKA-AKAP95-p105. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra28 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that crosstalk between the TLR4 and cAMP pathways in macrophages can be coordinated through PKA-dependent scaffolds that localize specific pools of the kinase to distinct substrates. ..
  39. Hayashida K, Hattori M, Nakao R, Tanaka Y, Kim J, Inoue N, et al. A schizont-derived protein, TpSCOP, is involved in the activation of NF-kappaB in Theileria parva-infected lymphocytes. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;174:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, TpSCOP likely plays an important role in apoptosis inhibition during Theileria infection. ..
  40. Flister M, Wilber A, Hall K, Iwata C, Miyazono K, Nisato R, et al. Inflammation induces lymphangiogenesis through up-regulation of VEGFR-3 mediated by NF-kappaB and Prox1. Blood. 2010;115:418-29 pubmed publisher
    ..This, in turn, enhances the responsiveness of preexisting lymphatic endothelium to VEGFR-3 binding factors, VEGF-C and VEGF-D, ultimately resulting in robust lymphangiogenesis. ..
  41. Cecon E, Fernandes P, Pinato L, Ferreira Z, Markus R. Daily variation of constitutively activated nuclear factor kappa B (NFKB) in rat pineal gland. Chronobiol Int. 2010;27:52-67 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we report here a novel transcription factor in the pineal gland, which exhibits a constitutive rhythm dependent on environmental photic information...
  42. Iversen M, Ank N, Melchjorsen J, Paludan S. Expression of type III interferon (IFN) in the vaginal mucosa is mediated primarily by dendritic cells and displays stronger dependence on NF-kappaB than type I IFNs. J Virol. 2010;84:4579-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the type I and III IFN genes are not induced through entirely identical pathways, which indicates differential expression of these two types of IFNs under certain conditions. ..
  43. Spinelli S, Casey A, Pollock S, Gertz J, McMillan D, Narasipura S, et al. Platelets and megakaryocytes contain functional nuclear factor-kappaB. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2010;30:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these data, NF-kappaB is also identified as a new target to dampen unwanted platelet activation. ..
  44. Karakawa A, Fukawa Y, Okazaki M, Takahashi K, Sano T, Amano H, et al. Diclofenac sodium inhibits NFkappaB transcription in osteoclasts. J Dent Res. 2009;88:1042-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the novel mechanism of diclofenac for bone remodeling is associated with phosphorylated NFkappaB reduction, which regulates osteoclast differentiation and activation. ..
  45. Büchau A, MacLeod D, Morizane S, Kotol P, Hata T, Gallo R. Bcl-3 acts as an innate immune modulator by controlling antimicrobial responses in keratinocytes. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:2148-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, 1,25D3 suppressed Bcl-3 expression in vitro and in vivo. This study identified Bcl-3 as an important modulator of cutaneous innate immune responses and its possible therapeutic role in AD. ..
  46. Rahighi S, Ikeda F, Kawasaki M, Akutsu M, Suzuki N, Kato R, et al. Specific recognition of linear ubiquitin chains by NEMO is important for NF-kappaB activation. Cell. 2009;136:1098-109 pubmed publisher
  47. Rajaraman P, Brenner A, Butler M, Wang S, Pfeiffer R, Ruder A, et al. Common variation in genes related to innate immunity and risk of adult glioma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1651-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We have identified a promising set of innate immunity-related genetic regions for further investigation. ..
  48. Liu S, Tian R, Baskind H, Hsueh W, De Plaen I. Platelet-activating factor induces the processing of nuclear factor-kappaB p105 into p50, which mediates acute bowel injury in mice. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G76-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that PAF increases the processing of NF-kappaB p105 into p50, with upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, which leads to PAF-induced systemic inflammatory response and acute bowel injury. ..
  49. Meyer Schwesinger C, Dehde S, von Ruffer C, Gatzemeier S, Klug P, Wenzel U, et al. Rho kinase inhibition attenuates LPS-induced renal failure in mice in part by attenuation of NF-kappaB p65 signaling. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F1088-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that Rho kinase inhibition by preventive or therapeutic treatment effectively reduced endotoxic kidney injury in part by attenuation of NF-kappaB p65 activation. ..
  50. Zhang J, Peng B. NF-kappaB promotes iNOS and VEGF expression in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma cells and enhances endothelial cell motility in vitro. Cell Prolif. 2009;42:150-61 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there still remains a lack of direct evidence to clarify the function of liposaccharide-induced NF-kappaB activity in ACC angiogenesis...
  51. Xie X, Mhaskar Y, Arbogast L, Trammell R, Hughes L, Toth L. Adenosine receptor antagonists and behavioral activation in NF-kappaB p50 subunit knockout mice. Life Sci. 2009;85:226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the conclusions that 1) A2AAR has a major impact on behavioral activation of p50 KO mice, and 2) D2R mediated neurotransmission is important to this effect. ..
  52. Wu Y, Zhang R, Zhou C, Xu Y, Guan X, Hu J, et al. Enhanced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by corticotrophin-releasing hormone contributes to progression of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Atherosclerosis. 2009;203:360-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides a new insight into the effect of CRH on atherosclerosis and suggests a potential target for the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. ..