mads domain proteins


Summary: A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.

Top Publications

  1. Buzas D, Robertson M, Finnegan E, Helliwell C. Transcription-dependence of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation at the Arabidopsis polycomb target gene FLC. Plant J. 2011;65:872-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that reduction of FLC transcription during vernalization leads to an increase of H3K27me3 levels in the FLC gene body that in turn maintains FLC repression. ..
  2. Yu X, Michaels S. The Arabidopsis Paf1c complex component CDC73 participates in the modification of FLOWERING LOCUS C chromatin. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1074-84 pubmed publisher
    ..g. h3k27me3). ..
  3. Hsu H, Hsieh W, Chen M, Chang Y, Yang C. C/D class MADS box genes from two monocots, orchid (Oncidium Gower Ramsey) and lily (Lilium longiflorum), exhibit different effects on floral transition and formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:1029-45 pubmed publisher
  4. Gramzow L, Ritz M, Theissen G. On the origin of MADS-domain transcription factors. Trends Genet. 2010;26:149-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that gene duplication occurred in the lineage that led to the MRCA of extant eukaryotes, giving rise to SRF-like and MEF2-like MADS-box genes. ..
  5. Tsuchiya T, Eulgem T. The Arabidopsis defense component EDM2 affects the floral transition in an FLC-dependent manner. Plant J. 2010;62:518-28 pubmed publisher
  6. Buzas D, Tamada Y, Kurata T. FLC: a hidden polycomb response element shows up in silence. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:785-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that each of Modules I, IIA and IIB partially fulfills the PRE function criteria, and that together they represent the functional FLC PRE, which differs structurally from canonical PREs in Drosophila. ..
  7. Hehenberger E, Kradolfer D, Kohler C. Endosperm cellularization defines an important developmental transition for embryo development. Development. 2012;139:2031-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that AGL62 is a direct target gene of FIS Polycomb group repressive complex 2 (PRC2), establishing the molecular basis for FIS PRC2-mediated endosperm cellularization. ..
  8. Pazhouhandeh M, Molinier J, Berr A, Genschik P. MSI4/FVE interacts with CUL4-DDB1 and a PRC2-like complex to control epigenetic regulation of flowering time in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3430-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall our work provides evidence for a unique functional interaction between the cullin-RING ubiquitin ligase (CUL4-DDB1(MSI4)) and a CLF-PRC2 complex in the regulation of flowering timing in Arabidopsis. ..
  9. Sun Q, Csorba T, Skourti Stathaki K, Proudfoot N, Dean C. R-loop stabilization represses antisense transcription at the Arabidopsis FLC locus. Science. 2013;340:619-21 pubmed publisher
    ..R-loop stabilization mediated by AtNDX inhibits COOLAIR transcription, which in turn modifies FLC expression. Differential stabilization of R-loops could be a general mechanism influencing gene expression in many organisms. ..

More Information


  1. Heo J, Sung S. Encoding memory of winter by noncoding RNAs. Epigenetics. 2011;6:544-7 pubmed
    ..Recent recognition of long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in vernalization response indicates that long ncRNAs are evolutionarily conserved components for PRC2-mediated repression in eukaryotes. ..
  2. Guella I, Rimoldi V, Asselta R, Ardissino D, Francolini M, Martinelli N, et al. Association and functional analyses of MEF2A as a susceptibility gene for premature myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our data do not support MEF2A as a susceptibility gene for coronary artery disease/MI in the Italian population. ..
  3. He C, Tian Y, Saedler R, Efremova N, Riss S, Khan M, et al. The MADS-domain protein MPF1 of Physalis floridana controls plant architecture, seed development and flowering time. Planta. 2010;231:767-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this suggests that members of the STMADS11 subclade act as positive regulators of flowering but have diverse functions in plant growth...
  4. Liu F, Bakht S, Dean C. Cotranscriptional role for Arabidopsis DICER-LIKE 4 in transcription termination. Science. 2012;335:1621-3 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that DCL4 promotes transcription termination of the Arabidopsis FCA gene, reducing the amount of aberrant RNA produced from the locus. ..
  5. Crevillen P, Dean C. Regulation of the floral repressor gene FLC: the complexity of transcription in a chromatin context. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2011;14:38-44 pubmed publisher
  6. Jullien P, Berger F. Parental genome dosage imbalance deregulates imprinting in Arabidopsis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1000885 pubmed publisher
    ..The complexity of the network of regulations between expressed and silenced alleles of imprinted genes activated in response to parental dosage imbalance does not support simple models derived from the parental conflict hypothesis. ..
  7. Li H, Liang W, Hu Y, Zhu L, Yin C, Xu J, et al. Rice MADS6 interacts with the floral homeotic genes SUPERWOMAN1, MADS3, MADS58, MADS13, and DROOPING LEAF in specifying floral organ identities and meristem fate. Plant Cell. 2011;23:2536-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MADS6 is a key player in specifying flower development via interacting with other floral homeotic genes in rice, thus providing new insights into the mechanism by which flower development is controlled. ..
  8. van Dijk A, van Ham R. Conserved and variable correlated mutations in the plant MADS protein network. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:607 pubmed publisher
    Plant MADS domain proteins are involved in a variety of developmental processes for which their ability to form various interactions is a key requisite...
  9. Seo E, Lee H, Jeon J, Park H, Kim J, Noh Y, et al. Crosstalk between cold response and flowering in Arabidopsis is mediated through the flowering-time gene SOC1 and its upstream negative regulator FLC. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3185-97 pubmed publisher
  10. Hemming M, Trevaskis B. Make hay when the sun shines: the role of MADS-box genes in temperature-dependant seasonal flowering responses. Plant Sci. 2011;180:447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Plant breeders may be able to use natural variation in temperature-responsive MADS-box genes to breed future crop varieties. ..
  11. Dai D, Zhou X, Xiao Y, Xu F, Sun F, Ji F, et al. Structural changes in exon 11 of MEF2A are not related to sporadic coronary artery disease in Han Chinese population. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010;40:669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that structural changes of exon 11 in MEF2A are not involved in sporadic CAD in the Han population of China. ..
  12. Kaufmann K, Wellmer F, Muiño J, Ferrier T, Wuest S, Kumar V, et al. Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1. Science. 2010;328:85-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results further imply that AP1 orchestrates floral initiation by integrating growth, patterning, and hormonal pathways. ..
  13. Greenup A, Sasani S, Oliver S, Talbot M, Dennis E, Hemming M, et al. ODDSOC2 is a MADS box floral repressor that is down-regulated by vernalization in temperate cereals. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1062-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these findings highlight differences and similarities between the vernalization responses of temperate cereals and the model plant Arabidopsis. ..
  14. Tao Z, Shen L, Liu C, Liu L, Yan Y, Yu H. Genome-wide identification of SOC1 and SVP targets during the floral transition in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2012;70:549-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these findings revealed that feedback regulatory loops mediated by SOC1 and SVP are essential components of the gene regulatory networks that underpin the integration of flowering signals during floral transition. ..
  15. Zhao Y, Moller M, Yang J, Liu T, Zhao J, Dong L, et al. Extended expression of B-class MADS-box genes in the paleoherb Asarum caudigerum. Planta. 2010;231:265-76 pubmed publisher
    ..caudigerum were upregulated in the perianth, stamens and carpels, implying that the expression domain of B-class genes in this basal angiosperm was broader than those in their eudicot counterparts. ..
  16. Wuest S, Ó Maoiléidigh D, Rae L, Kwasniewska K, Raganelli A, Hanczaryk K, et al. Molecular basis for the specification of floral organs by APETALA3 and PISTILLATA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:13452-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss our results in light of a model for the mechanism underlying sex-determination in seed plants, in which AP3/PI orthologues might act as a switch between the activation of male and the repression of female development. ..
  17. Martel C, Vrebalov J, Tafelmeyer P, Giovannoni J. The tomato MADS-box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR interacts with promoters involved in numerous ripening processes in a COLORLESS NONRIPENING-dependent manner. Plant Physiol. 2011;157:1568-79 pubmed publisher
  18. Kwantes M, Liebsch D, Verelst W. How MIKC* MADS-box genes originated and evidence for their conserved function throughout the evolution of vascular plant gametophytes. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:293-302 pubmed publisher
  19. Litt A, Kramer E. The ABC model and the diversification of floral organ identity. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2010;21:129-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Lastly, there are many aspects of ABC gene function outside the major model systems that remain a mystery, perhaps none more so than the C-terminal amino acid motifs that distinguish specific ABC gene lineages. ..
  20. D Aloia M, Bonhomme D, Bouché F, Tamseddak K, Ormenese S, Torti S, et al. Cytokinin promotes flowering of Arabidopsis via transcriptional activation of the FT paralogue TSF. Plant J. 2011;65:972-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments provide a mechanistic basis for the role of cytokinins in flowering, and demonstrate that the redundant genes FT and TSF are differently regulated by distinct floral-inducing signals. ..
  21. Vrebalov J, Pan I, Arroyo A, McQuinn R, Chung M, Poole M, et al. Fleshy fruit expansion and ripening are regulated by the Tomato SHATTERPROOF gene TAGL1. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3041-62 pubmed publisher
    ..From this broad perspective, SHP1/2 and TAGL1, while distinct in molecular function, regulate similar activities via their necessity for seed dispersal in Arabidopsis and tomato, respectively. ..
  22. Dornelas M, Patreze C, Angenent G, Immink R. MADS: the missing link between identity and growth?. Trends Plant Sci. 2011;16:89-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review these novel findings and integrate them into a model, to show how MADS proteins, in concert with co-factors, could fulfill their role at later stages of floral organ development when size and shape are established. ..
  23. Strange A, Li P, Lister C, Anderson J, Warthmann N, Shindo C, et al. Major-effect alleles at relatively few loci underlie distinct vernalization and flowering variation in Arabidopsis accessions. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19949 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest that distinct phenotypic variation in the vernalization and flowering response of Arabidopsis accessions is accounted for by variation that has arisen independently at relatively few major-effect loci. ..
  24. Gu X, Jiang D, Yang W, Jacob Y, Michaels S, He Y. Arabidopsis homologs of retinoblastoma-associated protein 46/48 associate with a histone deacetylase to act redundantly in chromatin silencing. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002366 pubmed publisher
    ..This reveals an important functional divergence of the plant RbAp46/48 relatives from animal counterparts. ..
  25. Chen Y, Lee P, Hsiao Y, Wu W, Pan Z, Lee Y, et al. C- and D-class MADS-box genes from Phalaenopsis equestris (Orchidaceae) display functions in gynostemium and ovule development. Plant Cell Physiol. 2012;53:1053-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicated that both C-class PeMADS1 and D-class PeMADS7 play important roles in orchid gynostemium and ovule development...
  26. Ishikawa R, Ohnishi T, Kinoshita Y, Eiguchi M, Kurata N, Kinoshita T. Rice interspecies hybrids show precocious or delayed developmental transitions in the endosperm without change to the rate of syncytial nuclear division. Plant J. 2011;65:798-806 pubmed publisher
  27. van Dijk A, Morabito G, Fiers M, van Ham R, Angenent G, Immink R. Sequence motifs in MADS transcription factors responsible for specificity and diversification of protein-protein interaction. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1001017 pubmed publisher
    ..The analyses presented here take us a step forward in understanding protein-protein interactions and the interplay between protein sequences and network evolution. ..
  28. Kobayashi K, Maekawa M, Miyao A, Hirochika H, Kyozuka J. PANICLE PHYTOMER2 (PAP2), encoding a SEPALLATA subfamily MADS-box protein, positively controls spikelet meristem identity in rice. Plant Cell Physiol. 2010;51:47-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study provides new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the genes of the LOFSEP subgroup control developmental processes that are unique to grass species. ..
  29. Horvath D, Sung S, Kim D, Chao W, Anderson J. Characterization, expression and function of DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-BOX genes from leafy spurge. Plant Mol Biol. 2010;73:169-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Comparisons of the DAM gene promoters between poplar and leafy spurge have identified several conserved sequences that may be important for their expression patterns in response to dormancy-inducing stimuli. ..
  30. Gramzow L, Theissen G. A hitchhiker's guide to the MADS world of plants. Genome Biol. 2010;11:214 pubmed publisher
  31. Posé D, Verhage L, Ott F, Yant L, Mathieu J, Angenent G, et al. Temperature-dependent regulation of flowering by antagonistic FLM variants. Nature. 2013;503:414-7 pubmed publisher
    ..A better understanding of how temperature controls the molecular mechanisms of flowering will be important to cope with current changes in global climate. ..
  32. Lee J, Ryu H, Chung K, Posé D, Kim S, Schmid M, et al. Regulation of temperature-responsive flowering by MADS-box transcription factor repressors. Science. 2013;342:628-32 pubmed publisher
  33. Liu Y, Cui S, Wu F, Yan S, Lin X, Du X, et al. Functional conservation of MIKC*-Type MADS box genes in Arabidopsis and rice pollen maturation. Plant Cell. 2013;25:1288-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, our data indicate that the function of heterodimeric MIKC*-type protein complexes in pollen development has been conserved since the divergence of monocots and eudicots, roughly 150 million years ago. ..
  34. Heijmans K, Morel P, Vandenbussche M. MADS-box genes and floral development: the dark side. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:5397-404 pubmed publisher
  35. Severing E, van Dijk A, Morabito G, Busscher Lange J, Immink R, van Ham R. Predicting the impact of alternative splicing on plant MADS domain protein function. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30524 pubmed publisher
    ..For most of the AS events we were able to formulate hypotheses about the potential impact on the interaction capabilities of the encoded MIKC proteins. ..
  36. Prasad K, Zhang X, Tobón E, Ambrose B. The Arabidopsis B-sister MADS-box protein, GORDITA, represses fruit growth and contributes to integument development. Plant J. 2010;62:203-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our studies provide evidence of a new regulatory role for a B-sister MADS-box gene in the control of organ growth. ..
  37. Nah G, Jeffrey Chen Z. Tandem duplication of the FLC locus and the origin of a new gene in Arabidopsis related species and their functional implications in allopolyploids. New Phytol. 2010;186:228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Flowering time variation in Arabidopsis allopolyploids is probably related to the expression diversity and/or copy number of multiple FLC loci. Moreover, exonization of intronic sequence is a mechanism for the origin of new genes. ..
  38. Aikawa S, Kobayashi M, Satake A, Shimizu K, Kudoh H. Robust control of the seasonal expression of the Arabidopsis FLC gene in a fluctuating environment. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:11632-7 pubmed publisher
  39. Ruokolainen S, Ng Y, Albert V, Elomaa P, Teeri T. Large scale interaction analysis predicts that the Gerbera hybrida floral E function is provided both by general and specialized proteins. BMC Plant Biol. 2010;10:129 pubmed publisher
    ..according to the quartet model, we performed yeast two- and three-hybrid analysis with fourteen Gerbera MADS domain proteins to analyze their protein-protein interaction potential...
  40. Helliwell C, Robertson M, Finnegan E, Buzas D, Dennis E. Vernalization-repression of Arabidopsis FLC requires promoter sequences but not antisense transcripts. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21513 pubmed publisher
    ..Long-term maintenance of FLC repression requires additional regions of the gene body, including those encoding sense non-coding transcripts. ..
  41. Deng W, Ying H, Helliwell C, Taylor J, Peacock W, Dennis E. FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) regulates development pathways throughout the life cycle of Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:6680-5 pubmed publisher
  42. Nowakowska B, Obersztyn E, Szymanska K, Bekiesinska Figatowska M, Xia Z, Ricks C, et al. Severe mental retardation, seizures, and hypotonia due to deletions of MEF2C. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B:1042-51 pubmed publisher
  43. Morin R, Mendez Lago M, Mungall A, Goya R, Mungall K, Corbett R, et al. Frequent mutation of histone-modifying genes in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Nature. 2011;476:298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis suggests a previously unappreciated disruption of chromatin biology in lymphomagenesis. ..
  44. Aude Garcia C, Collin Faure V, Bausinger H, Hanau D, Rabilloud T, Lemercier C. Dual roles for MEF2A and MEF2D during human macrophage terminal differentiation and c-Jun expression. Biochem J. 2010;430:237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, these data highlight for the first time the possible dual roles of MEF2A and MEF2D in human macrophages, as activators or as repressors of gene transcription. ..
  45. Erdmann R, Gramzow L, Melzer R, Theissen G, Becker A. GORDITA (AGL63) is a young paralog of the Arabidopsis thaliana B(sister) MADS box gene ABS (TT16) that has undergone neofunctionalization. Plant J. 2010;63:914-24 pubmed publisher
    MIKC-type MADS domain proteins are key regulators of flower development in angiosperms. B(sister) genes constitute a clade with a close relationship to class B floral homeotic genes, and have been conserved for more than 300 million years...
  46. Immink R, Kaufmann K, Angenent G. The 'ABC' of MADS domain protein behaviour and interactions. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2010;21:87-93 pubmed publisher
    ..made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the combinatorial activity of the encoded MADS domain proteins. Here, we review how various state-of-the-art technologies were implemented in order to unravel the protein-..
  47. Jean Finnegan E, Bond D, Buzas D, Goodrich J, Helliwell C, Tamada Y, et al. Polycomb proteins regulate the quantitative induction of VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3 in response to low temperatures. Plant J. 2011;65:382-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The observation that Polycomb proteins control VIN3 activity defines a new role for Polycomb proteins in regulating the rate of gene induction. ..
  48. Thouet J, Quinet M, Lutts S, Kinet J, Périlleux C. Repression of floral meristem fate is crucial in shaping tomato inflorescence. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31096 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the formation of an inflorescence in tomato requires the interaction of J and a target of SFT in the meristem, for repressing FA activity and FM fate in the IM...
  49. Tranbarger T, Dussert S, Joet T, Argout X, Summo M, Champion A, et al. Regulatory mechanisms underlying oil palm fruit mesocarp maturation, ripening, and functional specialization in lipid and carotenoid metabolism. Plant Physiol. 2011;156:564-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that divergence has occurred in the regulatory components in this monocot fruit compared with those identified in the dicot tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fleshy fruit model. ..
  50. Itkin M, Seybold H, Breitel D, Rogachev I, Meir S, Aharoni A. TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE 1 is a component of the fruit ripening regulatory network. Plant J. 2009;60:1081-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The results add a new component to the current model of the regulatory network that controls fleshy fruit ripening and its association with the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. ..
  51. Jiang D, Kong N, Gu X, Li Z, He Y. Arabidopsis COMPASS-like complexes mediate histone H3 lysine-4 trimethylation to control floral transition and plant development. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1001330 pubmed publisher
  52. Liu F, Marquardt S, Lister C, Swiezewski S, Dean C. Targeted 3' processing of antisense transcripts triggers Arabidopsis FLC chromatin silencing. Science. 2010;327:94-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeted 3' processing of antisense transcripts may be a common mechanism triggering transcriptional silencing of the corresponding sense gene. ..
  53. Heo J, Sung S. Vernalization-mediated epigenetic silencing by a long intronic noncoding RNA. Science. 2011;331:76-9 pubmed publisher
    ..COLDAIR physically associates with a component of PRC2 and targets PRC2 to FLC. Our results show that COLDAIR is required for establishing stable repressive chromatin at FLC through its interaction with PRC2. ..