early growth response protein 1


Summary: An early growth response transcription factor and zinc finger protein that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.

Top Publications

  1. Lee J, Hynds R. Divergent cellular pathways of hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation. Hippocampus. 2013;23:233-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, there are divergent pathways of hippocampal memory consolidation and reconsolidation, involving commonality at the cell surface, but separable downstream kinase cascades and transcriptional regulation. ..
  2. Bhattacharyya S, Fang F, Tourtellotte W, Varga J. Egr-1: new conductor for the tissue repair orchestra directs harmony (regeneration) or cacophony (fibrosis). J Pathol. 2013;229:286-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes recent advances in understanding the regulation and complex functional role of Egr-1 and its related proteins and inhibitors in pathological fibrosis. ..
  3. Lejard V, Blais F, Guerquin M, Bonnet A, Bonnin M, Havis E, et al. EGR1 and EGR2 involvement in vertebrate tendon differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:5855-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify EGRs as novel DNA-binding proteins involved in vertebrate tendon differentiation by regulating type I collagen production...
  4. Kapakos G, Youreva V, Srivastava A. Attenuation of endothelin-1-induced PKB and ERK1/2 signaling, as well as Egr-1 expression, by curcumin in A-10 vascular smooth muscle cells. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2012;90:1277-85 pubmed publisher
  5. Ganesh A, Bogdanowicz W, Balamurugan K, Ragu Varman D, Rajan K. Egr-1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotide administration into the olfactory bulb impairs olfactory learning in the greater short-nosed fruit bat Cynopterus sphinx. Brain Res. 2012;1471:33-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that egr-1 control the activation of CaMKII and PSD-95 during the process of olfactory memory formation. ..
  6. Zandarashvili L, Vuzman D, Esadze A, Takayama Y, Sahu D, Levy Y, et al. Asymmetrical roles of zinc fingers in dynamic DNA-scanning process by the inducible transcription factor Egr-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:E1724-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results shed light on asymmetrical roles of the zinc finger domains for Egr-1 to scan DNA efficiently in the nucleus. ..
  7. Pardo P, Boriek A. The physiological roles of Sirt1 in skeletal muscle. Aging (Albany NY). 2011;3:430-7 pubmed
    ..In this perspective, we discuss the mechanisms regulating Sirt1 activity and expression in skeletal muscles, emphasizing their implications in muscle physiology and the impairment of muscle function with age. ..
  8. Kim J, Jeong I, Lim Y, Lee Y, Shin S. Estrogen receptor beta stimulates Egr-1 transcription via MEK1/Erk/Elk-1 cascade in C6 glioma cells. BMB Rep. 2011;44:452-7 pubmed
    ..Our results show that ER? promoted up-regulation of Egr-1 expression via a non-genomic mechanism involving the Raf/MEK1/Erk/Elk-1 signaling cascade. ..
  9. El Asrar A, Missotten L, Geboes K. Expression of high-mobility groups box-1/receptor for advanced glycation end products/osteopontin/early growth response-1 pathway in proliferative vitreoretinal epiretinal membranes. Mol Vis. 2011;17:508-18 pubmed
    ..The HMGB1/RAGE/OPN/Egr-1 pathway may be involved in inflammatory, angiogenic and fibrotic responses in proliferative vitreoretinal disorders. ..

More Information


  1. Shin S, Kim J, Lee J, Lim Y, Lee Y. 2'-Hydroxyflavanone induces apoptosis through Egr-1 involving expression of Bax, p21, and NAG-1 in colon cancer cells. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2012;56:761-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Egr-1 also upregulated the proapoptotic gene Bax and the cell cycle inhibitor p21. Dietary 2'-HF may possess antitumor activity against human colon cancer. ..
  2. Hu T, Gimferrer I, Simmons A, WIEST D, Alberola Ila J. The Ras/MAPK pathway is required for generation of iNKT cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19890 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly our results also show that there are differences in the contributions of several of these molecules to the development of iNKT and conventional ?? T cells. ..
  3. Azmi A, Banerjee S, Ali S, Wang Z, Bao B, Beck F, et al. Network modeling of MDM2 inhibitor-oxaliplatin combination reveals biological synergy in wt-p53 solid tumors. Oncotarget. 2011;2:378-92 pubmed
    ..We anticipate that our MI219-oxaliplatin network blueprints can be clinically translated in the rationale design and application of this unique therapeutic combination in a genetically pre-defined subset of patients. ..
  4. Gokey N, Lopez Anido C, Gillian Daniel A, Svaren J. Early growth response 1 (Egr1) regulates cholesterol biosynthetic gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29501-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these data point to Egr1 as a modulator of the cholesterol biosynthetic gene family in liver. ..
  5. Dickinson M, Bartelds B, Molema G, Borgdorff M, Boersma B, Takens J, et al. Egr-1 expression during neointimal development in flow-associated pulmonary hypertension. Am J Pathol. 2011;179:2199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Using microarray analysis, we recently found that the early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) transcription factor is increased in experimental flow-associated end-stage PAH...
  6. Bhattacharyya S, Sargent J, Du P, Lin S, Tourtellotte W, Takehara K, et al. Egr-1 induces a profibrotic injury/repair gene program associated with systemic sclerosis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23082 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that targeting Egr-1 expression or activity might be a novel therapeutic strategy to control fibrosis in specific SSc subsets. ..
  7. Bhindi R, Fahmy R, McMahon A, Khachigian L, Lowe H. Intracoronary delivery of DNAzymes targeting human EGR-1 reduces infarct size following myocardial ischaemia reperfusion. J Pathol. 2012;227:157-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that strategies targeting Egr-1 via the intracoronary route after IR injury in pigs have potential therapeutic implications in human MI. ..
  8. Nebbaki S, El Mansouri F, Afif H, Kapoor M, Benderdour M, Duval N, et al. Egr-1 contributes to IL-1-mediated down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2012;14:R69 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that induction and recruitment of Egr-1 contributed to the suppressive effect of IL-1 on PPAR? expression. They also suggest that modulation of Egr-1 levels in the joint may have therapeutic potential in OA. ..
  9. Iyoda T, Zhang F, Sun L, Hao F, Schmitz Peiffer C, Xu X, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid induces early growth response-1 (Egr-1) protein expression via protein kinase C?-regulated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:22635-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the first evidence that PKC? mediates ERK and JNK activation in the LPA signaling pathway and that this pathway is required for LPA-induced gene regulation as evidenced by Egr-1 expression. ..
  10. Esadze A, Iwahara J. Stopped-flow fluorescence kinetic study of protein sliding and intersegment transfer in the target DNA search process. J Mol Biol. 2014;426:230-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that a major pathway in the target association process for the Egr-1 zinc-finger protein is the one involving intersegment transfer to a nonspecific site and the subsequent sliding to the target. ..
  11. Windischhofer W, Huber E, Rossmann C, Semlitsch M, Kitz K, Rauh A, et al. LPA-induced suppression of periostin in human osteosarcoma cells is mediated by the LPA(1)/Egr-1 axis. Biochimie. 2012;94:1997-2005 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of LPA(1) and/or Egr-1 in MG-63 cells reversed LPA-mediated suppression of periostin. We here demonstrate a crosslink between Egr-1 and periostin in cancer cells, in particular in human osteosarcoma. ..
  12. Ozen E, Gozukizil A, Erdal E, Uren A, Bottaro D, Atabey N. Heparin inhibits Hepatocyte Growth Factor induced motility and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through early growth response protein 1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e42717 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, heparin treatment might be a therapeutic approach to inhibit invasion and metastasis of HCC, especially for patients with active HGF/c-Met signaling. ..
  13. Iwahara J, Levy Y. Speed-stability paradox in DNA-scanning by zinc-finger proteins. Transcription. 2013;4:58-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we introduce recent insights into how zinc-finger proteins can rapidly scan DNA. Potential application of the new knowledge to the zinc-finger-based technology is also discussed. ..
  14. Xie L, Korkmaz K, Braun K, Bock J. Early life stress-induced histone acetylations correlate with activation of the synaptic plasticity genes Arc and Egr1 in the mouse hippocampus. J Neurochem. 2013;125:457-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These events are assumed to represent early steps in the adaption of neuronal networks to a stressful environment. ..
  15. Rossmann C, Rauh A, Hammer A, Windischhofer W, Zirkl S, Sattler W, et al. Hypochlorite-modified high-density lipoprotein promotes induction of HO-1 in endothelial cells via activation of p42/44 MAPK and zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2011;509:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrates a novel compensatory pathway against adverse effects of HOCl-HDL, providing cytoprotection in a number of pathological conditions including cardiovascular disease. ..
  16. Zhou Y, Zhang Y, Gao F, Guo F, Wang J, Cai W, et al. N-n-butyl haloperidol iodide protects cardiac microvascular endothelial cells from hypoxia/reoxygenation injury by down-regulating Egr-1 expression. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;26:839-48 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate a protective effect of F2 in CMECs against H/R injury by down-regulating Egr-1 expression, which might be play a vital role in the pathogenesis of myocardial I/R injury. ..
  17. Shen N, Yu X, Pan F, Gao X, Xue B, Li C. An early response transcription factor, Egr-1, enhances insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes with chronic hyperinsulinism. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:14508-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This pathway provides a new therapeutic target for increasing insulin sensitivity: inhibiting the function of Egr-1. ..
  18. Wiley M, Teygong C, Phelps E, Radke J, Blader I. Serum response factor regulates immediate early host gene expression in Toxoplasma gondii-infected host cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18335 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data define Serum Response Factor as a host cell transcription factor that regulates immediate early gene expression in Toxoplasma-infected cells. ..
  19. Chasseigneaux S, Dinc L, Rose C, Chabret C, Coulpier F, Topilko P, et al. Secreted amyloid precursor protein ? and secreted amyloid precursor protein ? induce axon outgrowth in vitro through Egr1 signaling pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16301 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that sAPP? is not deleterious per se. Since sAPP? and sAPP? are present in the embryonic brain, these two APP metabolites might play a role in axon outgrowth during development and in response to brain damage. ..
  20. Xie B, Wang C, Zheng Z, Song B, Ma C, Thiel G, et al. Egr-1 transactivates Bim gene expression to promote neuronal apoptosis. J Neurosci. 2011;31:5032-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish Bim as an Egr-1 target gene in neurons, uncovering a novel Egr-1/Bim pathway by which activity deprivation induces neuronal apoptosis. ..
  21. Boone D, Qi Y, Li Z, Hann S. Egr1 mediates p53-independent c-Myc-induced apoptosis via a noncanonical ARF-dependent transcriptional mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:632-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings also provide evidence that cofactors can differentially regulate specific transcriptional programs of c-Myc leading to different biological outcomes. ..
  22. Pagel J, Ziegelhoeffer T, Heil M, Fischer S, Fernandez B, Schaper W, et al. Role of early growth response 1 in arteriogenesis: impact on vascular cell proliferation and leukocyte recruitment in vivo. Thromb Haemost. 2012;107:562-74 pubmed publisher
  23. Dolan S, Hastie P, Crossan C, Nolan A. Co-induction of cyclooxygenase-2 [correction of cyclooxyenase-2] and early growth response gene (Egr-1) in spinal cord in a clinical model of persistent inflammation and hyperalgesia. Mol Pain. 2011;7:91 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the temporal pattern of expression of key mediators in clinical pain states may lead to better strategies to manage pain. ..
  24. Ziòłkowska B, Kiełbiński M, Gieryk A, Soria G, Maldonado R, Przewłocki R. Regulation of the immediate-early genes arc and zif268 in a mouse operant model of cocaine seeking reinstatement. J Neural Transm (Vienna). 2011;118:877-87 pubmed publisher
    ..That comparability adds to the usefulness of the mouse model as a tool for addressing neurobiological mechanisms of addiction. ..
  25. Torres Farfan C, Mendez N, Abarzua Catalan L, Vilches N, Valenzuela G, Seron Ferre M. A circadian clock entrained by melatonin is ticking in the rat fetal adrenal. Endocrinology. 2011;152:1891-900 pubmed publisher
    ..Per-2 and Bmal-1 and of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), Mt1 melatonin receptor, and early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) expression...
  26. Yu X, Shen N, Zhang M, Pan F, Wang C, Jia W, et al. Egr-1 decreases adipocyte insulin sensitivity by tilting PI3K/Akt and MAPK signal balance in mice. EMBO J. 2011;30:3754-65 pubmed publisher
  27. Kwon J, Jhang J, Kim H, Lee S, Han J. Brain region-specific activity patterns after recent or remote memory retrieval of auditory conditioned fear. Learn Mem. 2012;19:487-94 pubmed publisher
  28. Zhang Y, Bonzo J, Gonzalez F, Wang L. Diurnal regulation of the early growth response 1 (Egr-1) protein expression by hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha) and small heterodimer partner (SHP) cross-talk in liver fibrosis. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:29635-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our study revealed control network for Egr-1 expression through a feedback loop between SHP and HNF4α. ..
  29. Bhattacharyya S, Wu M, Fang F, Tourtellotte W, Feghali Bostwick C, Varga J. Early growth response transcription factors: key mediators of fibrosis and novel targets for anti-fibrotic therapy. Matrix Biol. 2011;30:235-42 pubmed publisher
    ..As a novel profibrotic mediator, Egr-1 thus appears to be a promising potential target for the development of anti-fibrotic therapies. ..
  30. Dussmann P, Pagel J, Vogel S, Magnusson T, Zimmermann R, Wagner E, et al. Live in vivo imaging of Egr-1 promoter activity during neonatal development, liver regeneration and wound healing. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:28 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to monitor and quantify Egr-1 activity in the living organism may facilitate a better understanding of Egr-1 function in vivo. ..
  31. Kang H, Ock J, Lee H, Lee Y, Kwon B, Hong S. Early growth response protein 1 upregulation and nuclear translocation by 2'-benzoyloxycinnamaldehyde induces prostate cancer cell death. Cancer Lett. 2013;329:217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These genes are known to be induced by transcription factor early growth response protein 1 (EGR1)...
  32. Wu H, Lei S, Yuan J, Liu X, Zhang D, Gu X, et al. Ischemic postconditioning downregulates Egr-1 expression and attenuates postischemic pulmonary inflammatory cytokine release and tissue injury in rats. J Surg Res. 2013;181:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, downregulation of Egr-1 expression might represent one of the major mechanisms whereby IPostC confers protection against pulmonary IR insult. ..
  33. Bougault C, Aubert Foucher E, Paumier A, Perrier Groult E, Huot L, Hot D, et al. Dynamic compression of chondrocyte-agarose constructs reveals new candidate mechanosensitive genes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36964 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides new insight into how chondrocytes respond to mechanical forces. ..
  34. Shen N, Gong T, Wang J, Meng F, Qiao L, Yang R, et al. Cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary inflammatory responses are mediated by EGR-1/GGPPS/MAPK signaling. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:110-8 pubmed publisher
  35. Jones A, Trujillo K, Phillips G, Fleet T, Murton J, Severns V, et al. Early growth response 1 and fatty acid synthase expression is altered in tumor adjacent prostate tissue and indicates field cancerization. Prostate. 2012;72:1159-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Field cancerization at surgical margins on prostatectomy specimen should also be looked at as a predictor of cancer recurrence. EGR-1 and FAS could also serve as molecular targets for chemoprevention. ..
  36. Pagel J, Deindl E. Early growth response 1--a transcription factor in the crossfire of signal transduction cascades. Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2011;48:226-35 pubmed
    ..The acquired knowledge on transcriptional regulation of Egr-1 is not entirely understood. In this review, we highlight upstream and downstream signaling in vitro and in vivo associated with Egr-1. ..
  37. Maddox S, Monsey M, Schafe G. Early growth response gene 1 (Egr-1) is required for new and reactivated fear memories in the lateral amygdala. Learn Mem. 2011;18:24-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings strongly implicate a role for EGR-1 in both the initial consolidation and in the reconsolidation of auditory fear memories in the LA. ..
  38. Veyrac A, Gros A, Bruel Jungerman E, Rochefort C, Kleine Borgmann F, Jessberger S, et al. Zif268/egr1 gene controls the selection, maturation and functional integration of adult hippocampal newborn neurons by learning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:7062-7 pubmed publisher
  39. Gotoh S, Nakamura T, Kataoka T, Taketani S. Egr-1 regulates the transcriptional repression of mouse ?-aminolevulinic acid synthase 1 by heme. Gene. 2011;472:28-36 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Egr-1-NABs complex is involved in the regulation of the transcription of ALAS1 by heme, leading to the regulation of the heme biosynthesis. ..
  40. Bedadala G, Palem J, Graham L, Hill J, McFerrin H, Hsia S. Lytic HSV-1 infection induces the multifunctional transcription factor Early Growth Response-1 (EGR-1) in rabbit corneal cells. Virol J. 2011;8:262 pubmed publisher
    ..Egr-1 induction might play a key role in the viral gene expression, replication, inflammation, and the disease progression...
  41. Lin C, Lin T, Lee M, Chen S, Chang J. Hyperglycemia: GDNF-EGR1 pathway target renal epithelial cell migration and apoptosis in diabetic renal embryopathy. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56731 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of GDNF/MAPK/EGR-1 activation playing a critical role in HRPTE cell migration, apoptosis and fetal hyperglycemic nephropathy. ..
  42. Perez Cadahia B, Drobic B, Davie J. Activation and function of immediate-early genes in the nervous system. Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;89:61-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our current understanding of the mechanisms involved in the induction of the immediate-early genes is presented. ..
  43. Bakalash S, Pham M, Koronyo Y, Salumbides B, Kramerov A, Seidenberg H, et al. Egr1 expression is induced following glatiramer acetate immunotherapy in rodent models of glaucoma and Alzheimer's disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:9033-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it identifies EGR1 transcription factor as a potential mediator for GA-induced neuroprotection in both glaucoma and AD. ..
  44. Reumann M, Strachna O, Yagerman S, Torrecilla D, Kim J, Doty S, et al. Loss of transcription factor early growth response gene 1 results in impaired endochondral bone repair. Bone. 2011;49:743-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, this study provides genetic evidence that EGR-1 is a pleiotropic regulator of endochondral fracture repair. ..
  45. Lu Y, Li T, Qureshi H, Han D, Paudel H. Early growth response 1 (Egr-1) regulates phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein tau in mammalian brain. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20569-81 pubmed publisher
  46. Rayner B, Figtree G, Sabaretnam T, Shang P, Mazhar J, Weaver J, et al. Selective inhibition of the master regulator transcription factor Egr-1 with catalytic oligonucleotides reduces myocardial injury and improves left ventricular systolic function in a preclinical model of myocardial infarction. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013;2:e000023 pubmed publisher
    ..Egr-1 silencing through intracoronary delivery of a targeting DNAzyme at the time of reperfusion following acute myocardial ischemia decreases myocardial inflammation and apoptosis leading to improved cardiac function...
  47. Reumann M, Strachna O, Lukashova L, Verdelis K, Donnelly E, Boskey A, et al. Early growth response gene 1 regulates bone properties in mice. Calcif Tissue Int. 2011;89:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides genetic evidence that both sex and skeletal site are critical determinants of EGR-1 activity in vivo and that its site-specific action may contribute to the mechanical properties of bone. ..
  48. Isogai Y, Si S, Pont Lezica L, Tan T, Kapoor V, Murthy V, et al. Molecular organization of vomeronasal chemoreception. Nature. 2011;478:241-5 pubmed publisher
  49. Satvat E, Schmidt B, Argraves M, Marrone D, Markus E. Changes in task demands alter the pattern of zif268 expression in the dentate gyrus. J Neurosci. 2011;31:7163-7 pubmed publisher
  50. Lonergan M, Gafford G, Jarome T, Helmstetter F. Time-dependent expression of Arc and zif268 after acquisition of fear conditioning. Neural Plast. 2010;2010:139891 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that altered Arc and zif268 expression are related to neural plasticity during the formation of fear memory. ..
  51. Ma J, Ren Z, Ma Y, Xu L, Zhao Y, Zheng C, et al. Targeted knockdown of EGR-1 inhibits IL-8 production and IL-8-mediated invasion of prostate cancer cells through suppressing EGR-1/NF-kappaB synergy. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34600-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, knockdown of EGR-1 inhibited IL-8-mediated tumor colony formation and invasion. Thus, targeted knockdown of EGR-1 could be an effective therapeutic approach against prostate cancer. ..
  52. Jeong S, Park J, Kim J, Park Y, Shin S, Lee Y, et al. Up-regulation of TNF-alpha secretion by cigarette smoke is mediated by Egr-1 in HaCaT human keratinocytes. Exp Dermatol. 2010;19:e206-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed that CSE induces Egr-1 expression via MAPK pathway in human keratinocytes and TNF-alpha expression by Egr-1. This pathway may contribute to the development of inflammatory disease such as psoriasis. ..
  53. Langmann T, Ebert S, Walczak Y, Weigelt K, Ehrengruber M, Stiewe T, et al. Induction of early growth response-1 mediates microglia activation in vitro but is dispensable in vivo. Neuromolecular Med. 2009;11:87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..However, up-regulation of Egr1 is not absolutely required for retinal microglia activation in vivo. ..