protein c inhibitor

Summary

Summary: A member of the serpin family of proteins that is found in plasma and urine. It is dependent on heparin and is able to inhibit activated PROTEIN C; THROMBIN; KALLIKREIN; and other SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Top Publications

  1. Sun W, Parry S, Panico M, Morris H, Kjellberg M, Engström Å, et al. N-glycans and the N terminus of protein C inhibitor affect the cofactor-enhanced rates of thrombin inhibition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18601-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serine protease inhibitor, displaying broad protease specificity, found in blood and other tissues. In blood, it is capable of inhibiting both procoagulant and anticoagulant proteases...
  2. Baumgärtner P, Geiger M, Zieseniss S, Malleier J, Huntington J, Hochrainer K, et al. Phosphatidylethanolamine critically supports internalization of cell-penetrating protein C inhibitor. J Cell Biol. 2007;179:793-804 pubmed
    ..We show that protein C inhibitor (PCI), a serine protease inhibitor (serpin), rapidly transverses the plasma membrane, which persists at low ..
  3. Fortenberry Y, Brandal S, Bialas R, Church F. Protein C inhibitor regulates both cathepsin L activity and cell-mediated tumor cell migration. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1800:580-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a plasma serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that regulates several serine proteases in coagulation including thrombin and activated protein C...
  4. Odet F, Guyot R, Leduque P, le Magueresse Battistoni B. Evidence for similar expression of protein C inhibitor and the urokinase-type plasminogen activator system during mouse testis development. Endocrinology. 2004;145:1481-9 pubmed
    ..It will be important to determine how this role is linked to the phenotype of sterility reported elsewhere in male mice with pci deleted. ..
  5. Li W, Adams T, Kjellberg M, Stenflo J, Huntington J. Structure of native protein C inhibitor provides insight into its multiple functions. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13759-68 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a multifunctional serpin with wide ranging protease inhibitory functions, unique cofactor binding activities, and potential non-inhibitory functions akin to the hormone-transporting serpins...
  6. Elisen M, von dem Borne P, Bouma B, Meijers J. Protein C inhibitor acts as a procoagulant by inhibiting the thrombomodulin-induced activation of protein C in human plasma. Blood. 1998;91:1542-7 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI), which was originally identified as an inhibitor of activated protein C, also efficiently inhibits coagulation factors such as factor Xa and thrombin...
  7. Razavi M, Johnson L, Lum J, Kruppa G, Anderson N, Pearson T. Quantification of a proteotypic peptide from protein C inhibitor by liquid chromatography-free SISCAPA-MALDI mass spectrometry: application to identification of recurrence of prostate cancer. Clin Chem. 2013;59:1514-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we applied this assay to the measurement of a surrogate proteotypic peptide from protein C inhibitor (PCI) in sera from patients with prostate cancer...
  8. Hayashi T, Nishioka J, Nakagawa N, Kamada H, Gabazza E, Kobayashi T, et al. Protein C inhibitor directly and potently inhibits activated hepatocyte growth factor activator. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1477-85 pubmed
    ..It is known that protein C inhibitor (PCI), an inhibitor of activated protein C (APC), also inhibits thrombin-thrombomodulin (TM) complex...
  9. Fujita M, Izutani W, Takahashi K, Nishizawa K, Shirono H, Koga J. Role of each Asn-linked glycan in the anticoagulant activity of human protein C inhibitor. Thromb Res. 2002;105:95-102 pubmed
    The N-glycosylation site mutants of human protein C inhibitor (PCI; N230S, N243Q, N319Q, N230S/N243Q, and N230S/N319Q) were prepared by amino acid replacement of the asparagine residue with a serine or glutamine residue using site-..

More Information

Publications67

  1. Uhrin P, Dewerchin M, Hilpert M, Chrenek P, Schöfer C, Zechmeister Machhart M, et al. Disruption of the protein C inhibitor gene results in impaired spermatogenesis and male infertility. J Clin Invest. 2000;106:1531-9 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a nonspecific, heparin-binding serpin (serine protease inhibitor) that inactivates many plasmatic and extravascular serine proteases by forming stable 1:1 complexes...
  2. Krebs M, Uhrin P, Vales A, Prendes Garcia M, Wojta J, Geiger M, et al. Protein C inhibitor is expressed in keratinocytes of human skin. J Invest Dermatol. 1999;113:32-7 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor is a member of the serpin family that inhibits a variety of serine proteases. Protein C inhibitor is present in numerous body fluids and is produced in the liver and by various epithelial cells...
  3. Suzuki K, Deyashiki Y, Nishioka J, Kurachi K, Akira M, Yamamoto S, et al. Characterization of a cDNA for human protein C inhibitor. A new member of the plasma serine protease inhibitor superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1987;262:611-6 pubmed
    ..gt11 containing DNA inserts prepared from human liver mRNA was screened with monoclonal antibodies to human protein C inhibitor. Six positive clones were isolated from 6 X 10(6) phages and plaque purified...
  4. Kuhn L, Griffin J, Fisher C, Greengard J, Bouma B, Espana F, et al. Elucidating the structural chemistry of glycosaminoglycan recognition by protein C inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:8506-10 pubmed
    ..to analyze the molecular basis for GAG recognition by the plasma serpin protein C inhibitor (PCI; also known as plasminogen activator inhibitor 3), we have constructed a complete, energy-minimized, ..
  5. Prohaska T, Wahlmüller F, Furtmüller M, Geiger M. Interaction of protein C inhibitor with the type II transmembrane serine protease enteropeptidase. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39262 pubmed publisher
    The serine protease inhibitor protein C inhibitor (PCI) is expressed in many human tissues and exhibits broad protease reactivity. PCI binds glycosaminoglycans and certain phospholipids, which modulate its inhibitory activity...
  6. Geiger M. Protein C inhibitor, a serpin with functions in- and outside vascular biology. Thromb Haemost. 2007;97:343-7 pubmed
    Human protein C inhibitor (PCI), a serpin-type protease inhibitor originally described as an inhibitor of activated protein C, has broad protease reactivity...
  7. Nishii Y, Gabazza E, Fujimoto H, Nakahara H, Takagi T, Bruno N, et al. Protective role of protein C inhibitor in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:2331-9 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) plays a role in multiple biological processes including fertilization, coagulation, fibrinolysis and kinin systems. We hypothesized that PCI participates in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension...
  8. Suzuki K, Hayashi T. Protein C and its inhibitor in malignancy. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2007;33:667-72 pubmed
    Activated protein C (APC) and protein C inhibitor (PCI) are the major components of the anticoagulant protein C pathway...
  9. Huntington J, Li W. Structural insights into the multiple functions of protein C inhibitor. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:113-21 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a widely distributed, multifunctional member of the serpin family of protease inhibitors, and has been implicated in several physiological processes and disease states...
  10. Yang L, Manithody C, Walston T, Cooper S, Rezaie A. Thrombomodulin enhances the reactivity of thrombin with protein C inhibitor by providing both a binding site for the serpin and allosterically modulating the activity of thrombin. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:37465-70 pubmed
    ..factor-like domains 456 (TM456), enhances the catalytic efficiency of thrombin toward both protein C and protein C inhibitor (PCI) by 2-3 orders of magnitude...
  11. Li W, Huntington J. The heparin binding site of protein C inhibitor is protease-dependent. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36039-45 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a member of the serpin family of protease inhibitors with many biological functions and broad inhibitory specificity...
  12. Sun W, Eriksson A, Schedin Weiss S. Heparin enhances the inhibition of factor Xa by protein C inhibitor in the presence but not in the absence of Ca2+. Biochemistry. 2009;48:1094-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a versatile serine protease inhibitor with both pro- and anticoagulant and other properties. Interactions of certain ligands with PCI, including heparin, affect its specificity for proteases...
  13. Bungum M, Giwercman A, Bungum L, Humaidan P, Rastkhani H, Giwercman Y. Polymorphisms in the protein C inhibitor gene in in vitro fertilization failure. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:277-9 pubmed publisher
    ..fertilization failure in human IVF can be partially explained by alterations in the gene that codes for protein C inhibitor. Forty-six men had IVF total fertilization failure and 51 controls with normal fertilization were screened ..
  14. Izutani W, Fujita M, Nishizawa K, Koga J. The trimannosyl cores of N-glycans are important for the procoagulant protease-inhibitory activity of urinary protein C inhibitor. Thromb Res. 2001;104:65-74 pubmed
    ..relationship between the procoagulant protease-inhibitory activity and the N-glycan structures in urinary protein C inhibitor (uPCI) by sequential exoglycosidase digestions based on the N-glycan structures elucidated in this report...
  15. Borgmann S, Endisch G, Urban S, Sitter T, Fricke H. A linkage disequilibrium between genes at the serine protease inhibitor gene cluster on chromosome 14q32.1 is associated with Wegener's granulomatosis. Clin Immunol. 2001;98:244-8 pubmed
    ..gene is part of a cluster of serine protease inhibitor (serpin) genes (AACT; alpha1-antichymotrypsin, PCI; protein C inhibitor, CBG; corticosteroid binding globulin, PIL; PI-like pseudogene) at chromosome 14q32.1...
  16. Zheng X, Geiger M, Ecke S, Bielek E, Donner P, Eberspächer U, et al. Inhibition of acrosin by protein C inhibitor and localization of protein C inhibitor to spermatozoa. Am J Physiol. 1994;267:C466-72 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is synthesized by cells throughout the male reproductive tract and is present in high concentrations (220 micrograms/ml) in seminal plasma...
  17. Radtke K, Fernandez J, Greengard J, Tang W, Wilson C, Loskutoff D, et al. Protein C inhibitor is expressed in tubular cells of human kidney. J Clin Invest. 1994;94:2117-24 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin that inhibits a number of proteases. PCI is found in urine and binds to kidney epithelial cells. To determine if kidney is a source of PCI, cDNA was produced from human kidney total RNA...
  18. Wagenaar G, van Vuuren A, Girma M, Tiekstra M, Kwast L, Koster J, et al. Characterization of transgenic mice that secrete functional human protein C inhibitor into the circulation. Thromb Haemost. 2000;83:93-101 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a heparin binding serine protease inhibitor in plasma, which exerts procoagulant activity by inhibiting thrombomodulin-bound thrombin or activated protein C (APC)...
  19. Uhrin P, Schöfer C, Zaujec J, Ryban L, Hilpert M, Weipoltshammer K, et al. Male fertility and protein C inhibitor/plasminogen activator inhibitor-3 (PCI): localization of PCI in mouse testis and failure of single plasminogen activator knockout to restore spermatogenesis in PCI-deficient mice. Fertil Steril. 2007;88:1049-57 pubmed
    ..the mechanisms responsible for the testicular abnormalities and infertility of previously generated male protein C inhibitor (PCI)-deficient mice...
  20. Radtke K, Greengard J, Fernandez J, Villoutreix B, Griffin J. A two-allele polymorphism in protein C inhibitor with varying frequencies in different ethnic populations. Thromb Haemost. 1996;75:62-9 pubmed
    cDNAs for protein C inhibitor (PCI), prepared from human liver RNA, contained two forms of PCI, designated PCI*A and PCI*B...
  21. Meijers J, Kanters D, Vlooswijk R, van Erp H, Hessing M, Bouma B. Inactivation of human plasma kallikrein and factor XIa by protein C inhibitor. Biochemistry. 1988;27:4231-7 pubmed
    The inhibition of kallikrein and factor XIa by protein C inhibitor (PCI) was studied. The method of Suzuki et al. [Suzuki, K., Nishioka, J., & Hashimoto, S. (1983) J. Biol. Chem...
  22. Zhang C, Li X, Lian X, Wang Y, Zeng Y, Yang K, et al. Immunolocalization of protein C inhibitor in differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes. Acta Histochem. 2007;109:461-7 pubmed
    ..cascade components in human skin have been studied, but little was known about the expression and role of protein C inhibitor in the differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes...
  23. Hayashi T, Nishioka J, Kamada H, Asanuma K, Kondo H, Gabazza E, et al. Characterization of a novel human protein C inhibitor (PCI) gene transgenic mouse useful for studying the role of PCI in physiological and pathological conditions. J Thromb Haemost. 2004;2:949-61 pubmed
    In humans, protein C inhibitor (PCI) is expressed in various tissues and present in many body fluids including plasma and seminal fluid. In rodents, PCI is expressed in reproductive organs only and is absent in plasma...
  24. Wakita T, Hayashi T, Nishioka J, Tamaru H, Akita N, Asanuma K, et al. Regulation of carcinoma cell invasion by protein C inhibitor whose expression is decreased in renal cell carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2004;108:516-23 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI), a member of the serine protease inhibitor family, is produced in various human tissues, including the liver, kidney and testis...
  25. Li W, Adams T, Nangalia J, Esmon C, Huntington J. Molecular basis of thrombin recognition by protein C inhibitor revealed by the 1.6-A structure of the heparin-bridged complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:4661-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin with many roles in biology, including a dual role as pro- and anticoagulant in blood...
  26. Bijsmans I, Smits K, de Graeff P, Wisman G, van der Zee A, Slangen B, et al. Loss of SerpinA5 protein expression is associated with advanced-stage serous ovarian tumors. Mod Pathol. 2011;24:463-70 pubmed publisher
  27. He S, Lin Y, Liu Y. Functionally inactive protein C inhibitor in seminal plasma may be associated with infertility. Mol Hum Reprod. 1999;5:513-9 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) has been found in seminal plasma and is considered to protect intact surrounding cells and seminal plasma proteins from possible proteolytic damage...
  28. Suzuki K, Nishioka J, Kusumoto H, Hashimoto S. Mechanism of inhibition of activated protein C by protein C inhibitor. J Biochem. 1984;95:187-95 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor isolated from human plasma inhibited thrombin, factor Xa, trypsin and chymotrypsin as well as activated protein C, but had very little effect on urokinase and plasmin...
  29. Fujita M, Izutani W, Komurasaki Y. Effect of urinary protein C inhibitor on lipopolysaccharide-induced disseminated intravascular coagulation in rats. Thromb Haemost. 2000;84:54-8 pubmed
    The effect of urinary protein C inhibitor (uPCI) on disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) was investigated using an experimental DIC in rats. uPCI (0.5 and 1...
  30. Meijers J, Herwald H. Protein C inhibitor. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2011;37:349-54 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serine protease inhibitor and was originally identified as an inhibitor of activated protein C (APC)...
  31. Sun W, Grassi P, Engström Å, Sooriyaarachchi S, Ubhayasekera W, Hreinsson J, et al. N-glycans of human protein C inhibitor: tissue-specific expression and function. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e29011 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin type of serine protease inhibitor that is found in many tissues and fluids in human, including blood plasma, seminal plasma and urine...
  32. Malmström E, Morgelin M, Malmsten M, Johansson L, Norrby Teglund A, Shannon O, et al. Protein C inhibitor--a novel antimicrobial agent. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000698 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a heparin-binding serine proteinase inhibitor belonging to the family of serpin proteins. Here we describe that PCI exerts broad antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens...
  33. Sun W, Parry S, Ubhayasekera W, Engström Å, Dell A, Schedin Weiss S. Further insight into the roles of the glycans attached to human blood protein C inhibitor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;403:198-202 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a 57-kDa glycoprotein that exists in many tissues and secretions in human. As a member of the serpin superfamily of proteins it displays unusually broad protease specificity...
  34. Asanuma K, Yoshikawa T, Hayashi T, Akita N, Nakagawa N, Hamada Y, et al. Protein C inhibitor inhibits breast cancer cell growth, metastasis and angiogenesis independently of its protease inhibitory activity. Int J Cancer. 2007;121:955-65 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) regulates the anticoagulant protein C pathway and also inhibits urinary plasminogen activator (uPA), a mediator of tumor cell invasion...
  35. Saito A. Diversity of human plasma protein C inhibitor. Thromb Res. 2012;130:661-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor was purified from human plasma by use of a dermatan sulfate or heparin column, followed by hydroxyapatite, gel filtration and ion exchange columns...
  36. Billingsley G, Walter M, Hammond G, Cox D. Physical mapping of four serpin genes: alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and protein C inhibitor, within a 280-kb region on chromosome I4q32.1. Am J Hum Genet. 1993;52:343-53 pubmed
    ..alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1ACT; AACT locus), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG; CBG locus), and protein C inhibitor (PCI; PCI locus) are members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily...
  37. Sieben N, Oosting J, Flanagan A, Prat J, Roemen G, Kolkman Uljee S, et al. Differential gene expression in ovarian tumors reveals Dusp 4 and Serpina 5 as key regulators for benign behavior of serous borderline tumors. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:7257-64 pubmed
    ..In SCAs, this was associated with downstream MMP-9 activation at both mRNA and protein level. We propose that the putative tumor suppressor genes Dusp 4 and Serpina 5 provide a major clue to the indolent behavior of SBTs. ..
  38. Espana F, Fink E, Sánchez Cuenca J, Gilabert J, Estelles A, Witzgall K. Complexes of tissue kallikrein with protein C inhibitor in human semen and urine. Eur J Biochem. 1995;234:641-9 pubmed
    An ELISA was developed for quantifying the complex between tissue kallikrein (tKK) and protein C inhibitor (PCI) (tKK:PCI) in seminal plasma and urine...
  39. Wakita T, Hayashi T, Yuasa H, Nishioka J, Kawamura J, Suzuki K. Molecular cloning, tissue distribution and androgen regulation of rat protein C inhibitor. FEBS Lett. 1998;429:263-8 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is the plasma serine protease inhibitor of activated protein C, the active enzyme of the anticoagulant protein C pathway...
  40. Fujimoto H, Gabazza E, Hataji O, Yuda H, D Alessandro Gabazza C, Nakano M, et al. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and protein C inhibitor in interstitial lung disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003;167:1687-94 pubmed
    ..This study evaluated the levels of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor and protein C inhibitor, another suppressor of fibrinolysis, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with interstitial ..
  41. Suzuki K, Kise H, Nishioka J, Hayashi T. The interaction among protein C inhibitor, prostate-specific antigen, and the semenogelin system. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2007;33:46-52 pubmed
    ..antigen (PSA), is mixed in human seminal plasma with its protein substrates semenogelin (Sg) -I, Sg-II, and protein C inhibitor (PCI), which are produced in seminal vesicles...
  42. Espana F, Gilabert J, Estelles A, Romeu A, Aznar J, Cabo A. Functionally active protein C inhibitor/plasminogen activator inhibitor-3 (PCI/PAI-3) is secreted in seminal vesicles, occurs at high concentrations in human seminal plasma and complexes with prostate-specific antigen. Thromb Res. 1991;64:309-20 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a heparin-dependent serpin present in a native form in plasma at concentrations of 5 micrograms/mL...
  43. Hermans J, Stone S. Interaction of activated protein C with serpins. Biochem J. 1993;295 ( Pt 1):239-45 pubmed
    ..of 0.15 M-1.s-1. The kass. values for the other serpins tested (protease nexin I, protein C inhibitor, and mutants of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin and alpha 1-antitrypsin with P1 arginine residues) were at least ..
  44. Zechmeister Machhart M, Hufnagl P, Uhrin P, Xu J, Geiger M, Binder B. Molecular cloning and tissue distribution of mouse protein C inhibitor (PCI). Immunopharmacology. 1996;32:96-8 pubmed
  45. Nishioka J, Ning M, Hayashi T, Suzuki K. Protein C inhibitor secreted from activated platelets efficiently inhibits activated protein C on phosphatidylethanolamine of platelet membrane and microvesicles. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:11281-7 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) was detected in human platelets (2.9 ng/10(9) cells) and megakaryocytic cells (1.5 ng/10(6) cells). PCI mRNA was also detected in both platelets and megakaryocytic cells using nested polymerase chain reaction...
  46. Prendes M, Bielek E, Zechmeister Machhart M, Vanyek Zavadil E, Carroll V, Breuss J, et al. Synthesis and ultrastructural localization of protein C inhibitor in human platelets and megakaryocytes. Blood. 1999;94:1300-12 pubmed
    The occurrence of protein C inhibitor (PCI) in human platelets and megakaryocytes was analyzed. As judged from enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), PCI was present in platelets at a concentration of 160 ng/2 x 10(9) cells...
  47. Jerabek I, Zechmeister Machhart M, Binder B, Geiger M. Binding of retinoic acid by the inhibitory serpin protein C inhibitor. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:5989-96 pubmed
    ..to the inhibitory serpins antithrombin III, heparin cofactor II, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and protein C inhibitor (PCI)...
  48. Suzuki K, Nishioka J, Hashimoto S. Protein C inhibitor. Purification from human plasma and characterization. J Biol Chem. 1983;258:163-8 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor was isolated from human plasma using conventional chromatographic technique consisting of barium citrate adsorption, polyethylene glycol fractionation, DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B treatment, ammonium sulfate fractionation, ..
  49. Espana F, Berrettini M, Griffin J. Purification and characterization of plasma protein C inhibitor. Thromb Res. 1989;55:369-84 pubmed
    Plasma protein C inhibitor (PCI) was purified to homogeneity (greater than 95%) with good recovery (greater than 25%) and reproducibility, and the inhibition of a number of blood clotting and fibrinolytic enzymes by purified PCI was ..
  50. Espana F, Navarro S, Medina P, Zorio E, Estelles A. The role of protein C inhibitor in human reproduction. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2007;33:41-5 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a heparin-dependent serine protease inhibitor found in human plasma, urine, and other body fluids. In blood plasma, PCI is present at approximately 0...
  51. Suzuki K. The multi-functional serpin, protein C inhibitor: beyond thrombosis and hemostasis. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:2017-26 pubmed publisher
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family...
  52. Glasscock L, Gerlitz B, Cooper S, Grinnell B, Church F. Basic residues in the 37-loop of activated protein C modulate inhibition by protein C inhibitor but not by alpha(1)-antitrypsin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1649:106-17 pubmed
    ..of the APC mutants was assessed using human plasma and plasma-purified and recombinant derivatives of protein C inhibitor (PCI; also known as plasminogen activator inhibitor-3) and alpha(1)-antitrypsin, with and without heparin...
  53. Huntington J, Kjellberg M, Stenflo J. Crystal structure of protein C inhibitor provides insights into hormone binding and heparin activation. Structure. 2003;11:205-15 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a member of the serpin family that has many biological functions. In blood it acts as a procoagulant, and, in the seminal vesicles, it is required for spermatogenesis...
  54. Cao Y, Becker C, Lundwall A, Christensson A, Gadaleanu V, Lilja H, et al. Expression of protein C inhibitor (PCI) in benign and malignant prostatic tissues. Prostate. 2003;57:196-204 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) occurs at high concentration in seminal plasma, and inhibits human glandular kallikrein-2 and, less readily, prostate-specific antigen. Previous studies have localized PCI in the male genital tract...
  55. Christensson A, Lilja H. Complex formation between protein C inhibitor and prostate-specific antigen in vitro and in human semen. Eur J Biochem. 1994;220:45-53 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI), a serine-proteinase inhibitor first purified from human blood plasma, occurs at high concentrations (3-4 microM) in seminal fluid in both a high-molecular-mass and low-molecular-mass form...
  56. Cucnik S, Krizaj I, Rozman B, Kveder T, Bozic B. Concomitant isolation of protein C inhibitor and unnicked beta2-glycoprotein I. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2004;42:171-4 pubmed
    ..In set No. 2 only unnicked beta2GPI was detected. Protein C inhibitor was found in addition to smaller amounts of unnicked betaGPI in set No. 3...
  57. Rehault S, Zechmeister Machhart M, Fortenberry Y, Malleier J, Binz N, Cooper S, et al. Characterization of recombinant human protein C inhibitor expressed in Escherichia coli. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005;1748:57-65 pubmed
    The serine protease inhibitor (serpin) protein C inhibitor (PCI; also named plasminogen activator inhibitor-3) regulates serine proteases in hemostasis, fibrinolysis, and reproduction...
  58. Malleier J, Oskolkova O, Bochkov V, Jerabek I, Sokolikova B, Perkmann T, et al. Regulation of protein C inhibitor (PCI) activity by specific oxidized and negatively charged phospholipids. Blood. 2007;109:4769-76 pubmed
    b>Protein C inhibitor (PCI) is a serpin with affinity for heparin and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). We analyzed the interaction of PCI with different phospholipids and their oxidized forms...