plasminogen inactivators


Summary: Important modulators of the activity of plasminogen activators. The inhibitors belong to the serpin family of proteins and inhibit both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.

Top Publications

  1. Mansuy I, van Der Putten H, Schmid P, Meins M, Botteri F, Monard D. Variable and multiple expression of Protease Nexin-1 during mouse organogenesis and nervous system development. Development. 1993;119:1119-34 pubmed
  2. Vassalli J, Huarte J, Bosco D, Sappino A, Sappino N, Velardi A, et al. Protease-nexin I as an androgen-dependent secretory product of the murine seminal vesicle. EMBO J. 1993;12:1871-8 pubmed
    ..PN-I levels are much lower in immature animals, and strongly decreased upon castration. Testosterone treatment of castrated males rapidly restores PN-I mRNA levels, indicating that PN-I gene expression is under androgen control. ..
  3. Belin D, Wohlwend A, Schleuning W, Kruithof E, Vassalli J. Facultative polypeptide translocation allows a single mRNA to encode the secreted and cytosolic forms of plasminogen activators inhibitor 2. EMBO J. 1989;8:3287-94 pubmed
    ..Thus, the accumulation of one polypeptide into two topologically distinct cellular compartments can be achieved by facultative translocation. ..
  4. Buduneli N, Buduneli E, Kardesler L, Lappin D, Kinane D. Plasminogen activator system in smokers and non-smokers with and without periodontal disease. J Clin Periodontol. 2005;32:417-24 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest one mechanism whereby smoking may exert detrimental effects on the periodontal tissues. ..
  5. Klinger K, Winqvist R, Riccio A, Andreasen P, Sartorio R, Nielsen L, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 gene is located at region q21.3-q22 of chromosome 7 and genetically linked with cystic fibrosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:8548-52 pubmed
    ..The PAI1 RFLP may prove to be valuable in ordering genetic markers in the CF-linkage group and may also be valuable in genetic analysis of plasminogen activation-related diseases, such as certain thromboembolic disorders and cancer. ..
  6. Chen P, Chu S, Chiou H, Kuo W, Chiang C, Hsieh Y. Mulberry anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside, exhibited an inhibitory effect on the migration and invasion of a human lung cancer cell line. Cancer Lett. 2006;235:248-59 pubmed
    ..Together, these result suggested that anthocyanins could decrease the in vitro invasiveness of cancer cells and therefore, may be of great value in developing a potential cancer therapy. ..
  7. Loskutoff D, Linders M, Keijer J, Veerman H, van Heerikhuizen H, Pannekoek H. Structure of the human plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 gene: nonrandom distribution of introns. Biochemistry. 1987;26:3763-8 pubmed
    ..Transcription of the PAI-1 gene in cultured vascular endothelial cells results in two distinct mRNA species. Our data suggest that these two transcripts arise by alternative polyadenylation. ..
  8. Susarla R, Watkinson J, Eggo M. Regulation of plasminogen activators in human thyroid follicular cells and their relationship to differentiated function. J Cell Physiol. 2007;212:643-54 pubmed
    ..TPA effects on iodide metabolism, dissolution of follicles and uPA synthesis are mediated predominantly through PKCbeta whereas EGF exerts its effects through MAPK but not PKCbeta. ..
  9. Heda G, Roberts L. Role of tissue-type plasminogen activator in salicylic acid-induced sloughing of human corn tissue. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 2008;98:345-52 pubmed

More Information

Publications107 found, 100 shown here

  1. Murer V, Spetz J, Hengst U, Altrogge L, De Agostini A, Monard D. Male fertility defects in mice lacking the serine protease inhibitor protease nexin-1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:3029-33 pubmed
    ..The data demonstrate that the level of extracellular proteolytic activity is a critical element in controlling male fertility. ..
  2. Li Y, Lu Y. Applying a highly specific and reproducible cDNA RDA method to clone garlic up-regulated genes in human gastric cancer cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2002;8:213-6 pubmed
    ..Isolation of a recombinant gene and two novel ESTs further show cDNA RDA based on cDNA libraries to be a powerful method with high specificity and reproducibility in cloning differentially expressed genes. ..
  3. Dass K, Ahmad A, Azmi A, Sarkar S, Sarkar F. Evolving role of uPA/uPAR system in human cancers. Cancer Treat Rev. 2008;34:122-36 pubmed
    ..Therefore, this system represents a highly attractive target that warrants further in-depth studies. Such studies are likely to contribute towards the development of molecularly-driven targeted therapies in the near future. ..
  4. Pollak V, Glas Greenwalt P, Olinger C, Wadhwa N, Myre S. Ancrod causes rapid thrombolysis in patients with acute stroke. Am J Med Sci. 1990;299:319-25 pubmed
    ..The biological effect of fibrinolysis in ancrod infused patients was demonstrated by a greater improvement in stroke score when compared to those infused with saline. ..
  5. Pannekoek H, Veerman H, Lambers H, Diergaarde P, Verweij C, van Zonneveld A, et al. Endothelial plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI): a new member of the Serpin gene family. EMBO J. 1986;5:2539-44 pubmed
    ..The predicted amino acid sequence reveals significant homology with members of the serine protease inhibitor (Serpin) family, e.g. alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and antithrombin III.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  6. Balk E, Lau J, Goudas L, Jordan H, Kupelnick B, Kim L, et al. Effects of statins on nonlipid serum markers associated with cardiovascular disease: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:670-82 pubmed
    ..Overall, however, available data are insufficient to support recommendations for using nonlipid serum markers in decisions regarding statin therapy for individual patients. ..
  7. Chua S, Wang H, Lin Y, Wu C, Tsai T, Chang L, et al. Enhanced expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor may prevent cardiac rupture in female and castrated mice after myocardial infarction. Gend Med. 2011;8:239-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, enhanced postinfarct PAI-1 expression in castrated and female mice may contribute to suppressed MMP-9 expression and survival advantage. ..
  8. McWilliam N, Robbie L, Barelle C, Adey G, Prasad S, Bennett B, et al. Evidence for an active fibrinolytic system in normal human bone marrow. Br J Haematol. 1996;93:170-6 pubmed
    ..A role for the active fibrinolytic system in normal human bone marrow may be the removal of unnecessary fibrin deposits formed in the cavities of the marrow, in order to maintain flow through this tissue. ..
  9. Glueck C, Phillips H, Cameron D, Sieve Smith L, Wang P. Continuing metformin throughout pregnancy in women with polycystic ovary syndrome appears to safely reduce first-trimester spontaneous abortion: a pilot study. Fertil Steril. 2001;75:46-52 pubmed
    ..65, P=.04). Metformin therapy throughout pregnancy in women with PCOS reduces the otherwise high rate of first-trimester spontaneous abortion seen among women not receiving metformin and does not appear to be teratogenic. ..
  10. Ehrlich H, Gebbink R, Keijer J, Linders M, Preissner K, Pannekoek H. Alteration of serpin specificity by a protein cofactor. Vitronectin endows plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 with thrombin inhibitory properties. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:13029-35 pubmed
    ..Therefore, vitronectin is the first protein described to function as a cofactor for serpin specificity. PAI-1 is proposed to be a versatile inhibitor which, in the presence of vitronectin, can modulate both coagulation and fibrinolysis. ..
  11. Zbroch E, Małyszko J, Małyszko J, Koc Zorawska E, Myśliwiec M. Renalase, kidney function, and markers of endothelial dysfunction in renal transplant recipients. Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2012;122:40-4 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to establish the putative role of renalase in the pathogenesis of hypertension after transplantation and its possible use in novel targeted therapies. ..
  12. Kim S, Buonanno A, Nelson P. Regulation of prothrombin, thrombin receptor, and protease nexin-1 expression during development and after denervation in muscle. J Neurosci Res. 1998;53:304-11 pubmed
    ..An elevated level of local thrombin or thrombin-like activity might result from the decreased inhibitory activity of PN-1 during the period of peak synapse elimination in muscle development. ..
  13. Tang L, Han X. The urokinase plasminogen activator system in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Biomed Pharmacother. 2013;67:179-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on uPA system, summarizes their biological effects, highlights the molecular mechanism and pathway, and discusses the role of uPA system in the prevention and treatment of human breast cancers. ..
  14. Angleton P, Chandler W, Schmer G. Diurnal variation of tissue-type plasminogen activator and its rapid inhibitor (PAI-1). Circulation. 1989;79:101-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that diurnal variations in PAI-1 activity may reduce fibrinolytic activity in the morning in healthy individuals and in patients with coronary artery disease. ..
  15. Tsantarliotou M, Kokolis N, Smokovitis A. Melatonin administration increased plasminogen activator activity in ram spermatozoa. Theriogenology. 2008;69:458-65 pubmed
  16. Ernø H, Monard D. Molecular organization of the rat glia-derived nexin/protease nexin-1 promoter. Gene Expr. 1993;3:163-74 pubmed
    ..A positive regulatory element is localized in the region -1545 to -389. In vitro CpG methylation blocked transcription from the GDN/PN-1 promoter in rat hepatoma cells but not in C6 rat glioma cells. ..
  17. Estelles A, Gilabert J, Aznar J, Loskutoff D, Schleef R. Changes in the plasma levels of type 1 and type 2 plasminogen activator inhibitors in normal pregnancy and in patients with severe preeclampsia. Blood. 1989;74:1332-8 pubmed
    ..9 ng/mL). Our data indicate that increases in the level of PAI-1 accounts for the high plasma PAI activity in severe preeclampsia as measured using single-chain t-PA. ..
  18. Bang P, Fielder P. Human pregnancy serum contains at least two distinct proteolytic activities with the ability to degrade insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3. Endocrinology. 1997;138:3912-7 pubmed
    ..In addition, PHS does indeed contain an unique IGFBP-3 protease activity that is not present in NHS, and its identity is unknown at this time. ..
  19. Sobieszczańska S, Rabe Jabłońska J. [Haemostatic and fibrinolytic variables in women with anorexia nervosa]. Psychiatr Pol. 2005;39:741-59 pubmed
    ..We conclude that, in the AN group, an impaired fibrinolysis and coagulation are observed and there is a correlation between fibrinolytic and coagulation parameters and carbohydrate metabolism. ..
  20. Miyao Y, Fujimoto K, Kugiyama K, Kawano H, Hirai N, Sugiyama S, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor contributes to the coronary wall thickening in patients with angiographically normal coronary. Thromb Res. 2003;112:123-9 pubmed
    ..PAI may contribute to the pathogenesis of coronary intimal thickening that might increase coronary arterial tone. ..
  21. Qiu P, Li Y, Shiloach J, Cui X, Sun J, Trinh L, et al. Bacillus anthracis cell wall peptidoglycan but not lethal or edema toxins produces changes consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation in a rat model. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:978-89 pubmed publisher
    ..05 for all comparisons except for PAI level). DIC during B. anthracis infection may be related more to components such as PGN than to LT or ET. ..
  22. Van Nostrand W, Schmaier A, Farrow J, Cunningham D. Protease nexin-II (amyloid beta-protein precursor): a platelet alpha-granule protein. Science. 1990;248:745-8 pubmed
    ..In certain disease states, alterations in platelet release and processing and clearance of PN-II/APP and its derived fragments could lead to pathological accumulation of these proteins. ..
  23. Marie I, Borg J, Hellot M, Levesque H. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis. Br J Dermatol. 2008;158:392-5 pubmed
  24. Bruzdzinski C, Riordan Johnson M, Nordby E, Suter S, Gelehrter T. Isolation and characterization of the rat plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:2078-85 pubmed
    ..There is only one such sequence within the 5'-flanking region of the human gene; however, that sequence, at -61, is 100% conserved in the rat gene. ..
  25. Wells J, Strickland S. Aprotinin, a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor, stimulates skeletal muscle differentiation. Development. 1994;120:3639-47 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that Kunitz-domain containing protease inhibitors may help orchestrate the onset of myogenesis, possibly by regulating the activity of TGF beta-like molecules. ..
  26. Wagers S, Norton R, Rinaldi L, Bates J, Sobel B, Irvin C. Extravascular fibrin, plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitors, and airway hyperresponsiveness. J Clin Invest. 2004;114:104-11 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that leakage of fibrinogen and thrombin and their accumulation on the airway surface can contribute to the pathogenesis of airway hyperresponsiveness. ..
  27. Krishnamurti C, Young G, Barr C, Colleton C, Alving B. Enhancement of tissue plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis by activated protein C in endotoxin-treated rabbits. J Lab Clin Med. 1991;118:523-30 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that activated protein C can neutralize plasma PAI-1 activity in vivo.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  28. Blann A, Gurney D, Wadley M, Bareford D, Stonelake P, Lip G. Increased soluble P-selectin in patients with haematological and breast cancer: a comparison with fibrinogen, plasminogen activator inhibitor and von Willebrand factor. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2001;12:43-50 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the platelet marker soluble P-selectin is raised in both haematological and breast cancer, and is higher in the former, but is unrelated to the type or stage of breast cancer. ..
  29. Buduneli N, Buduneli E, Ciotanar S, Atilla G, Lappin D, Kinane D. Plasminogen activators and plasminogen activator inhibitors in gingival crevicular fluid of cyclosporin A-treated patients. J Clin Periodontol. 2004;31:556-61 pubmed
    ..However, to what extent these molecules contribute to the pathogenesis of CsA-induced gingival overgrowth remains to be determined. ..
  30. Breen P. Basics of coagulation pathways. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2004;42:1-9 pubmed
  31. Makino H, Shimada H, Morioka D, Kunisaki C, Morita T, Matsuyama R, et al. Analysis of gene expression profiles in fatal hepatic failure after hepatectomy in mice. J Surg Res. 2011;169:36-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Particularly, the overexpression of PAIs was thought to play the major role in the first step of inhibition of ECM remodeling. ..
  32. Declerck P, De Mol M, Alessi M, Baudner S, Paques E, Preissner K, et al. Purification and characterization of a plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 binding protein from human plasma. Identification as a multimeric form of S protein (vitronectin). J Biol Chem. 1988;263:15454-61 pubmed
  33. Bosma P, van den Berg E, Kooistra T, Siemieniak D, Slightom J. Human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene. Promoter and structural gene nucleotide sequences. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:9129-41 pubmed
    ..These Alu-Pur elements may represent a subset of the more abundant Alu family of repetitive sequence elements. ..
  34. van Hinsbergh V, Sprengers E, Kooistra T. Effect of thrombin on the production of plasminogen activators and PA inhibitor-1 by human foreskin microvascular endothelial cells. Thromb Haemost. 1987;57:148-53 pubmed
    ..Our data indicate that interaction of thrombin with microvascular endothelial cells will shift the balance between t-PA, u-PA and PA inhibitor-1, and thus affects the regulation of fibrinolysis. ..
  35. Crisp R, Knauer M, Knauer D. Protease nexin 1 is a potent urinary plasminogen activator inhibitor in the presence of collagen type IV. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:47285-91 pubmed
  36. Incalcaterra E, Hoffmann E, Averna M, Caimi G. Genetic risk factors in myocardial infarction at young age. Minerva Cardioangiol. 2004;52:287-312 pubmed
  37. Sarajlic J, Agis H, Kandler B, Watzek G, Gruber R. Plasminogen activation by fibroblasts from periodontal ligament and gingiva is not directly affected by chemokines in vitro. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:663-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that plasminogen activation by PDL and GF is not directly affected by the chemokines even in the presence of the inflammatory mediators TGF-beta and IL-1. ..
  38. Jankun J, Aleem A, Struniawski R, Lysiak Szydłowska W, Selman S, Skrzypczak Jankun E. Accelerated thrombus lysis in the blood of plasminogen activator inhibitor deficient mice is inhibited by PAI-1 with a very long half-life. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61:673-80 pubmed
  39. Foucré D, Bouchet C, Hacene K, Pourreau Schneider N, Gentile A, Martin P, et al. Relationship between cathepsin D, urokinase, and plasminogen activator inhibitors in malignant vs benign breast tumours. Br J Cancer. 1991;64:926-32 pubmed
    ..The implication of plasminogen activator inhibitors in the phenomenon was surprising and merits further investigation using tools other than global antigen measurements in tumours. ..
  40. Antalis T, Clark M, Barnes T, Lehrbach P, Devine P, Schevzov G, et al. Cloning and expression of a cDNA coding for a human monocyte-derived plasminogen activator inhibitor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:985-9 pubmed
    ..Like ovalbumin, mPAI-2 appears to have no typical amino-terminal signal sequence. The 3' untranslated region of the mPAI-2 cDNA contains a putative regulatory sequence that has been associated with the inflammatory mediators. ..
  41. Lund L, Georg B, Nielsen L, Mayer M, Danø K, Andreasen P. Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1: cell-specific and differentiation-induced expression and regulation in human cell lines, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1988;60:43-53 pubmed
    ..These findings provide information for future studies of the molecular mechanism of cell-specific expression and regulation of PAI-1. ..
  42. Barton M, Morris D, Norton N, Prasse K. Hemostatic and fibrinolytic indices in neonatal foals with presumed septicemia. J Vet Intern Med. 1998;12:26-35 pubmed
    ..Survival of septicemic foals was correlated with gram-negative bacteremia, but not with the presence of endotoxin or coagulopathy. ..
  43. Pastinen T, Perola M, Niini P, Terwilliger J, Salomaa V, Vartiainen E, et al. Array-based multiplex analysis of candidate genes reveals two independent and additive genetic risk factors for myocardial infarction in the Finnish population. Hum Mol Genet. 1998;7:1453-62 pubmed
    ..The observation of two separate genes contributing an additive risk of developing MI exemplifies the advantages of multiplex analysis of genetic variation. ..
  44. Kasza A, Kowanetz M, Poślednik K, Witek B, Kordula T, Koj A. Epidermal growth factor and pro-inflammatory cytokines regulate the expression of components of plasminogen activation system in U373-MG astrocytoma cells. Cytokine. 2001;16:187-90 pubmed
    ..We conclude that EGF and IFN-gamma are new important regulators of the plasminogen activation system in astrocytoma cells and, therefore, may influence turnover of extracellular matrix and migration of cells within the brain. ..
  45. Okazaki M, Udaka Y, Saito Y, Koseki H, Ohta S, Kikuchi T, et al. Increase in plasma fibrinogen and plasminogen activator inhibitor level in diabetic KK and KK-Ay mice. In Vivo. 2003;17:5-11 pubmed
    ..These age-related increases in the plasma level of fibrinogen and PAI suggested that KK-Ay mice may contribute to help elucidate the early stages of diabetic atherosclerosis. ..
  46. Piccart M, Sotiriou C, Cardoso F. New data on chemotherapy in the adjuvant setting. Breast. 2003;12:373-8 pubmed
    ..The 3-year results of this trial strongly support concept 1; a longer follow-up and a confirmation study are desirable before recommending changes in routine patient care. ..
  47. Jankun J, Specht Z, Szkudlarek M, Greenfield R, Gaikwad B, Trifonov L, et al. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is locked in active conformation and polymerizes upon binding ligands neutralizing its activity. Int J Mol Med. 2006;17:437-47 pubmed
    ..The polymerization of PAI-1 reduces PAI-1 activity by encapsulating the critical RCL fragment inside the formed PAI-1/PAI-1 polymers. ..
  48. Muehlschlegel J, Body S. Impact of genetic variation on perioperative bleeding. Am J Hematol. 2008;83:732-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We will explore the nature, effects, and implications of the genetics that influence perioperative bleeding above and beyond surgical bleeding, particularly in cardiac surgery. ..
  49. Seiffert D, Loskutoff D. Evidence that type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor binds to the somatomedin B domain of vitronectin. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:2824-30 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the cell-binding and PAI-1 binding sequences of Vn occupy distinct regions in the NH2-terminal somatomedin B domain of the molecule. ..
  50. Mossard J, Wiesel M, Cazenave J, Grunebaum L, Drawin T, Kieny J, et al. [Relation of an increase of von Willebrand factor in the blood, acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina and coronary thrombosis]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1989;82:1813-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the VWF may be considered to be a marker for thrombus and/or endothelial activation but a larger study population would be required to identify more accurately the subgroups with thrombosis or risk of thrombosis. ..
  51. Watanabe R, Yamada Y, Ihara Y, Someya Y, Kubota A, Kagimoto S, et al. The MH1 domains of smad2 and smad3 are involved in the regulation of the ALK7 signals. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;254:707-12 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the ALK7 signal regulates nuclear localization and activation of Smad2 and Smad3, and the MH1 domain of Smad2 has inhibitory effects on the nuclear localization. ..
  52. Andreasen P, Egelund R, Petersen H. The plasminogen activation system in tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000;57:25-40 pubmed
    ..The increased knowledge about the plasminogen activation system may allow utilization of its components as targets for anti-invasive therapy. ..
  53. Gallistl S, Sudi K, Borkenstein M, Troebinger M, Weinhandl G, Muntean W. Determinants of haemostatic risk factors for coronary heart disease in obese children and adolescents. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2000;24:1459-64 pubmed
  54. Berk R, Katar M, Dong Z, Day D. Plasminogen Activators and Inhibitors in the Corneas of Mice Infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42:1561-7 pubmed
    ..Immunized mice exhibit a more balanced and shorter expression of the PA system, which may contribute to the restoration of corneal clarity. ..
  55. Parish J, Somers V. Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79:1036-46 pubmed
    ..Leukocyte adhesion and accumulation on endothelial cells are common in both OSA and atherosclerosis. Clinicians should be aware that OSA may be a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. ..
  56. Chmielewska J, Ranby M, Wiman B. Evidence for a rapid inhibitor to tissue plasminogen activator in plasma. Thromb Res. 1983;31:427-36 pubmed
    ..A regulatory function may be anticipated for this inhibitor, but its exact patophysiological role has still to be established. ..
  57. Chern S, Li S, Lu C, Chen E. Spatiotemporal expression of the serine protease inhibitor, SERPINE2, in the mouse placenta and uterus during the estrous cycle, pregnancy, and lactation. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010;8:127 pubmed publisher
    ..It may participate in the PA-modulated tissue remodeling process in the mouse placenta and uterus. ..
  58. Sigurdardottir O, Wiman B. Complex formation between plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and vitronectin in purified systems and in plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1990;1035:56-61 pubmed
    ..In contrast to functionally active PAI-1, latent or chloramine T-inactivated PAI-1 did not form such a complex with vitronectin. ..
  59. Schwarz H, Heeb M, Lottenberg R, Roberts H, Griffin J. Familial protein S deficiency with a variant protein S molecule in plasma and platelets. Blood. 1989;74:213-21 pubmed
  60. Zeheb R, Gelehrter T. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA for the rat plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Gene. 1988;73:459-68 pubmed
  61. Suefuji H, Ogawa H, Yasue H, Imoto N, Sakamoto T, Miyao Y, et al. Effect of niceritrol on fibrinolysis and lipoprotein (a) levels in patients with coronary artery disease. Coron Artery Dis. 1996;7:167-72 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that niceritrol administration may tend to normalize fibrinolysis in such patients. ..
  62. Del Bigio M, Hosain S, Altumbabic M. Localization of urokinase-type plasminogen activator, its receptor, and inhibitors in mouse forebrain during postnatal development. Int J Dev Neurosci. 1999;17:387-99 pubmed
  63. Rabbani S, Mazar A. The role of the plasminogen activation system in angiogenesis and metastasis. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2001;10:393-415, x pubmed
    ..This article reviews the evidence for the role of this system in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, which suggests that the uPA system initiates multiple cascades that contribute to these processes. ..
  64. Wojtukiewicz M, Sierko E, Zacharski L, Rózanska Kudelska M, Zimnoch L. Occurrence of components of fibrinolytic pathways in situ in laryngeal cancer. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2003;29:317-20 pubmed
    ..Trace staining was found for u-PA receptor (u-PAR) in differentiated tumor cells. The significance of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways present in situ to the economy of laryngeal carcinoma remains to be determined. ..
  65. Ullbro C, Kinnby B, Lindberg P, Matsson L. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and placental plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-2) in gingival crevicular fluid from patients with Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome. J Clin Periodontol. 2004;31:708-12 pubmed
  66. Mimuro J. [Type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor: its role in biological reactions]. Rinsho Ketsueki. 1991;32:487-9 pubmed
    ..The association of PAI-1 with vitronectin appears to stabilize PAI-1. PAI-1 in complex with vitronectin is still accessible to plasminogen activators.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  67. Ye R, Ahern S, Le Beau M, Lebo R, Sadler J. Structure of the gene for human plasminogen activator inhibitor-2. The nearest mammalian homologue of chicken ovalbumin. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:5495-502 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PAI-2 is the closest mammalian homologue of avian ovalbumin. ..
  68. Liu Y. Interaction and regulation of plasminogen activators and their inhibitor in rat follicles during periovulatory periods. Sci Sin B. 1988;31:47-57 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the interaction between plasminogen activators and their inhibitor in the follicles may play a very important role in maintaining normal ovarian function and the machnism of ovulation. ..
  69. Delahousse B, Maillot F, Gabriel I, Schellenberg F, Lamisse F, Gruel Y. Increased plasma fibrinolysis and tissue-type plasminogen activator/tissue-type plasminogen activator inhibitor ratios after ethanol withdrawal in chronic alcoholics. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2001;12:59-66 pubmed
    ..These changes induced by alcohol abstinence might provide clear benefit by reducing the risk of thromboembolic events and particularly of stroke associated with elevated PAI-1 levels described in heavy drinkers. ..
  70. Wankiewicz A, Iwan Zietek I, Kotschy M, Gwieździński Z. Selected parameters of fibrinolysis system in patients with dermatitis herpetiformis. Med Sci Monit. 2002;8:CR189-92 pubmed
    ..Increased type 1 plasminogen activator inhibitor level (PAI-1) may reflect a chronic inflammatory condition present in DH patients. ..
  71. Miyamoto S, Kawano H, Takazoe K, Soejima H, Sakamoto T, Hokamaki J, et al. Vitamin E improves fibrinolytic activity in patients with coronary spastic angina. Thromb Res. 2004;113:345-51 pubmed
    ..Administration of vitamin E is possible to be an effective adjunct therapy of coronary spasm in the absence of coronary atherosclerosis. ..
  72. Narazaki M, Tosato G. Conflicting results from clinical observations and murine models: what is the role of plasminogen activators in tumor growth?. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98:726-7 pubmed
  73. Vairaktaris E, Serefoglou Z, Avgoustidis D, Yapijakis C, Critselis E, Vylliotis A, et al. Gene polymorphisms related to angiogenesis, inflammation and thrombosis that influence risk for oral cancer. Oral Oncol. 2009;45:247-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings and previous reports, possible interactions of the implicated factors leading to OSCC development, as well as an algorithm of risk estimation are discussed. ..
  74. Winkler G, Cseh K. [Molecular mechanisms and correlations of insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus]. Orv Hetil. 2009;150:771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently discovered common mechanisms leading to insulin and cytokine resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, e.g. protein family of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) are also discussed. ..
  75. Schaller J, Gerber S. The plasmin-antiplasmin system: structural and functional aspects. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011;68:785-801 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity of the plasminogen activators is primarily regulated by the plasminogen activator inhibitors 1 and 2, members of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily. ..
  76. Castellote J, Grau E, Linde M, Pujol Moix N, Rutllant M. Detection of both type 1 and type 2 plasminogen activator inhibitors in human monocytes. Thromb Haemost. 1990;63:67-71 pubmed
    ..This inactive PAI1 could have come from a rapid inactivation of the primary active PAI1. These PAI1 and PAI2 detected in human monocytes may be transcendent in the regulation of the fibrinolytic system. ..
  77. Stief T, Radtke K, Heimburger N. Inhibition of urokinase by protein C-inhibitor (PCI). Evidence for identity of PCI and plasminogen activator inhibitor 3. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1987;368:1427-33 pubmed
  78. Zheng Y, Tong J, Do X, Pu X, Zhou B. Prevalence of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and its association with arterial and venous thrombosis in the Chinese population. Br J Haematol. 2000;109:870-4 pubmed
    ..The prothrombin 20210A mutation was not found in any patients or controls. These results demonstrated that MTHFR 677T was associated with DVT and cerebral infarction but was less associated with CAD in the Chinese population. ..
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