Summary: A family of serine proteinase inhibitors which are similar in amino acid sequence and mechanism of inhibition, but differ in their specificity toward proteolytic enzymes. Some members of the serpin family may be substrates rather than inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.

Top Publications

  1. Suwanchaichinda C, Ochieng R, Zhuang S, Kanost M. Manduca sexta serpin-7, a putative regulator of hemolymph prophenoloxidase activation. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2013;43:555-61 pubmed publisher
    b>Serpins regulate various physiological reactions in humans and insects, including certain immune responses, primarily through inhibition of serine proteases...
  2. Han P, Jin F, Dong X, Fan J, Qiu B, Ren S. Transcript and protein profiling analysis of the Destruxin A-induced response in larvae of Plutella xylostella. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e60771 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of genes related to the Toll pathway, and induced expression of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), especially the serpin 2 that blocked process of the proPO system...
  3. Valiente M, Obenauf A, Jin X, Chen Q, Zhang X, Lee D, et al. Serpins promote cancer cell survival and vascular co-option in brain metastasis. Cell. 2014;156:1002-16 pubmed publisher
    ..the reactive brain stroma as a defense against metastatic invasion, and plasminogen activator (PA) inhibitory serpins in cancer cells as a shield against this defense...
  4. Almawi W, Al Shaikh F, Melemedjian O, Almawi A. Protein Z, an anticoagulant protein with expanding role in reproductive biology. Reproduction. 2013;146:R73-80 pubmed publisher
  5. Bodenstine T, Seftor R, Khalkhali Ellis Z, Seftor E, Pemberton P, Hendrix M. Maspin: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2012;31:529-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide insight into the immense therapeutic potential of Maspin and the challenges related to its successful clinical translation. ..
  6. Liu Y, Bledsoe G, Hagiwara M, Shen B, Chao L, Chao J. Depletion of endogenous kallistatin exacerbates renal and cardiovascular oxidative stress, inflammation, and organ remodeling. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2012;303:F1230-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results implicate an important role for endogenous KS in protection against salt-induced renal and cardiovascular injury in rats by suppressing oxidative stress, inflammation, hypertrophy, and fibrosis...
  7. Gulley M, Zhang X, Michel K. The roles of serpins in mosquito immunology and physiology. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:138-47 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Serpins have been shown in many animals to be key regulators of innate immune reactions...
  8. Biasiolo A, Tono N, Ruvoletto M, Quarta S, Turato C, Villano G, et al. IgM-linked SerpinB3 and SerpinB4 in sera of patients with chronic liver disease. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40658 pubmed publisher
  9. Mika A, Reynolds S, Mohlin F, Willis C, Swe P, Pickering D, et al. Novel scabies mite serpins inhibit the three pathways of the human complement system. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e40489 pubmed publisher
    ..Detailed functional analysis revealed that both serpins interfered with all three pathways of the human complement system at different stages of their activation...

More Information


  1. Phalitakul S, Okada M, Hara Y, Yamawaki H. A novel adipocytokine, vaspin inhibits platelet-derived growth factor-BB-induced migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;423:844-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study for the first time revealed that vaspin inhibits PDGF-BB-induced SMCs migration through inhibiting p38/HSP27 signals via preventing the ROS generation. ..
  2. Lei H, Tian Y, Chen W, Wang X, Li X, Mao Q, et al. The biochemical and immunological characterization of two serpins from Clonorchis sinensis. Mol Biol Rep. 2013;40:3977-85 pubmed publisher
    b>Serpins (serine proteinase inhibitors) are evidenced to regulate numerous biological processes such as immunoregulation in parasitic helminths. The functions of serpins from Clonorchis sinensis remain unclear to date...
  3. Gatto M, Iaccarino L, Ghirardello A, Bassi N, Pontisso P, Punzi L, et al. Serpins, immunity and autoimmunity: old molecules, new functions. Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013;45:267-80 pubmed publisher
    Serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are evolutionary old, structurally conserved molecules which encompass nearly all branches of life...
  4. Vigneswara V, Berry M, Logan A, Ahmed Z. Pigment epithelium-derived factor is retinal ganglion cell neuroprotective and axogenic after optic nerve crush injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:2624-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to demonstrate that PEDF enhances both RGC survival and axon regeneration in vitro and in vivo. ..
  5. Bai Y, Huang L, Zhou A, Zhao M, Yu W, Li X. Antiangiogenesis effects of endostatin in retinal neovascularization. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 2013;29:619-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we investigated the efficacy and potential mechanisms of endostatin for the prevention of retinal neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo...
  6. An C, Hiromasa Y, Zhang X, Lovell S, Zolkiewski M, Tomich J, et al. Biochemical characterization of Anopheles gambiae SRPN6, a malaria parasite invasion marker in mosquitoes. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e48689 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, non-inhibitory serpins serve functions as chaperones, hormone transporters, or anti-angiogenic factors...
  7. Yu Y, Cao J, Zhou Y, Zhang H, Zhou J. Isolation and characterization of two novel serpins from the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2013;4:297-303 pubmed publisher
    Two novel serpins with anti-chymotrypsin activity, RHS-1 and RHS-2, were identified in the tick Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides...
  8. Baldzizhar R, Fedorchuk C, Jha M, Rathinam C, Henegariu O, Czyzyk J. Anti-serpin antibody-mediated regulation of proteases in autoimmune diabetes. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:1612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that anti-serpin antibodies prevent serpin B13 from neutralizing proteases, thereby impairing leukocyte function and reducing the severity of autoimmune inflammation. ..
  9. Liu X, Zhang B, McBride J, Zhou K, Lee K, Zhou Y, et al. Antiangiogenic and antineuroinflammatory effects of kallistatin through interactions with the canonical Wnt pathway. Diabetes. 2013;62:4228-38 pubmed publisher
    ..5 nmol/L). These observations suggest that kallistatin is an endogenous antagonist of LRP6 and inhibitor of Wnt signaling. The blockade of Wnt signaling may represent a mechanism for its antiangiogenic and antineuroinflammatory effects. ..
  10. Huntington J. Thrombin inhibition by the serpins. J Thromb Haemost. 2013;11 Suppl 1:254-64 pubmed publisher
    ..It has multiple substrates and cofactors, and it appears that four serpins are responsible for inhibiting the thrombin produced in haemostasis and thrombosis...
  11. Tirloni L, Seixas A, Mulenga A, Vaz I, Termignoni C. A family of serine protease inhibitors (serpins) in the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Exp Parasitol. 2014;137:25-34 pubmed publisher
    ..In arthropods these proteins are involved in innate immune system, morphogenesis and development. In mammals serpins regulate pathways that are essential to life such as blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, inflammation and complement ..
  12. Baumann M, Pham C, Benarafa C. SerpinB1 is critical for neutrophil survival through cell-autonomous inhibition of cathepsin G. Blood. 2013;121:3900-7, S1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have unveiled a new cytotoxic function for the serine protease CG and showed that serpinB1 is critical for maintaining PMN survival by antagonizing intracellular CG activity. ..
  13. Heiker J, Kloting N, Kovacs P, Kuettner E, Strater N, Schultz S, et al. Vaspin inhibits kallikrein 7 by serpin mechanism. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:2569-83 pubmed publisher
  14. Gattu A, Birkenfeld A, Jornayvaz F, Dziura J, Li F, Crawford S, et al. Insulin resistance is associated with elevated serum pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) levels in morbidly obese patients. Acta Diabetol. 2012;49 Suppl 1:S161-9 pubmed publisher
    ..016). These data demonstrate that serum PEDF concentrations better relate to insulin resistance than to adiposity and suggest that PEDF expression is closely linked to the development of insulin resistance. ..
  15. Hernandez C, Simo R. Neuroprotection in diabetic retinopathy. Curr Diab Rep. 2012;12:329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we will focus on neurotrophic factors already synthesized by the retina in physiological conditions as a new therapy strategy for neuroprotection. ..
  16. Byrne S, Aucher A, Alyahya S, Elder M, Olson S, Davis D, et al. Cathepsin B controls the persistence of memory CD8+ T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2012;189:1133-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings support a model in which protection from lysosomal rupture through cytokine-induced expression of Spi2A determines the long-term persistence of memory CD8(+) T cells. ..
  17. Li P, Bledsoe G, Yang Z, Fan H, Chao L, Chao J. Human kallistatin administration reduces organ injury and improves survival in a mouse model of polymicrobial sepsis. Immunology. 2014;142:216-26 pubmed publisher
  18. Tsui K, Chang Y, Feng T, Chung L, Lee T, Chang P, et al. Growth differentiation factor-15 upregulates interleukin-6 to promote tumorigenesis of prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells. J Mol Endocrinol. 2012;49:153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of GDF15 and IL6 is controlled via a positive feedback loop in PC-3 cells. ..
  19. Hur J, Lee H, Nam J, Kim Y, Hong Y, Kim H, et al. Additional diagnostic value of tumor markers in cytological fluid for diagnosis of non-small-cell lung cancer. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:392 pubmed publisher
    ..966 versus 0.917, p = 0.009). Of the tested tumor markers, cytological fluid measurements of CYFRA 21-1 improved the diagnostic performance of NAB for NSCLC. ..
  20. Ishibashi Y, Matsui T, Ohta K, Tanoue R, Takeuchi M, Asanuma K, et al. PEDF inhibits AGE-induced podocyte apoptosis via PPAR-gamma activation. Microvasc Res. 2013;85:54-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our present study suggests that substitution of PEDF proteins may be a promising strategy for preventing the podocyte loss in diabetic nephropathy. ..
  21. Ablonczy Z, Dahrouj M, Tang P, Liu Y, Sambamurti K, Marmorstein A, et al. Human retinal pigment epithelium cells as functional models for the RPE in vivo. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8614-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a utility for both cell types in understanding distinct, particular aspects of RPE function. ..
  22. Belorgey D, Irving J, Ekeowa U, Freeke J, Roussel B, Miranda E, et al. Characterisation of serpin polymers in vitro and in vivo. Methods. 2011;53:255-66 pubmed publisher
    ..This is one of a group of disorders caused by mutations in the serpins that are collectively known as the serpinopathies...
  23. Sheikpranbabu S, Haribalaganesh R, Gurunathan S. Pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits advanced glycation end-products-induced cytotoxicity in retinal pericytes. Diabetes Metab. 2011;37:505-11 pubmed publisher
  24. Xia Y, Zhang Y, Shi W, Liu S, Chen Y, Liang X, et al. Overexpression of megsin induces mesangial cell proliferation and excretion of type IV collagen in vitro. Cell Immunol. 2011;271:413-7 pubmed publisher
  25. Zheng B, Li T, Chen H, Xu X, Zheng Z. Correlation between ficolin-3 and vascular endothelial growth factor-to-pigment epithelium-derived factor ratio in the vitreous of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol. 2011;152:1039-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that ficolin-3 levels were elevated in the vitreous fluid of patients with PDR. Our results suggest that ficolin-3 may be used as a new therapeutic target for treatment of PDR. ..
  26. Koiou E, Tziomalos K, Dinas K, Katsikis I, Kalaitzakis E, Delkos D, et al. The effect of weight loss and treatment with metformin on serum vaspin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Endocr J. 2011;58:237-46 pubmed
    ..001) and with waist circumference in controls (p=0.015). In conclusion, serum vaspin levels are elevated in PCOS but neither a small weight loss nor metformin affect vaspin levels significantly. ..
  27. Li K, Li L, Yang M, Liu H, Liu D, Yang H, et al. Short-term continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion decreases the plasma vaspin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus concomitant with improvement in insulin sensitivity. Eur J Endocrinol. 2011;164:905-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma vaspin level is associated with IR and is significantly reduced following short-term CSII treatment. ..
  28. Ricagno S, Pezzullo M, Barbiroli A, Manno M, Levantino M, Santangelo M, et al. Two latent and two hyperstable polymeric forms of human neuroserpin. Biophys J. 2010;99:3402-11 pubmed publisher
    ..As with other known serpins, hNS pathological mutants have been shown to accumulate as polymers composed of quasi-native protein molecules...
  29. Subramanian P, Crawford S, Becerra S. Assays for the antiangiogenic and neurotrophic serpin pigment epithelium-derived factor. Methods Enzymol. 2011;499:183-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe purification protocols, methods to quantify PEDF, and determine interactions with specific molecules, as well as neurotrophic and angiogenesis assays for this multifunctional protein. ..
  30. Rodríguez González R, Sobrino T, Rodríguez Yáñez M, Millan M, Brea D, Miranda E, et al. Association between neuroserpin and molecular markers of brain damage in patients with acute ischemic stroke. J Transl Med. 2011;9:58 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that neuroprotective properties of neuroserpin may be related to the inhibition of excitotoxicity, inflammation, as well as blood brain barrier disruption that occur after acute ischemic stroke. ..
  31. Becker J, Semler O, Gilissen C, Li Y, Bolz H, Giunta C, et al. Exome sequencing identifies truncating mutations in human SERPINF1 in autosomal-recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:362-71 pubmed publisher
    ..PEDF is a multifunctional protein and one of the strongest inhibitors of angiogenesis currently known in humans. Our data provide genetic evidence for PEDF involvement in human bone homeostasis. ..
  32. Chen L, Fan R, Huang X, Xu H, Zhang X. Reduced levels of serum pigment epithelium-derived factor in women with endometriosis. Reprod Sci. 2012;19:64-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that reduced levels of serum PEDF in women with endometriosis and disease-related pain may play a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. ..
  33. Latouche C, Sainte Marie Y, Steenman M, Castro Chaves P, NARAY FEJES TOTH A, Fejes Toth G, et al. Molecular signature of mineralocorticoid receptor signaling in cardiomyocytes: from cultured cells to mouse heart. Endocrinology. 2010;151:4467-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The signaling pathways that are affected by long-term activation of MR may be of particular interest to design novel therapeutic targets in cardiac diseases. ..
  34. Fabbro S, Schaller K, Seeds N. Amyloid-beta levels are significantly reduced and spatial memory defects are rescued in a novel neuroserpin-deficient Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse model. J Neurochem. 2011;118:928-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the concept that neuroserpin inhibition of tissue plasminogen activator plays an important role both in the accumulation of brain amyloid plaques and loss of cognitive abilities. ..
  35. Olson S, Gettins P. Regulation of proteases by protein inhibitors of the serpin superfamily. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2011;99:185-240 pubmed publisher
    The serpins comprise an ancient superfamily of proteins, found abundantly in eukaryotes and even in some bacteria and archea, that have evolved to regulate proteases of both serine and cysteine mechanistic classes...
  36. Chen C, Tso A, Law L, Cheung B, Ong K, Wat N, et al. Plasma level of pigment epithelium-derived factor is independently associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome in Chinese men: a 10-year prospective study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:5074-81 pubmed publisher
    ..25, P = 0.034) but not in women. Plasma PEDF was significantly associated with the presence of the MetS and predicted the development of the MetS in Chinese men. ..
  37. Miyazaki M, Ikeda Y, Yonemitsu Y, Goto Y, Murakami Y, Yoshida N, et al. Pigment epithelium-derived factor gene therapy targeting retinal ganglion cell injuries: neuroprotection against loss of function in two animal models. Hum Gene Ther. 2011;22:559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings show that neuroprotective gene therapy using hPEDF can protect against retinal ganglion cell death, and support the potential feasibility of neuroprotective therapy for intractable glaucoma. ..
  38. Venturi G, Gandini A, Monti E, Dalle Carbonare L, Corradi M, Vincenzi M, et al. Lack of expression of SERPINF1, the gene coding for pigment epithelium-derived factor, causes progressively deforming osteogenesis imperfecta with normal type I collagen. J Bone Miner Res. 2012;27:723-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Synthesis and secretion of type I collagen are normal. Clinical, radiographic, histological, and histomorphometric data from the proband are reminiscent of the distinctive features of type VI OI...
  39. Yang X, Yafai Y, Wiedemann P, Kuhrt H, Wang Y, Reichenbach A, et al. Hypoxia-induced upregulation of pigment epithelium-derived factor by retinal glial (Müller) cells. J Neurosci Res. 2012;90:257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..However, endogenously produced PEDF seems to be an inherent control element of HIF-1? expression in Müller cells, indicating an important feedback mechanism for limiting upregulation of VEGF. ..
  40. Yoon S, Shin K, Kim J, Seo S, Park S, Moon S, et al. Use of serum squamous cell carcinoma antigen for follow-up monitoring of cervical cancer patients who were treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Radiat Oncol. 2010;5:78 pubmed publisher
    ..The cutoff value of ?SCC-Ag was 0.95 ng/mL. SCC-Ag is a relatively good method for the detection of disease recurrence in patients with cervical cancer who were treated by concurrent chemoradiotherapy. ..
  41. Volpicella M, Leoni C, Costanza A, De Leo F, Gallerani R, Ceci L. Cystatins, serpins and other families of protease inhibitors in plants. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2011;12:386-98 pubmed
    ..In the present article we aim to give an overview of other families of plant PIs, active either against serine proteases or other class of proteases, describing their distribution, activity and main structural characteristics. ..
  42. Sierko E, Wojtukiewicz M, Zimnoch L, Ostrowska Cichocka K, Tokajuk P, Ramlau R, et al. Protein Z/protein Z-dependent protease inhibitor system in human non-small-cell lung cancer tissue. Thromb Res. 2012;129:e92-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of F1+2 and fibrin, along with a disproportional expression of ZPI and PZ, might point to impaired function of the coagulation inhibitory system in NSCLC tissue. ..
  43. Fan W, Crawford R, Xiao Y. The ratio of VEGF/PEDF expression in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells regulates neovascularization. Differentiation. 2011;81:181-91 pubmed publisher
  44. Chechlinska M, Kowalewska M, Brzoska Wojtowicz E, Radziszewski J, Ptaszynski K, Rys J, et al. Squamous cell carcinoma antigen 1 and 2 expression in cultured normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells and in vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. Tumour Biol. 2010;31:559-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Two nearly identical genes encode the inhibitory serpins SCCA1 (SERPINB3) and SCCA2 (SERPINB4)...
  45. Goulet B, Kennette W, Ablack A, Postenka C, Hague M, Mymryk J, et al. Nuclear localization of maspin is essential for its inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis. Lab Invest. 2011;91:1181-7 pubmed publisher
  46. Anisimov S, Christophersen N, Correia A, Hall V, Sandelin I, Li J, et al. Identification of molecules derived from human fibroblast feeder cells that support the proliferation of human embryonic stem cells. Cell Mol Biol Lett. 2011;16:79-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Among these, the C-KIT, leptin and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) genes were the most interesting candidates. ..
  47. Sivaprasad U, Askew D, Ericksen M, Gibson A, Stier M, Brandt E, et al. A nonredundant role for mouse Serpinb3a in the induction of mucus production in asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;127:254-61, 261.e1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal a novel nonredundant role for Serpinb3a in mediating mucus production through regulation of SPDEF expression. This pathway may be used to target mucus hypersecretion effectively. ..
  48. Pons M, Marin Castano M. Nicotine increases the VEGF/PEDF ratio in retinal pigment epithelium: a possible mechanism for CNV in passive smokers with AMD. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:3842-53 pubmed publisher
    ..NT increased the VEGF-to-PEDF ratio in the RPE through nAchR in vitro and in vivo. This alteration in the ratio may play a key role in the progression to wet AMD in passive smokers. ..
  49. Chen L, Fan R, Huang X, Xu H, Zhang X. Decreased concentrations of pigment epithelium-derived factor in peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:1798-800 pubmed publisher
    ..We detected significantly lower levels of peritoneal fluid PEDF in patients with endometriosis compared with patients without endometriosis, suggesting that peritoneal fluid PEDF plays a role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. ..
  50. Hou H, Liang H, Wang Y, Zhang Z, Wang B, Shi Y, et al. A therapeutic strategy for choroidal neovascularization based on recruitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the sites of lesions. Mol Ther. 2010;18:1837-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that MSCs contribute to CNV and could serve as delivery vehicles of antiangiogenic agents for the treatment of a range of CNV-associated diseases. ..
  51. Sabater M, Moreno Navarrete J, Ortega F, Pardo G, Salvador J, Ricart W, et al. Circulating pigment epithelium-derived factor levels are associated with insulin resistance and decrease after weight loss. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4720-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings show, for the first time in humans, that PEDF concentrations decrease significantly after weight loss in association with blood pressure. PEDF seems to be involved in human adipocyte biology. ..
  52. Roussel B, Irving J, Ekeowa U, Belorgey D, Haq I, Ordonez A, et al. Unravelling the twists and turns of the serpinopathies. FEBS J. 2011;278:3859-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutants of the serpins result in a delay in folding, with unstable intermediates being cleared by endoplasmic reticulum-associated ..
  53. Ueda S, Yamagishi S, Matsui T, Jinnouchi Y, Imaizumi T. Administration of pigment epithelium-derived factor inhibits left ventricular remodeling and improves cardiac function in rats with acute myocardial infarction. Am J Pathol. 2011;178:591-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study demonstrated that PEDF could inhibit tissue remodeling and improve cardiac function in AMI rats. Substitution of PEDF may be a novel therapeutic strategy for cardiac remodeling after AMI. ..
  54. Sierko E, Wojtukiewicz M, Zimnoch L, Tokajuk P, Ostrowska Cichocka K, Kisiel W. Co-localization of Protein Z, Protein Z-Dependent protease inhibitor and coagulation factor X in human colon cancer tissue: implications for coagulation regulation on tumor cells. Thromb Res. 2012;129:e112-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the presence of F1+2 and fibrin at the colon cancer site also suggests that the regulation of FXa by the PZ/ZPI complex at this site is incomplete. ..
  55. Akín S, Aksoy D, Çınar N, Aydin K, Karaagaoglu E, Ariyurek M, et al. Pigment epithelium-derived factor increases in type 2 diabetes after treatment with metformin. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2012;77:852-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, our results suggest that further investigation is necessary to determine the direct effects of metformin on PEDF gene and protein expression in vitro. ..
  56. Bluher M. Vaspin in obesity and diabetes: pathophysiological and clinical significance. Endocrine. 2012;41:176-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses the clinical relevance of vaspin in the pathophysiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes. ..
  57. Borg M, Andrews Z, Duh E, Zechner R, Meikle P, Watt M. Pigment epithelium-derived factor regulates lipid metabolism via adipose triglyceride lipase. Diabetes. 2011;60:1458-66 pubmed publisher
  58. Shiiba M, Nomura H, Shinozuka K, Saito K, Kouzu Y, Kasamatsu A, et al. Down-regulated expression of SERPIN genes located on chromosome 18q21 in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Oncol Rep. 2010;24:241-9 pubmed
    b>Serpins (serine protease inhibitors) are known as a diverse family of protease inhibitors; however, various other biological activities including tumor suppression, have been recently reported for these molecules...
  59. Tahara N, Yamagishi S, Tahara A, Nitta Y, Kodama N, Mizoguchi M, et al. Serum level of pigment epithelium-derived factor is a marker of atherosclerosis in humans. Atherosclerosis. 2011;219:311-5 pubmed publisher
    ..332). The present study reveals that serum level of PEDF is independently associated with vascular inflammation and IMT, thus suggesting that PEDF level is a novel biomarker that could reflect atherosclerosis in humans. ..
  60. Homan E, Rauch F, Grafe I, Lietman C, Doll J, Dawson B, et al. Mutations in SERPINF1 cause osteogenesis imperfecta type VI. J Bone Miner Res. 2011;26:2798-803 pubmed publisher
    ..SERPINF1 encodes pigment epithelium-derived factor. Hence, loss of pigment epithelium-derived factor function constitutes a novel mechanism for OI and shows its involvement in bone mineralization...
  61. Brunetti L, Di Nisio C, Recinella L, Chiavaroli A, Leone S, Ferrante C, et al. Effects of vaspin, chemerin and omentin-1 on feeding behavior and hypothalamic peptide gene expression in the rat. Peptides. 2011;32:1866-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Chemerin and omentin-1 have no effect on feeding in the tested dose. ..
  62. Phalitakul S, Okada M, Hara Y, Yamawaki H. Vaspin prevents TNF-?-induced intracellular adhesion molecule-1 via inhibiting reactive oxygen species-dependent NF-?B and PKC? activation in cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. Pharmacol Res. 2011;64:493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, vaspin could play inhibitory roles on inflammatory states of vascular SMCs. ..
  63. Park K, Lee K, Zhang B, Zhou T, He X, Gao G, et al. Identification of a novel inhibitor of the canonical Wnt pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:3038-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that PEDF is an endogenous antagonist of LRP6, and blocking Wnt signaling may represent a novel mechanism for its protective effects against diabetic retinopathy. ..
  64. Whitney J, Asmal M, Geiben Lynn R. Serpin induced antiviral activity of prostaglandin synthetase-2 against HIV-1 replication. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e18589 pubmed publisher
    The serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are anti-inflammatory proteins that have various functions...
  65. Ying Z, Wang H, Fan H, Wang G. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation system regulates aggregation and degradation of mutant neuroserpin. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:20835-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these findings identify mutant neuroserpin as an ERAD target and show that Hrd1 and gp78 mediate mutant neuroserpin turnover through the ERAD pathway. ..
  66. Chalaire K, Kim T, Garcia Rodriguez H, Mulenga A. Amblyomma americanum (L.) (Acari: Ixodidae) tick salivary gland serine protease inhibitor (serpin) 6 is secreted into tick saliva during tick feeding. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:665-73 pubmed publisher
    In order to successfully feed and transmit disease agents, ticks are thought to inject serine protease inhibitors (serpins) into the host to modulate host defense responses to tick feeding, such as inflammation, the complement activation ..
  67. Samkharadze T, Erkan M, Reiser Erkan C, Demir I, Kong B, Ceyhan G, et al. Pigment epithelium-derived factor associates with neuropathy and fibrosis in pancreatic cancer. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106:968-80 pubmed publisher
    ..PSC overactivation likely leads to periacinar fibrosis and degeneration of fine acinar innervation. Increased focal PEDF expression in cancer cells correlates with neuropathic changes and better patient survival. ..
  68. Diao Y, Zhao X, Lin J, Wang Q, Xu R. Protection of the liver against CCl4-induced injury by intramuscular electrotransfer of a kallistatin-encoding plasmid. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Intramuscular electrotransfer of plasmid pKal which was formulated with PLG significantly alleviated the CCl4-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response, and reduced the liver damage in a mouse model. ..
  69. Korner A, Neef M, Friebe D, Erbs S, Kratzsch J, Dittrich K, et al. Vaspin is related to gender, puberty and deteriorating insulin sensitivity in children. Int J Obes (Lond). 2011;35:578-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides adipose tissue, vaspin expression in the liver and the pancreas may potentially contribute to circulating vaspin levels and their regulation. ..
  70. Nakamura K, Okumura Y, Kodama J, Hongo A, Kanazawa S, Hiramatsu Y. The predictive value of measurement of SUVmax and SCC-antigen in patients with pretreatment of primary squamous cell carcinoma of cervix. Gynecol Oncol. 2010;119:81-6 pubmed publisher
    ..5) (overall survival rate; P=0.0211). The present findings indicate that the high SUVmax of the primary tumor plus lymph node metastasis with pretreatment of primary SCC of cervix may be associated with a poor prognosis. ..
  71. Saalbach A, Vester K, Rall K, Tremel J, Anderegg U, Beck Sickinger A, et al. Vaspin--a link of obesity and psoriasis?. Exp Dermatol. 2012;21:309-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaspin expression in lesional psoriatic skin was reduced compared with uninvolved skin as shown by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. In aggregate, we report on the cellular source of vaspin in skin and its expression in psoriasis. ..
  72. Cai J, Wu L, Qi X, Li Calzi S, Caballero S, Shaw L, et al. PEDF regulates vascular permeability by a ?-secretase-mediated pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21164 pubmed publisher
  73. Lunardi F, Villano G, Perissinotto E, Agostini C, Rea F, Gnoato M, et al. Overexpression of SERPIN B3 promotes epithelial proliferation and lung fibrosis in mice. Lab Invest. 2011;91:945-54 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides in vivo evidence for a role of SERPIN B3 in inhibiting inflammation and favoring epithelial proliferation with increased TGF-? secretion and thus the likelihood of consequent fibrogenesis. ..
  74. Markovets A, Saprunova V, Zhdankina A, Fursova A, Bakeeva L, Kolosova N. Alterations of retinal pigment epithelium cause AMD-like retinopathy in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats. Aging (Albany NY). 2011;3:44-54 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that primary cellular degenerative alterations in the RPE cells secondarily lead to choriocapillaris atrophy and results in complete loss of photoreceptor cells in the OXYS rats' retina by the age of 24 months. ..
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    ..This study uncovers a mechanism by which maspin exerts its effect on EC adhesion and migration through an integrin signal transduction pathway. ..