seminal vesicle secretory proteins


Summary: The secretory proteins of the seminal vesicles are proteins and enzymes that are important in the rapid clotting of the ejaculate. The major clotting protein is seminal vesicle-specific antigen. Many of these seminal vesicle proteins are under androgen regulation, and are substrates for the prostatic enzymes, such as the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.

Top Publications

  1. Manjunath P, Thérien I. Role of seminal plasma phospholipid-binding proteins in sperm membrane lipid modification that occurs during capacitation. J Reprod Immunol. 2002;53:109-19 pubmed
    ..These results together indicate that BSP proteins play an important role in sperm membrane lipid modification events that occur during sperm capacitation. ..
  2. Tannert A, Töpfer Petersen E, Herrmann A, Muller K, Muller P. The lipid composition modulates the influence of the bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109 on membrane stability. Biochemistry. 2007;46:11621-9 pubmed
    ..At later stages of sperm cell genesis upon release of cholesterol from sperm membranes, PDC-109 triggers a destabilization of the cells. ..
  3. Ferreira Z, Seixas S, Andrés A, Kretzschmar W, Mullikin J, Cherukuri P, et al. Reproduction and immunity-driven natural selection in the human WFDC locus. Mol Biol Evol. 2013;30:938-50 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further evidence that the WFDC and SEMG loci have been under strong adaptive pressure within the short timescale of modern humans. ..
  4. Lassiseraye D, Courtemanche L, Bergeron A, Manjunath P, Lafleur M. Binding of bovine seminal plasma protein BSP-A1/-A2 to model membranes: lipid specificity and effect of the temperature. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:502-13 pubmed
  5. Lundwall A. A locus on chromosome 20 encompassing genes that are highly expressed in the epididymis. Asian J Androl. 2007;9:540-4 pubmed
    ..All of these are highly expressed in the epididymis where they, similar to the semenogelins, could affect the maturation of spermatozoa or display antibacterial properties. ..
  6. Damai R, Anbazhagan V, Rao K, Swamy M. Fluorescence studies on the interaction of choline-binding domain B of the major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 with phospholipid membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1794:1725-33 pubmed publisher
  7. Sankhala R, Damai R, Swamy M. Correlation of membrane binding and hydrophobicity to the chaperone-like activity of PDC-109, the major protein of bovine seminal plasma. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17330 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the relevance of phospholipid binding and hydrophobicity to the chaperone-like activity of PDC-109. ..
  8. de Lamirande E. Semenogelin, the main protein of the human semen coagulum, regulates sperm function. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2007;33:60-8 pubmed
    ..The effects of Sg are dependent on time and proteolysis due to PSA, and any imbalance may affect sperm physiology and fertility. ..
  9. Ialenti A, Santagada V, Caliendo G, Severino B, Fiorino F, Maffia P, et al. Synthesis of novel anti-inflammatory peptides derived from the amino-acid sequence of the bioactive protein SV-IV. Eur J Biochem. 2001;268:3399-406 pubmed

More Information


  1. Scolari S, Muller K, Bittman R, Herrmann A, Muller P. Interaction of mammalian seminal plasma protein PDC-109 with cholesterol: implications for a putative CRAC domain. Biochemistry. 2010;49:9027-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the cholesterol recognition/interaction amino acid consensus (CRAC) regions of PDC-109 are involved in the interaction with cholesterol. ..
  2. Jensen Seaman M, Li W. Evolution of the hominoid semenogelin genes, the major proteins of ejaculated semen. J Mol Evol. 2003;57:261-70 pubmed
  3. Liberda J, Kraus M, Ryslava H, Vlasakova M, Jonáková V, Ticha M. D-fructose-binding proteins in bull seminal plasma: isolation and characterization. Folia Biol (Praha). 2001;47:113-9 pubmed
    ..RNAase dimer, PDC-109 and metalloproteinase inhibitor (TIMP-2) were identified. ..
  4. Boisvert M, Bergeron A, Lazure C, Manjunath P. Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding bison seminal vesicle secretory proteins. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:656-61 pubmed
    ..b>Seminal vesicle secretory proteins were precipitated by adding cold ethanol and recovered by centrifugation...
  5. Sankhala R, Swamy M. The major protein of bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109, is a molecular chaperone. Biochemistry. 2010;49:3908-18 pubmed publisher
    ..To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting chaperone-like activity of a seminal plasma protein...
  6. Gwathmey T, Ignotz G, Suarez S. PDC-109 (BSP-A1/A2) promotes bull sperm binding to oviductal epithelium in vitro and may be involved in forming the oviductal sperm reservoir. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:809-15 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that PDC-109 enables sperm to bind to oviductal epithelium and plays a major role in formation of the bovine oviductal sperm reservoir. ..
  7. Edström A, Malm J, Frohm B, Martellini J, Giwercman A, Morgelin M, et al. The major bactericidal activity of human seminal plasma is zinc-dependent and derived from fragmentation of the semenogelins. J Immunol. 2008;181:3413-21 pubmed
    ..These data provide novel roles for the resolution of seminal clots and for the high zinc concentration in human seminal plasma. ..
  8. Swamy M, Marsh D, Anbazhagan V, Ramakrishnan M. Effect of cholesterol on the interaction of seminal plasma protein, PDC-109 with phosphatidylcholine membranes. FEBS Lett. 2002;528:230-4 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the presence of cholesterol leads to an increased association of different phospholipid as well as sterol probes, thus modulating the interaction of PDC-109 with phospholipid membranes. ..
  9. Bjartell A, Malm J, Moller C, Gunnarsson M, Lundwall A, H Lilja -. Distribution and tissue expression of semenogelin I and II in man as demonstrated by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemistry. J Androl. 1996;17:17-26 pubmed
  10. Robert M, Gagnon C. Semenogelin I: a coagulum forming, multifunctional seminal vesicle protein. Cell Mol Life Sci. 1999;55:944-60 pubmed
  11. Damai R, Sankhala R, Anbazhagan V, Swamy M. 31P NMR and AFM studies on the destabilization of cell and model membranes by the major bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109. IUBMB Life. 2010;62:841-51 pubmed publisher
  12. Pang B, Cheung B. Identification of human semenogelin in membrane strip test as an alternative method for the detection of semen. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;169:27-31 pubmed
    ..These results show that the immunochromatographic method for Sg detection is useful for the identification of seminal plasma in forensic samples, an alternative to the method for PSA detection...
  13. Zhao H, Lee W, Shen J, Li H, Zhang Y. Identification of novel semenogelin I-derived antimicrobial peptide from liquefied human seminal plasma. Peptides. 2008;29:505-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that SgI can be digested into small fragments like newly identified SgI-29, SgI-46 and SgI-47 and may have diversified functions. ..
  14. Wang Z, Widgren E, Sivashanmugam P, O Rand M, Richardson R. Association of eppin with semenogelin on human spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 2005;72:1064-70 pubmed
  15. Dorus S, Evans P, Wyckoff G, Choi S, Lahn B. Rate of molecular evolution of the seminal protein gene SEMG2 correlates with levels of female promiscuity. Nat Genet. 2004;36:1326-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study showcases the intimate relationship between sexual selection and the molecular evolution of reproductive genes...
  16. Hurle B, Swanson W, Green E. Comparative sequence analyses reveal rapid and divergent evolutionary changes of the WFDC locus in the primate lineage. Genome Res. 2007;17:276-86 pubmed
  17. Manjunath P, Nauc V, Bergeron A, Ménard M. Major proteins of bovine seminal plasma bind to the low-density lipoprotein fraction of hen's egg yolk. Biol Reprod. 2002;67:1250-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that the sequestration of BSP proteins of SP by LDF may represent the major mechanism of sperm protection by EY. ..
  18. Wah D, Fernández Tornero C, Sanz L, Romero A, Calvete J. Sperm coating mechanism from the 1.8 A crystal structure of PDC-109-phosphorylcholine complex. Structure. 2002;10:505-14 pubmed
    ..The structure of the PDC-109-oPC complex provides a structural ground for the sperm membrane-coating mechanism underlying PDC-109-induced capacitation. ..
  19. Martellini J, Cole A, Venkataraman N, Quinn G, Svoboda P, Gangrade B, et al. Cationic polypeptides contribute to the anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma. FASEB J. 2009;23:3609-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results indicate that the cationic polypeptide fraction of SP is active against HIV-1, and that semenogelin-derived peptides contribute to the intrinsic anti-HIV-1 activity of SP. ..
  20. Ramakrishnan M, Anbazhagan V, Pratap T, Marsh D, Swamy M. Membrane insertion and lipid-protein interactions of bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109 investigated by spin-label electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Biophys J. 2001;81:2215-25 pubmed
    ..However, these studies demonstrate that this protein also recognizes other lipids such as phosphatidylglycerol and the sterol androstanol, albeit with somewhat reduced affinity. ..
  21. Anbazhagan V, Swamy M. Thermodynamics of phosphorylcholine and lysophosphatidylcholine binding to the major protein of bovine seminal plasma, PDC-109. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:2933-8 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that although the binding of these two ligands is driven by enthalpic forces, smaller negative entropy of binding associated with Lyso-PC results in its significantly stronger binding. ..
  22. Tannert A, Kurz A, Erlemann K, Muller K, Herrmann A, Schiller J, et al. The bovine seminal plasma protein PDC-109 extracts phosphorylcholine-containing lipids from the outer membrane leaflet. Eur Biophys J. 2007;36:461-75 pubmed
    ..Based on the results, a model explaining the phospholipid specificity of PDC-109-mediated lipid release is presented. ..
  23. Gwathmey T, Ignotz G, Mueller J, Manjunath P, Suarez S. Bovine seminal plasma proteins PDC-109, BSP-A3, and BSP-30-kDa share functional roles in storing sperm in the oviduct. Biol Reprod. 2006;75:501-7 pubmed
    ..Such differences may provide sperm with greater adaptability to variations among females. Altogether, these results indicate that BSPs play a crucial role in fertilization by maintaining sperm motility during storage. ..
  24. Villemure M, Lazure C, Manjunath P. Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding proteins from goat seminal plasma. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2003;1:39 pubmed
    ..These results together with our previous data indicate that BSP family proteins are ubiquitous in mammalian seminal plasma, exist in several forms in each species and possibly play a common biological role. ..
  25. Thomas C, Anbazhagan V, Ramakrishnan M, Sultan N, Surolia I, Swamy M. Mechanism of membrane binding by the bovine seminal plasma protein, PDC-109: a surface plasmon resonance study. Biophys J. 2003;84:3037-44 pubmed
  26. Krüger E, Hinssen H, D Haese J. Involvement of a gelsolin-related protein in spermatogenesis of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Cell Tissue Res. 2008;332:141-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-localization of EWAM with actin implied a functional significance of this gelsolin-related protein for the rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton during earthworm spermiogenesis. ..
  27. O Rand M, Widgren E, Beyler S, Richardson R. Inhibition of human sperm motility by contraceptive anti-eppin antibodies from infertile male monkeys: effect on cyclic adenosine monophosphate. Biol Reprod. 2009;80:279-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the eppin-semenogelin binding site on the surface of human spermatozoa is an ideal target for a nonsteroidal male contraceptive. ..
  28. Peter A, Lilja H, Lundwall A, Malm J. Semenogelin I and semenogelin II, the major gel-forming proteins in human semen, are substrates for transglutaminase. Eur J Biochem. 1998;252:216-21 pubmed
    ..We also found that PSA was unable to release any semenogelin fragments during exposure of the high molecular-mass complexes of cross-linked semenogelin to active PSA. ..
  29. Thacker S, Yadav S, Sharma R, Kashou A, Willard B, Zhang D, et al. Evaluation of sperm proteins in infertile men: a proteomic approach. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2745-8 pubmed publisher
  30. Garcia E, Vazquez J, Parrilla I, Calvete J, Sanz L, Caballero I, et al. Improving the fertilizing ability of sex sorted boar spermatozoa. Theriogenology. 2007;68:771-8 pubmed
    ..05) was observed in sedimented spermatozoa. Hence, our results indicate that the sedimentation method in the presence of PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer improves the in vivo fertilizing ability of sex sorted boar spermatozoa. ..
  31. de Lamirande E, Yoshida K, Yoshiike T, Iwamoto T, Gagnon C. Semenogelin, the main protein of semen coagulum, inhibits human sperm capacitation by interfering with the superoxide anion generated during this process. J Androl. 2001;22:672-9 pubmed
    ..One mechanism by which Sg acts could involve an interference with the O2-. that is normally generated during this process. ..
  32. Jonsson M, Lundwall A, Malm J. The semenogelins: proteins with functions beyond reproduction?. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:2886-8 pubmed
    ..However, more recent results indicate that it is time to put the semenogelins in a broader physiological perspective that goes beyond reproduction and fertility. ..
  33. Huang Y, Kuo S, Lin M, Shih C, Chu S, Wei C, et al. Signals of seminal vesicle autoantigen suppresses bovine serum albumin-induced capacitation in mouse sperm. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:1564-71 pubmed
    ..Besides, we also found that the suppression ability of SVA against BSA-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation and capacitation could be reversed by dbcAMP (a cAMP agonist). ..
  34. Araki N, Kawano N, Kang W, Miyado K, Yoshida K, Yoshida M. Seminal vesicle proteins SVS3 and SVS4 facilitate SVS2 effect on sperm capacitation. Reproduction. 2016;152:313-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we suggest that separate processes may cause capacitation inhibition and decapacitation, and SVS3 and SVS4 act on sperm capacitation cooperatively with SVS2. ..
  35. Romano Carratelli C, Bentivoglio C, Nuzzo I, Benedetto N, Buommino E, Cozzolino A, et al. Effect of protein SV-IV on experimental Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in mice. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002;9:115-25 pubmed
  36. Lundwall A. The structure of the semenogelin gene locus--nucleotide sequence of the intergenic and the flanking DNA. Eur J Biochem. 1996;235:466-70 pubmed
    ..A comparison of the SgI gene and the SgII gene suggests that they evolved by the duplication of an approximately 8 kb DNA segment about 61 million years ago, probably by a mechanism involving recombination between L1 elements. ..
  37. Mansour N, Lahnsteiner F, Patzner R. Seminal vesicle secretion of African catfish, its composition, its behaviour in water and saline solutions and its influence on gamete fertilizability. J Exp Zool A Comp Exp Biol. 2004;301:745-55 pubmed
    ..A function of SVS in the male and female communication during the prenuptial spawning behaviour is discussed. ..
  38. Plante G, Prud homme B, Fan J, Lafleur M, Manjunath P. Evolution and function of mammalian binder of sperm proteins. Cell Tissue Res. 2016;363:105-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Much work is still ahead in order to fully understand all the mysteries of BSP proteins. ..
  39. Ahmed S, Meklat F, Shahriar M, Zhang J, Mastulov S, Giannakouros T, et al. SEMG-1 expression in early stage chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Cytotherapy. 2009;11:238-44 pubmed publisher
    ..SEMG-1 is expressed in nearly half of patients with early CLL and may be a target for further investigations into its use for immunotherapy of early CLL. ..
  40. D Amours O, Bordeleau L, Frenette G, Blondin P, Leclerc P, Sullivan R. Binder of sperm 1 and epididymal sperm binding protein 1 are associated with different bull sperm subpopulations. Reproduction. 2012;143:759-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that the presence of BSP1 over the acrosomal region characterises spermatozoa sensitive to cryopreservation and that ELSPBP1 characterises spermatozoa that are already dead at ejaculation. ..
  41. Dhore C, Cleutjens J, Lutgens E, Cleutjens K, Geusens P, Kitslaar P, et al. Differential expression of bone matrix regulatory proteins in human atherosclerotic plaques. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001;21:1998-2003 pubmed
    ..The expression pattern of both OPG and OPGL during atherogenesis might suggest a regulatory role of these proteins not only in osteoclastogenesis but also in atherosclerotic calcification. ..
  42. Kingan S, Tatar M, Rand D. Reduced polymorphism in the chimpanzee semen coagulating protein, semenogelin I. J Mol Evol. 2003;57:159-69 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that there is a positive relationship between the intensity of sperm competition in a species and the strength of positive Darwinian selection on the seminal protein semenogelin I. ..
  43. Chen F, Lu J, Xu H, Huang Y, Lu N. Chymotrypsin effects on the determination of sperm parameters and seminal biochemistry markers. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44:1335-9 pubmed
    ..Chymotrypsin had no effects on the detection of sperm parameters and biochemistry markers, and could be used to treat non-liquefied samples before semen analysis in the andrology laboratory. ..
  44. Lin H, Lee C, Luo C, Chen Y. Functional preservation of duplicated pair for RSVS III gene in the REST locus of rat 3q42. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;326:355-63 pubmed
    ..All of REST genes reported thus far for human and Muridae were mapped in a chromosomal locus between KCNS1 and SLPI suggesting the locus as an active evolving region. The molecular evolution of this gene family is discussed. ..
  45. Kumar V, Hassan M, Kashav T, Singh T, Yadav S. Heparin-binding proteins of human seminal plasma: purification and characterization. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:1767-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report the purification of seven clinically important proteins from human seminal fluid through heparin affinity chromatography and RP-HPLC, in limited steps with higher yield. ..
  46. Hosseinifar H, Gourabi H, Salekdeh G, Alikhani M, Mirshahvaladi S, Sabbaghian M, et al. Study of sperm protein profile in men with and without varicocele using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Urology. 2013;81:293-300 pubmed publisher
    ..It could be an important prerequisite to the development of diagnostic tests to predict varicocelectomy outcomes in patients with varicocele and abnormal findings on a spermogram in the clinical environment. ..
  47. Yi C, He R, Zhao H, Hao L. [Semenogelin and sperm motility inhibition: an update]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2010;16:1023-6 pubmed
  48. Morel L, Brochard D, Manin M, Simon A, Jean C, Veyssiere G. Mouse seminal vesicle secretory protein of 99 amino acids (MSVSP99): characterization and hormonal and developmental regulation. J Androl. 2001;22:549-57 pubmed
    ..Whereas the MSVSP99 gene is already active in 10-day-old males, MSVSP99 is first detected at 27 days. Then, we conclude that factors other than the accumulation of the mRNA regulate MSVSP99 expression. ..
  49. Yi Y, Manandhar G, Sutovsky M, Zimmerman S, Jon kov V, van Leeuwen F, et al. Interference with the 19S proteasomal regulatory complex subunit PSMD4 on the sperm surface inhibits sperm-zona pellucida penetration during porcine fertilization. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;341:325-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The recognition of substrates on the ZP by the 19S proteasomal regulatory complex is essential for the success of porcine/mammalian fertilization in vitro...
  50. Sato I, Yoshiike M, Yamasaki T, Yoshida K, Takano S, Mukai T, et al. A dot-blot-immunoassay for semen identification using a polyclonal antibody against semenogelin, a powerful seminal marker. Forensic Sci Int. 2001;122:27-34 pubmed
    ..The Sg antigenic activity was detectable in the stains until the ratio of semen to saliva or blood reached 1:8. These results suggest that Sg may be useful as a marker for semen identification. ..
  51. Bonilha V, Rayborn M, Shadrach K, Lundwall A, Malm J, Bhattacharya S, et al. Characterization of semenogelin proteins in the human retina. Exp Eye Res. 2006;83:120-7 pubmed
    ..Our data support the expression of semenogelin I and II in the human retina in several different compartments. Further studies towards addressing the function of these proteins in the retina are in progress. ..
  52. O Rand M, Widgren E, Hamil K, Silva E, Richardson R. Epididymal protein targets: a brief history of the development of epididymal protease inhibitor as a contraceptive. J Androl. 2011;32:698-704 pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds are now being developed into a nonhormonal male contraceptive. ..
  53. Zhang Y, Wang Z, Zhang J, Lim S. Core promoter sequence of SEMG I spans between the two putative GATA-1 binding domains and is responsive to IL-4 and IL-6 in myeloma cells. Leuk Res. 2009;33:166-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The core promoter sequence is responsive to the enhancing effect of IL-4 and IL-6. ..
  54. Wang Z, Zhang W, Wu H, Xu Y. [Inhibition activity of semenogelin and its peptides to human spermatozoa]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2007;13:42-5 pubmed
    ..N-terminal Sg is the inhibition peptide of the whole molecular Sg. During semen liquefaction, this peptide should be cut off from the surface of human spermatozoa before they move forward. ..
  55. Brillard Bourdet M, Réhault S, Juliano L, Ferrer M, Moreau T, Gauthier F. Amidolytic activity of prostatic acid phosphatase on human semenogelins and semenogelin-derived synthetic substrates. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:390-5 pubmed
  56. Silva E, Patrão M, TSURUTA J, O Rand M, Avellar M. Epididymal protease inhibitor (EPPIN) is differentially expressed in the male rat reproductive tract and immunolocalized in maturing spermatozoa. Mol Reprod Dev. 2012;79:832-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This species could be used as an experimental model to further study EPPIN's role in male fertility...
  57. Wagner S, Freudenstein J, Scheit K. Characterization by cDNA cloning of the mRNA for seminalplasmin, the major basic protein of bull semen. DNA Cell Biol. 1990;9:437-42 pubmed
    ..Southern analysis indicates that one gene appears to specify SAP. SAP-like DNA sequences were detected in ovine and porcine genomic DNA. ..
  58. Hienonen T, Sammalkorpi H, Enholm S, Alhopuro P, Barber T, Lehtonen R, et al. Mutations in two short noncoding mononucleotide repeats in most microsatellite-unstable colorectal cancers. Cancer Res. 2005;65:4607-13 pubmed
    ..These data call for urgent and thorough large-scale evaluation of mutation frequencies in neutral short repetitive sequences in MMR-deficient tumors. ..
  59. Rutherfurd K, Swiderek K, Green C, Chen S, Shively J, Kwok S. Purification and characterization of PSP-I and PSP-II, two major proteins from porcine seminal plasma. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992;295:352-9 pubmed
    ..PSP-II shares 50% sequence homology with a family of zona pellucida-binding glycoproteins at the N-terminus. ..
  60. Romero A, Romao M, Varela P, Kölln I, Dias J, Carvalho A, et al. The crystal structures of two spermadhesins reveal the CUB domain fold. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:783-8 pubmed
    ..We report the crystal structures of porcine seminal plasma PSP-I/PSP-II, a heterodimer of two glycosylated spermadhesins, and bovine aSFP at 2.4 A and 1.9 A resolution respectively. ..
  61. Lovgren J, Airas K, Lilja H. Enzymatic action of human glandular kallikrein 2 (hK2). Substrate specificity and regulation by Zn2+ and extracellular protease inhibitors. Eur J Biochem. 1999;262:781-9 pubmed
    ..This regulation may be impaired in CAP and advanced metastatic cancer resulting in lack of control of the hK2 activity and a need for other means of control. ..
  62. Phan T, Nowak K, Akkari P, Zheng M, Xu J. Expression of caltrin in the baculovirus system and its purification in high yield and purity by cobalt (II) affinity chromatography. Protein Expr Purif. 2003;29:284-90 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results indicate that the Co(2+) system would be a better approach for purifying caltrin-His proteins than the Ni(2+). ..
  63. Plante G, Thérien I, Manjunath P. Characterization of recombinant murine binder of sperm protein homolog 1 and its role in capacitation. Biol Reprod. 2012;87:20, 1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that murine epididymal BSPH1 shares many biochemical and functional characteristics with BSP proteins secreted by seminal vesicles of ungulates, and suggest that it might play a similar role in sperm functions...
  64. Rodriguez Martinez H, Saravia F, Wallgren M, Martinez E, Sanz L, Roca J, et al. Spermadhesin PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer induces migration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils into the uterine cavity of the sow. J Reprod Immunol. 2010;84:57-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These data show that PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer in seminal plasma has a predominant role in triggering the recruitment of uterine PMNs and T cells after mating, initiating a cascade of transient and long-lasting immunological events. ..
  65. Campanero Rhodes M, Menendez M, Sáiz J, Sanz L, Calvete J, Solís D. Zinc ions induce the unfolding and self-association of boar spermadhesin PSP-I, a protein with a single CUB domain architecture, and promote its binding to heparin. Biochemistry. 2006;45:8227-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, the modulation of the structural organization and heparin-binding ability of PSP-I by Zn2+ might be a physiological phenomenon in seminal plasma. ..
  66. Fan J, Lefebvre J, Manjunath P. Bovine seminal plasma proteins and their relatives: A new expanding superfamily in mammals. Gene. 2006;375:63-74 pubmed
    ..These data may reflect that some amino acids in BSP proteins are under a strong positive selection after gene duplication and that each BSP protein evolves rapidly, possibly to acquire new functions. ..
  67. Metafora S, Esposito C, Caputo I, Lepretti M, Cassese D, Dicitore A, et al. Seminal vesicle protein IV and its derived active peptides: a possible physiological role in seminal clotting. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2007;33:53-9 pubmed
  68. Jonsson M, Linse S, Frohm B, Lundwall A, Malm J. Semenogelins I and II bind zinc and regulate the activity of prostate-specific antigen. Biochem J. 2005;387:447-53 pubmed
    ..The system is self-regulating, and PSA is maintained in an active state by its substrate. ..
  69. Caballero I, Vazquez J, Gil M, Calvete J, Roca J, Sanz L, et al. Does seminal plasma PSP-I/PSP-II spermadhesin modulate the ability of boar spermatozoa to penetrate homologous oocytes in vitro?. J Androl. 2004;25:1004-12 pubmed
    ..Such an effect of cryopreservation seems to a certain extent reversible, since cleansing of the sperm surface decreased, at least partially, this blocking effect, increasing both penetration and the monospermic rates. ..
  70. Ignotz G, Cho M, Suarez S. Annexins are candidate oviductal receptors for bovine sperm surface proteins and thus may serve to hold bovine sperm in the oviductal reservoir. Biol Reprod. 2007;77:906-13 pubmed
    ..Bovine sperm bind to the epithelium via seminal vesicle secretory proteins in the bovine seminal plasma protein (BSP) family, namely, PDC109 (BSPA1/A2), BSPA3, and BSP30K, ..
  71. Hou Y, DeVoss J, Dao V, Kwek S, Simko J, McNeel D, et al. An aberrant prostate antigen-specific immune response causes prostatitis in mice and is associated with chronic prostatitis in humans. J Clin Invest. 2009;119:2031-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, SVS2 and semenogelin are among the relevant autoantigens in mice and humans, respectively. ..
  72. Lundwall A, Malm J, Clauss A, Valtonen Andre C, Olsson A. Molecular cloning of complementary DNA encoding mouse seminal vesicle-secreted protein SVS I and demonstration of homology with copper amine oxidases. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1923-30 pubmed
    ..The species difference in size of SVS I is caused by tandem repeats of 18 amino acid residues in the central part of the molecule: The mouse has seven repeats, and the rat has 12 repeats. ..
  73. Fuggetta M, Lanzilli G, Cottarelli A, Ravagnan G, Carteni M, De Maria S, et al. Anti-apoptotic seminal vesicle protein IV inhibits cell-mediated immunity. J Reprod Immunol. 2008;78:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the protein SV-IV has a marked in vitro inhibitory effect on NK, LAK and CTL cytotoxicity, providing a better understanding of its immune regulatory functions. ..
  74. Lundwall A, Giwercman A, Ruhayel Y, Giwercman Y, Lilja H, Hallden C, et al. A frequent allele codes for a truncated variant of semenogelin I, the major protein component of human semen coagulum. Mol Hum Reprod. 2003;9:345-50 pubmed
  75. Emami N, Deperthes D, Malm J, Diamandis E. Major role of human KLK14 in seminal clot liquefaction. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:19561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Semenogelins were also able to reverse KLK14 inhibition by Zn2+, providing a novel regulatory mechanism for KLK14 activity. Our results show that KLK14 exerts a significant and dose-dependent effect in the process of semen liquefaction. ..
  76. Caballero I, Vazquez J, Garcia E, Roca J, Martinez E, Calvete J, et al. Immunolocalization and possible functional role of PSP-I/PSP-II heterodimer in highly extended boar spermatozoa. J Androl. 2006;27:766-73 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the protective effect of the heterodimer appears to be related to its adhesion to the acrosomal area, and the loss of this protective effect coincides with a stepwise redistribution of PSP-I/PSP-II during incubation. ..
  77. Lepretti M, Costantini S, Ammirato G, Giuberti G, Caraglia M, Facchiano A, et al. The N-terminal 1-16 peptide derived in vivo from protein seminal vesicle protein IV modulates alpha-thrombin activity: potential clinical implications. Exp Mol Med. 2008;40:541-9 pubmed
    ..The probable interaction sites of P1-16 with thrombin have been also evaluated by molecular graphics and computational analyses. These results have potential implications in the treatment of sterility and thrombotic diseases. ..
  78. Sunilkumar P, Nair D, Sadasivan C, Haridas M. Disruption mechanism in the helix of SPF peptide by interchanging E5 and K10 residues: inference from molecular dynamics study. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2009;26:491-6 pubmed
    ..Formation of some new long-range hydrogen bonds and the rupture of some short-range hydrogen bonds involving the tenth residue led to the disruption of helical structure of SPF peptide when E5 and K10 residues are interchanged. ..
  79. O Rand M, Widgren E, Wang Z, Richardson R. Eppin: an epididymal protease inhibitor and a target for male contraception. Soc Reprod Fertil Suppl. 2007;63:445-53 pubmed
    ..We review Eppin-semenogelin interaction and present a working model in the context of the hydrolysis of semenogelin by prostate specific antigen. ..
  80. Suzuki K, Kise H, Nishioka J, Hayashi T. The interaction among protein C inhibitor, prostate-specific antigen, and the semenogelin system. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2007;33:46-52 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that binding of PCI to Sg in seminal vesicles regulates the PSA-catalyzed degradation of Sg in seminal plasma; the complex formation among PCI, PSA, and Sg is modulated by several factors in seminal plasma. ..