Genomes and Genes
prostatic secretory proteins
Summary: Proteins secreted by the prostate gland. The major secretory proteins from the human prostate gland include PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, prostate-specific acid phosphatase, prostate-specific membrane antigen, and prostate-specific protein-94.
- Tsurusaki T, Koji T, Sakai H, Kanetake H, Nakane P, Saito Y. Cellular expression of beta-microseminoprotein (beta-MSP) mRNA and its protein in untreated prostate cancer. Prostate. 1998;35:109-16 pubmed..0%). Our results showed a lower level of expression of beta-MSP in prostate cancer tissue, compared with benign prostate tissue. This phenomenon may be mainly due to the presence of reduced levels of beta-MSP mRNA. ..
- Beke L, Nuytten M, Van Eynde A, Beullens M, Bollen M. The gene encoding the prostatic tumor suppressor PSP94 is a target for repression by the Polycomb group protein EZH2. Oncogene. 2007;26:4590-5 pubmed..Our data disclose a hitherto unexplored link between the putative oncogene EZH2 and the tumor suppressor PSP94, and show that MSMB is silenced by EZH2 in advanced prostate cancer cells. ..
- Sakai H, Tsurusaki T, Kanda S, Koji T, Xuan J, Saito Y. Prognostic significance of beta-microseminoprotein mRNA expression in prostate cancer. Prostate. 1999;38:278-84 pubmed..003). The presence of cells that express the beta-MSP transcript may be a novel indicator of potentially aggressive prostate cancer. ..
- Baijal Gupta M, Clarke M, Finkelman M, McLachlin C, Han V. Prostatic secretory protein (PSP94) expression in human female reproductive tissues, breast and in endometrial cancer cell lines. J Endocrinol. 2000;165:425-33 pubmed
- Lazure C, Villemure M, Gauthier D, Naude R, Mbikay M. Characterization of ostrich (Struthio camelus) beta-microseminoprotein (MSP): identification of homologous sequences in EST databases and analysis of their evolution during speciation. Protein Sci. 2001;10:2207-18 pubmed..Noticeably, no beta-microseminoprotein-related gene could be found in the recently completed fruit fly genome, indicating that if such a gene exists in arthropods, it must have extensively diverged from the vertebrate ones. ..
- Wang I, Yu T, Wu S, Chang W, Chen C. Disulfide pairings and secondary structure of porcine beta-microseminoprotein. FEBS Lett. 2003;541:80-4 pubmed..Furthermore, the secondary structure was determined to comprise one four-stranded and two double-stranded antiparallel beta-sheets. As we know, this is the first detailed secondary structure reported among several types of MSPs. ..
- Reeves J, Xuan J, Arfanis K, Morin C, Garde S, Ruiz M, et al. Identification, purification and characterization of a novel human blood protein with binding affinity for prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids. Biochem J. 2005;385:105-14 pubmed..PSPBP identification will help the understanding of PSP94's functions and facilitate ELISA development to address the clinical value of PSP94 serum assays. ..
- Gabril M, Xuan J, Moussa M, Dinney C, Chin J, Izawa J. Characterization of initiation of angiogenesis in early stages of prostate adenocarcinoma development and progression in a transgenic murine model. Urology. 2004;64:1233-7 pubmed..The PSP94 gene is conserved in humans and rodents; therefore, the PSP94 transgenic murine model of CaP provides a preclinical model to test such antiangiogenic or other chemopreventive therapies that may be predictive of human CaP. ..
- Fujimoto N, Kitamura S, Kanno J. Androgen dependent transcription of a mouse prostatic protein gene, PSP94: involvement of estrogen receptors. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2011;127:301-6 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these data suggest that the androgen-dependent transcription of the mPSP94 gene was co-regulated/modulated by the presence of ER? via ERE-like motifs. ..
- Nolet S, St Louis D, Mbikay M, Chretien M. Rapid evolution of prostatic protein PSP94 suggested by sequence divergence between rhesus monkey and human cDNAs. Genomics. 1991;9:775-7 pubmed..Rapid evolution of this gene might explain the apparent absence in nonprimates of homologous sequences detectable by hybridization. ..
- Pomerantz M, Shrestha Y, Flavin R, Regan M, Penney K, Mucci L, et al. Analysis of the 10q11 cancer risk locus implicates MSMB and NCOA4 in human prostate tumorigenesis. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001204 pubmed publisher..More broadly, the findings demonstrate that disease risk alleles may influence multiple genes, and associations between genotype and expression may only be observed in the context of specific tissue and disease states. ..
- Kumar A, Jagtap D, Mahale S, Kumar M. Crystal structure of prostate secretory protein PSP94 shows an edge-to-edge association of two monomers to form a homodimer. J Mol Biol. 2010;397:947-56 pubmed publisher..Further, based on several observations, we propose that PSP94 binds to cysteine-rich secretory proteins and immunoglobulin G through the same edge, which is involved in the formation of PSP94 dimeric interface. ..
- Ohkubo I, Tada T, Ochiai Y, Ueyama H, Eimoto T, Sasaki M. Human seminal plasma beta-microseminoprotein: its purification, characterization, and immunohistochemical localization. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1995;27:603-11 pubmed..Furthermore, the immunohistochemical localization of the protein among various human tissues is demonstrated. ..
- Udby L, Lundwall A, Johnsen A, Fernlund P, Valtonen Andre C, Blom A, et al. beta-Microseminoprotein binds CRISP-3 in human seminal plasma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333:555-61 pubmed..Structural similarity with an MSP-binding protein from blood plasma suggests that CRISP-3 binds MSP through its aminoterminal SCP-domain. ..
- Wang I, Lou Y, Wu K, Wu S, Chang W, Chen C. Novel solution structure of porcine beta-microseminoprotein. J Mol Biol. 2005;346:1071-82 pubmed
- Shukeir N, Arakelian A, Chen G, Garde S, Ruiz M, Panchal C, et al. A synthetic 15-mer peptide (PCK3145) derived from prostate secretory protein can reduce tumor growth, experimental skeletal metastases, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Cancer Res. 2004;64:5370-7 pubmed
- Ghasriani H, Teilum K, Johnsson Y, Fernlund P, Drakenberg T. Solution structures of human and porcine beta-microseminoprotein. J Mol Biol. 2006;362:502-15 pubmed..The difference probably stems from a misinterpretation of ten specific inter-domain NOEs. ..
- Reeves J, Dulude H, Panchal C, Daigneault L, Ramnani D. Prognostic value of prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids and its binding protein after radical prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:6018-22 pubmed..Bound/free PSP94 and PSPBP are novel and independent prognostic markers following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. ..
- Makinen M, Valtonen Andre C, Lundwall A. New world, but not Old World, monkeys carry several genes encoding beta-microseminoprotein. Eur J Biochem. 1999;264:407-14 pubmed..A phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the genes probably arose in New World monkeys after the separation from Old World primates...
- Ulvsback M, Lindstrom C, Weiber H, Abrahamsson P, Lilja H, Lundwall A. Molecular cloning of a small prostate protein, known as beta-microsemenoprotein, PSP94 or beta-inhibin, and demonstration of transcripts in non-genital tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;164:1310-5 pubmed..Although probably of no physiological significance, a slight structural similarity to the ovarian inhibin beta-chains was identified in the C-terminal half of the molecule. ..
- Valtonen Andre C, Sävblom C, Fernlund P, Lilja H, Giwercman A, Lundwall A. Beta-microseminoprotein in serum correlates with the levels in seminal plasma of young, healthy males. J Androl. 2008;29:330-7 pubmed publisher..This suggests that MSP in serum can be used as a marker of prostate secretion, despite the contribution from extra prostatic tissues. ..
- Seidah N, Arbatti N, Rochemont J, Sheth A, Chretien M. Complete amino acid sequence of human seminal plasma beta-inhibin. Prediction of post Gln-Arg cleavage as a maturation site. FEBS Lett. 1984;175:349-55 pubmed..It is predicted that the FSH inhibiting activity may reside within this region of the molecule. This would imply a post Gln-Arg cleavage to release the basic C-terminal active moiety. ..
- Ochiai Y, Inazawa J, Ueyama H, Ohkubo I. Human gene for beta-microseminoprotein: its promoter structure and chromosomal localization. J Biochem. 1995;117:346-52 pubmed..The chromosome locus of the gene (MSMB) was determined through application of PCR to the DNAs of rodent-human somatic cell hybrids and also by the fluorescence in situ hybridization technique to be region q11.2 of chromosome 10. ..
- Valtonen Andre C, Bjartell A, Hellsten R, Lilja H, Härkönen P, Lundwall A. A highly conserved protein secreted by the prostate cancer cell line PC-3 is expressed in benign and malignant prostate tissue. Biol Chem. 2007;388:289-95 pubmed..Studies on human prostate cancer specimens showed immunohistochemical staining of both tumor and benign glandular cells. Our results suggest that PSMP is an important protein with significance in prostate cancer. ..
- Mbikay M, Nolet S, Fournier S, Benjannet S, Chapdelaine P, Paradis G, et al. Molecular cloning and sequence of the cDNA for a 94-amino-acid seminal plasma protein secreted by the human prostate. DNA. 1987;6:23-9 pubmed..The protein is specified by a single gene per haploid genome. Its mRNA is detectable in the prostate but not in the testis, which suggests that it is primarily a prostatic secretory protein. ..
- Hirano M, Kamada M, Maeda N, Yamamoto S, Aono T, Koide S. Presence of immunoglobulin binding factor on human sperm surface as sperm coating antigen. Arch Androl. 1996;37:163-70 pubmed..IgBF is a sperm-coating antigen and may play a role in suppressing antibody production against alloantigenic sperm in the female reproductive tract. ..
- Jagtap D, Modi D, Kumar M, Pathak B, Mahale S. High-affinity binding of seminal plasma PSP94 to human immunoglobulin is through the Fab domain. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1804:1889-94 pubmed publisher..This study reports for the first time that IgG forms a high-affinity complex with PSP94 through its F(ab')(2) domain and reveals the ability of PSP94 to prevent binding of IgG to spermatozoa. ..
- Thota A, Karajgikar M, Duan W, Gabril M, Chan F, Wong Y, et al. Mouse PSP94 expression is prostate tissue-specific as demonstrated by a comparison of multiple antibodies against recombinant proteins. J Cell Biochem. 2003;88:999-1011 pubmed..Results from this study have led to the possibility of utilizing PSP94 as a targeting agent specifically to the prostate in a mouse experimental model. ..
- Shukeir N, Arakelian A, Kadhim S, Garde S, Rabbani S. Prostate secretory protein PSP-94 decreases tumor growth and hypercalcemia of malignancy in a syngenic in vivo model of prostate cancer. Cancer Res. 2003;63:2072-8 pubmed
- Lou H, Yeager M, Li H, Bosquet J, Hayes R, Orr N, et al. Fine mapping and functional analysis of a common variant in MSMB on chromosome 10q11.2 associated with prostate cancer susceptibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7933-8 pubmed publisher..Further investigation is warranted to determine whether rs10993994 alone or in combination with additional variants contributes to prostate cancer susceptibility. ..
- Vanaja D, Cheville J, Iturria S, Young C. Transcriptional silencing of zinc finger protein 185 identified by expression profiling is associated with prostate cancer progression. Cancer Res. 2003;63:3877-82 pubmed..Thus, transcriptional silencing of ZNF185 by methylation in prostate tumor tissues implicates the ZNF185 gene in prostate tumorigenesis. ..
- Jagtap D, Narahari A, Swamy M, Mahale S. Disulphide bond reduction and S-carboxamidomethylation of PSP94 affects its conformation but not the ability to bind immunoglobulin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:723-31 pubmed..A novel finding from this study is that both native PSP94 as well as modified protein have the ability to bind human IgG, suggesting the involvement of sequential epitopes of PSP94 in IgG binding. ..
- Bjartell A, Al Ahmadie H, Serio A, Eastham J, Eggener S, Fine S, et al. Association of cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 and beta-microseminoprotein with outcome after radical prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:4130-8 pubmed..However, addition of the markers does not importantly improve the performance of existing predictive models. Further research should aim to elucidate the functions of CRISP-3 and MSP in prostate cancer cells. ..
- Valtonen Andre C, Olsson A, Nayudu P, Lundwall A. Ejaculates from the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) contain semenogelin and beta-microseminoprotein but not prostate-specific antigen. Mol Reprod Dev. 2005;71:247-55 pubmed..Thus, in this study we have shown that semen coagulum proteins are present in marmoset seminal plasma, but the lack of PSA precludes a similar liquefaction as of human semen. ..
- Fernlund P, Granberg L, Roepstorff P. Amino acid sequence of beta-microseminoprotein from porcine seminal plasma. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994;309:70-6 pubmed..A proportion of individual pigs have two forms of the protein, differing in charge but not in size. The characterization of beta-microseminoprotein in a species suited for experiments should help determine the function of this protein. ..
- Ohnuma S, Miura K, Horii A, Fujibuchi W, Kaneko N, Gotoh O, et al. Cancer-associated splicing variants of the CDCA1 and MSMB genes expressed in cancer cell lines and surgically resected gastric cancer tissues. Surgery. 2009;145:57-68 pubmed publisher..Alternative splicing variants, especially in CDCA1, were detected in this study and may be potentially useful as diagnostic markers and/or novel targets for anticancer therapy. ..
- Kwong J, Lui K, Chan P, Ho S, Wong Y, Xuan J, et al. Expression study of three secretory proteins (prostatic secretory protein of 94 amino acids, probasin, and seminal vesicle secretion II) in dysplastic and neoplastic rat prostates. Prostate. 2003;56:81-97 pubmed
- Sarfati M, Nutman T, Fonteyn C, Delespesse G. Presence of antigenic determinants common to Fc IgE receptors on human macrophages, T and B lymphocytes and IgE-binding factors. Immunology. 1986;59:569-75 pubmed
- Xu B, Hariharan A, Rakshit S, Dressler G, Wellik D. The role of Pax2 in mouse prostate development. Prostate. 2012;72:217-24 pubmed publisher..Pax2 is essential for mouse prostate development and regulates prostatic ductal growth, branching, and lobe-specific identity. These findings are important for understanding the molecular regulatory mechanisms in prostate development. ..
- Wempe F, Henschen A, Scheit K. Gene expression and cDNA cloning identified a major basic protein constituent of bovine seminal plasma as bovine monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1). DNA Cell Biol. 1991;10:671-9 pubmed..9-kb P6 mRNA. Stimulation of P6 mRNA expression by phytohemagglutinin in bovine peripheral mononuclear leukocytes suggests that P6 is identical to bovine MCP-1. ..
- Sarfati M, Nutman T, Suter U, Hofstetter H, Delespesse G. T-cell-derived IgE-binding factors. II. Purification and characterization of IgE-binding factors produced by human T cell leukemia/lymphoma virus-1-transformed T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1987;139:4055-60 pubmed..5 to 5. Some preparations further contained 16-kDa fragments of IgE-BF. These findings suggest that the gene coding for both Fc epsilon R and IgE-BF may also be expressed on some human T cells. ..
- Hawkins R, Daigneault L, Cowan R, Griffiths R, Panchal C, Armstrong A, et al. Safety and tolerability of PCK3145, a synthetic peptide derived from prostate secretory protein 94 (PSP94) in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Clin Prostate Cancer. 2005;4:91-9 pubmed..Efficacy observations were encouraging, and the biologic activity of PCK3145 in reducing MMP-9 level may suggest a potential role of this peptide in the regulation of metastatic tumor growth. ..
- Xu K, Ling M, Wang X, Wong Y. Evidence of a novel biomarker, alphas1-Casein, a milk protein, in benign prostate hyperplasia. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2006;9:293-7 pubmed..Recently, using two-dimensional electrophoresis, we identified a group of prostatic secretory proteins that are specifically produced by BPH cells (Xu et al., Electrophoresis 2003; 24: 1311)...
- Liang Z, Kamada M, Koide S. Structural identity of immunoglobulin binding factor and prostatic secretory protein of human seminal plasma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;180:356-9 pubmed..The initial 30 amino acids showed complete identity with that of prostatic secretory protein, beta-microseminoprotein and beta-inhibin. In conclusion, these proteins are probably a single entity. ..
- Brooks D, Means A, Wright E, Singh S, Tiver K. Molecular cloning of the cDNA for two major androgen-dependent secretory proteins of 18.5 kilodaltons synthesized by the rat epididymis. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:4956-61 pubmed
- Mills J, Needham M, Parker M. A secretory protease inhibitor requires androgens for its expression in male sex accessory tissues but is expressed constitutively in pancreas. EMBO J. 1987;6:3711-7 pubmed..There appears to be a single gene for this secretory protease inhibitor and yet expression is markedly stimulated by testosterone in the sex accessory tissues and unaffected by this hormone in the pancreas. ..
- Calvete J, Raida M, Sanz L, Wempe F, Scheit K, Romero A, et al. Localization and structural characterization of an oligosaccharide O-linked to bovine PDC-109. Quantitation of the glycoprotein in seminal plasma and on the surface of ejaculated and capacitated spermatozoa. FEBS Lett. 1994;350:203-6 pubmed
- Barnes A, Horne M, Ellis A. Streptococcus iniae expresses a cell surface non-immune trout immunoglobulin-binding factor when grown in normal trout serum. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003;15:425-31 pubmed..garvieae cells but S. iniae isolates grown in normal trout serum did not. These data indicate that S. iniae grown in serum express surface factors which can bind trout Ig by the Fc-region. ..
- Kader A, Sun J, Isaacs S, Wiley K, Yan G, Kim S, et al. Individual and cumulative effect of prostate cancer risk-associated variants on clinicopathologic variables in 5,895 prostate cancer patients. Prostate. 2009;69:1195-205 pubmed publisher..Correspondingly, they have minimal utility in predicting the risk for developing more or less aggressive forms of PCa. ..
- Ramasharma K, Sairam M, Seidah N, Chretien M, Manjunath P, Schiller P, et al. Isolation, structure, and synthesis of a human seminal plasma peptide with inhibin-like activity. Science. 1984;223:1199-202 pubmed..The peptide has been characterized and sequenced, and a 31-amino-acid synthetic replicate showed full biological activity in vitro. ..
- Mikayama T, Nakano T, Gomi H, Nakagawa Y, Liu Y, Sato M, et al. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding glycosylation-inhibiting factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993;90:10056-60 pubmed..However, the recombinant GIF failed to inhibit migration of human monocytes, and recombinant human macrophage migration inhibitory factor did not have GIF bioactivity. ..
- Joshi R, Jyothi S. Ab initio structure of human seminal plasma prostatic inhibin gives significant insight into its biological functions. J Mol Model. 2002;8:50-7 pubmed..Docking and other computational studies on this structure provide significant explanation and insight into its binding activities and related biological and immunogenic functions and offer new directions for its potential applications. ..
- Anway M, Skinner M. Transgenerational effects of the endocrine disruptor vinclozolin on the prostate transcriptome and adult onset disease. Prostate. 2008;68:517-29 pubmed publisher..Potential epigenetic transgenerational alteration of prostate gene expression by environmental compounds may be important to consider in the etiology of adult onset prostate disease. ..
- Simon A, Veyssiere G, Jean C. Structure and sequence of a mouse gene encoding an androgen-regulated protein: a new member of the seminal vesicle secretory protein family. J Mol Endocrinol. 1995;15:305-16 pubmed..Moreover, some regions were found to be conserved between the MSVSP99 gene and the human semenogelin I and II genes. ..
- Xuan J, Kwong J, Chan F, Ricci M, Imasato Y, Sakai H, et al. cDNA, genomic cloning, and gene expression analysis of mouse PSP94 (prostate secretory protein of 94 amino acids). DNA Cell Biol. 1999;18:11-26 pubmed..Therefore, it is hypothesized that one of the primary functions of rodent PSP94, as a major prostate secretory protein, is related to reproductive biology. ..
- Normand T, Jean Faucher C, Jean C. Developmental pattern of androgen-regulated proteins in seminal vesicles from the mouse. Int J Androl. 1989;12:219-30 pubmed..Those induced proteins with high molecular weight (71, 120 and 140 kD) appeared between 40 days and 60 days. The androgen-repressed proteins were strongly evident in immature males, but disappeared after day 40. ..
- Anklesaria J, Jagtap D, Pathak B, Kadam K, Joseph S, Mahale S. Prostate Secretory Protein of 94 amino acids (PSP94) binds to prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in human seminal plasma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58631 pubmed publisher..This is the first report which suggests that PSP94 can bind to PAP and the PAP-bound PSP94 is present in human seminal plasma. ..
- Einspanier R, Einspanier A, Wempe F, Scheit K. Characterization of a new bioactive protein from bovine seminal fluid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;179:1006-10 pubmed..aSFP stimulated cell division and progesterone secretion of bovine granulosa cells in vitro in a potent and dose dependent manner. aSFP appears to be a potent growth factor with effects on ovarian granulosa cells. ..
- Gudmundsson J, Besenbacher S, Sulem P, Gudbjartsson D, Olafsson I, Arinbjarnarson S, et al. Genetic correction of PSA values using sequence variants associated with PSA levels. Sci Transl Med. 2010;2:62ra92 pubmed publisher..We propose that a personalized PSA cutoff value, based on genotype, should be used when deciding to perform a prostate biopsy. ..
- Harris S, Harris M, Johnson C, Bean M, Dodd J, Matusik R, et al. Structural characterization of the rat seminal vesicle secretion II protein and gene. J Biol Chem. 1990;265:9896-903 pubmed
- Chen Z, Sun J, Kim S, Groskopf J, Feng J, Isaacs W, et al. Genome-wide association study identifies genetic determinants of urine PCA3 levels in men. Neoplasia. 2013;15:448-53 pubmed..25 and 1.24, respectively). This is the first comprehensive search for genetic determinants of PCA3 score. The novel loci identified may provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of PCA3 expression as a potential marker of PCa. ..
- Rutherfurd K, Swiderek K, Green C, Chen S, Shively J, Kwok S. Purification and characterization of PSP-I and PSP-II, two major proteins from porcine seminal plasma. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992;295:352-9 pubmed..PSP-II shares 50% sequence homology with a family of zona pellucida-binding glycoproteins at the N-terminus. ..
- Xu X, Valtonen Andre C, Sävblom C, Hallden C, Lilja H, Klein R. Polymorphisms at the Microseminoprotein-beta locus associated with physiologic variation in beta-microseminoprotein and prostate-specific antigen levels. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19:2035-42 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest a mechanism by which rs10993994 might predispose to prostate cancer and raise the possibility that genetic variation might need to be considered in interpreting the levels of these biomarkers. ..
- Fujimoto N, Akimoto Y, Suzuki T, Kitamura S, Ohta S. Identification of prostatic-secreted proteins in mice by mass spectrometric analysis and evaluation of lobe-specific and androgen-dependent mRNA expression. J Endocrinol. 2006;190:793-803 pubmed..We present here an outlined view of mouse prostate secretion, which should contribute to an understanding of the biological functions of the prostate gland, as well as the androgen dependency of prostate secretion. ..
- Ito Y, Tsuda R, Kimura H. Ultrastructural localizations of beta-microseminoprotein, a prostate-specific antigen, in human prostate and sperm: comparison with gamma-seminoprotein, another prostate-specific antigen. J Lab Clin Med. 1989;114:272-7 pubmed..In spermatozoa, beta-microseminprotein was found attached to the cell membrane of the head but not in the tail, and gamma-seminoprotein was not found at all. ..
- Yair D, Eshed Englender T, Kupferminc M, Geva E, Frenkel J, Sherman D. Serum levels of inhibin B, unlike inhibin A and activin A, are not altered in women with preeclampsia. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2001;45:180-7 pubmed..Inhibin A and activin A, but not inhibin B, serum levels are markedly increased in women with preeclampsia. These hormones might serve as an endocrine marker for preeclampsia. ..
- Hagstrom J, Harvey S, Madden B, McCormick D, Wieben E. Androgens affect the processing of secretory protein precursors in the guinea pig seminal vesicle. II. Identification of conserved sites for protein processing. Mol Endocrinol. 1989;3:1797-806 pubmed..Analysis of the predicted secondary structure of the two precursor polypeptides revealed a strong correlation between structural features and sites of protein processing. ..
- Corey E, Brown L, Corey M, Buhler K, Vessella R. LNCaP produces both putative zymogen and inactive, free form of prostate-specific antigen. Prostate. 1998;35:135-43 pubmed..A portion (40%) can be activated by trypsin, while the rest is stably inactive PSA. LNCaP cells may serve as a source of the "unreactive" PSA present in prostate cancer patients' serum. ..