seminal plasma proteins


Summary: Proteins found in SEMEN. Major seminal plasma proteins are secretory proteins from the male sex accessory glands, such as the SEMINAL VESICLES and the PROSTATE. They include the seminal vesicle-specific antigen, an ejaculate clotting protein; and the PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN, a protease and an esterase.

Top Publications

  1. Russell S, Tisdale M. The role of glucocorticoids in the induction of zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein expression in adipose tissue in cancer cachexia. Br J Cancer. 2005;92:876-81 pubmed
    ..This suggests that glucocorticoids stimulate lipolysis through an increase in ZAG expression, and that they are responsible for the increase in ZAG expression seen in adipose tissue of cachectic mice. ..
  2. Mracek T, Ding Q, Tzanavari T, Kos K, Pinkney J, Wilding J, et al. The adipokine zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is downregulated with fat mass expansion in obesity. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2010;72:334-41 pubmed publisher
    ..ZAG mRNA is positively correlated with adiponectin mRNA, and ZAG enhances adiponectin production by human adipocytes. We suggest that ZAG is linked to obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance. ..
  3. Thacker S, Yadav S, Sharma R, Kashou A, Willard B, Zhang D, et al. Evaluation of sperm proteins in infertile men: a proteomic approach. Fertil Steril. 2011;95:2745-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Yilmaz Y, Yonal O, Eren F, Kurt R, Celikel C, Ozdogan O, et al. Serum zinc-?2-glycoprotein concentrations in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2011;49:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, ZAG remains an interesting molecule for further research in the field of human metabolic disorders. ..
  5. Rolli V, Radosavljevic M, Astier V, Macquin C, Castan Laurell I, Visentin V, et al. Lipolysis is altered in MHC class I zinc-alpha(2)-glycoprotein deficient mice. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:394-400 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, in contrast to previously reported data, ZAG was found to be ubiquitously and constitutively expressed, with an especially high level in the mouse liver. No overt immunological phenotype was identified in these animals. ..
  6. Apger McGlaughon J, Wolfner M. Post-mating change in excretion by mated Drosophila melanogaster females is a long-term response that depends on sex peptide and sperm. J Insect Physiol. 2013;59:1024-30 pubmed publisher
  7. Simoni M, Tüttelmann F, Gromoll J, Nieschlag E. Clinical consequences of microdeletions of the Y chromosome: the extended Münster experience. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;16:289-303 pubmed
  8. Girouard J, Frenette G, Sullivan R. Seminal plasma proteins regulate the association of lipids and proteins within detergent-resistant membrane domains of bovine spermatozoa. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:921-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data suggest that DRM of ejaculated spermatozoa are reorganized by specific seminal plasma proteins, which induce lipid efflux as well as dissociation of DRM-anchored proteins...
  9. Ram K, Wolfner M. Sustained post-mating response in Drosophila melanogaster requires multiple seminal fluid proteins. PLoS Genet. 2007;3:e238 pubmed
    ..Our results also show that members of conserved protein classes found in seminal plasma from insects to mammals are essential for important reproductive processes. ..

More Information


  1. Dean M, Clark N, Findlay G, Karn R, Yi X, Swanson W, et al. Proteomics and comparative genomic investigations reveal heterogeneity in evolutionary rate of male reproductive proteins in mice (Mus domesticus). Mol Biol Evol. 2009;26:1733-43 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, proteins from the other five tissues showed significantly lower nonsynonymous substitution, revealing a previously unappreciated level of evolutionary constraint acting on the majority of male reproductive proteins. ..
  2. Adams E, Wolfner M. Seminal proteins but not sperm induce morphological changes in the Drosophila melanogaster female reproductive tract during sperm storage. J Insect Physiol. 2007;53:319-31 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that timely morphological changes in the female reproductive tract, possibly muscular in nature, may be needed for successful sperm storage, and that Acps from the male are needed in order for these changes to occur. ..
  3. Novak S, Ruiz Sánchez A, Dixon W, Foxcroft G, Dyck M. Seminal plasma proteins as potential markers of relative fertility in boars. J Androl. 2010;31:188-200 pubmed publisher
    ..The 2 lowest-fertility and 2 highest-fertility boars were chosen for evaluation of specific seminal plasma proteins. On 4 occasions, semen was collected and separated into 3 fractions based on sperm concentration (Sperm-..
  4. Nishimune Y, Tanaka H. Infertility caused by polymorphisms or mutations in spermatogenesis-specific genes. J Androl. 2006;27:326-34 pubmed
  5. Udby L, Bjartell A, Malm J, Egesten A, Lundwall A, Cowland J, et al. Characterization and localization of cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 (CRISP-3) in the human male reproductive tract. J Androl. 2005;26:333-42 pubmed
    ..Examination of seminal plasma from vasectomized males indicates that organs downstream of the epididymis are probably the major sources of seminal plasma CRISP-3. ..
  6. Wigby S, Sirot L, Linklater J, Buehner N, Calboli F, Bretman A, et al. Seminal fluid protein allocation and male reproductive success. Curr Biol. 2009;19:751-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that quantitative variation in specific Sfps is likely to play an important role in postcopulatory sexual selection and that investment in Sfp production is essential for male fitness in a competitive environment. ..
  7. Vogt P. AZF deletions and Y chromosomal haplogroups: history and update based on sequence. Hum Reprod Update. 2005;11:319-36 pubmed
  8. Tzanavari T, Bing C, Trayhurn P. Postnatal expression of zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein in rat white and brown adipose tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2007;279:26-33 pubmed
    ..The downregulated ZAG expression in white fat depots at weaning, when fat mass is expanded substantially, suggests that ZAG might be involved in the postnatal development of adipose tissue mass. ..
  9. Xia X, Cui Y, Pan L, Hao L, Jin B, Wu Y, et al. [Analysis of an AZFc deletion family with natural transmission]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2006;12:720-2 pubmed
    ..Identical Y-chromosomal microdeletions causing different phenotypes in this family is not associated with the polymorphisms of DAZL gene and may be related to other genes or environmental factors. ..
  10. Kleiman S, Yogev L, Hauser R, Botchan A, Maymon B, Paz G, et al. Expression profile of AZF genes in testicular biopsies of azoospermic men. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:151-8 pubmed
    ..The findings contribute to the search and selection of the most valuable gene markers potentially useful as additional tools for predicting complete spermatogenesis by multiplex expression analysis. ..
  11. Krausz C, Degl Innocenti S, Nuti F, Morelli A, Felici F, Sansone M, et al. Natural transmission of USP9Y gene mutations: a new perspective on the role of AZFa genes in male fertility. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2673-81 pubmed
  12. Vogt P, Falcao C, Hanstein R, Zimmer J. The AZF proteins. Int J Androl. 2008;31:383-94 pubmed publisher
  13. Findlay G, Yi X, MacCoss M, Swanson W. Proteomics reveals novel Drosophila seminal fluid proteins transferred at mating. PLoS Biol. 2008;6:e178 pubmed publisher
  14. McDermott L, Freel J, West A, Bjorkman P, Kennedy M. Zn-alpha2-glycoprotein, an MHC class I-related glycoprotein regulator of adipose tissues: modification or abrogation of ligand binding by site-directed mutagenesis. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2035-41 pubmed
    ..These data add weight to the distinctiveness of ZAG among MHC class I-like proteins in addition to providing defined binding-altered mutants for cellular signaling studies and potential medical applications. ..
  15. Ram K, Wolfner M. A network of interactions among seminal proteins underlies the long-term postmating response in Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:15384-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The requirements for manifestation of the LTR in Drosophila establish the paradigm that multiple seminal proteins can exert their actions through a multistep, multicomponent network of interactions. ..
  16. Selva D, Lecube A, Hernandez C, Baena J, Fort J, Simo R. Lower zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein production by adipose tissue and liver in obese patients unrelated to insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:4499-507 pubmed publisher
    ..A down-regulation of ZAG in SAT, VAT, and liver exists in obese patients but seems unrelated to insulin resistance. ..
  17. Mueller J, Linklater J, Ravi Ram K, Chapman T, Wolfner M. Targeted gene deletion and phenotypic analysis of the Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protease inhibitor Acp62F. Genetics. 2008;178:1605-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the processing of at least one seminal protein, the ovulation hormone ovulin, is slower in the absence of Acp62F. ..
  18. Irmak S, Tilki D, Heukeshoven J, Oliveira Ferrer L, Friedrich M, Huland H, et al. Stage-dependent increase of orosomucoid and zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein in urinary bladder cancer. Proteomics. 2005;5:4296-304 pubmed
    ..These results show that we have been able to identify two new proteins that may be related to the development of superficial bladder cancer and to its switch to an invasive phenotype. ..
  19. Cardozo J, Fernández Juan M, Forcada F, Abecia A, Muino Blanco T, Cebrian Perez J. Monthly variations in ovine seminal plasma proteins analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Theriogenology. 2006;66:841-50 pubmed
    ..Immunocytochemical localization and biochemical characterization of two seminal plasma proteins which protect ram spermatozoa against cold-shock...
  20. Ryden M, Agustsson T, Andersson J, Bolinder J, Toft E, Arner P. Adipose zinc-?2-glycoprotein is a catabolic marker in cancer and noncancerous states. J Intern Med. 2012;271:414-20 pubmed publisher
    ..WAT-secreted ZAG correlates with nutritional status but not with fat mass in both cancer and nonmalignant conditions. Adipose ZAG is therefore a local factor activated primarily by the catabolic state per se. ..
  21. Marrades M, Martinez J, Moreno Aliaga M. ZAG, a lipid mobilizing adipokine, is downregulated in human obesity. J Physiol Biochem. 2008;64:61-6 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that this novel adipokine could play a role in human susceptibility to obesity related disorders and that upregulation of ZAG could be a promising therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome treatment. ..
  22. de Souza F, Barreto C, Lopes M. Characteristics of seminal plasma proteins and their correlation with canine semen analysis. Theriogenology. 2007;68:100-6 pubmed
    The objectives were to separate canine seminal plasma proteins (with SDS-PAGE) and to determine the correlation between specific proteins and semen characteristics...
  23. Sirot L, Poulson R, McKenna M, Girnary H, Wolfner M, Harrington L. Identity and transfer of male reproductive gland proteins of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti: potential tools for control of female feeding and reproduction. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;38:176-89 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster. Our results identify candidate male-derived molecules that may have an important influence on behavior, survival, and reproduction of female mosquitoes. ..
  24. Mommens M, Wojtczak M, Ciereszko A, Babiak I. Seminal plasma proteins of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Fish Physiol Biochem. 2008;34:349-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Electrophoresis revealed four anti-proteolytic bands and individual differences in bands of proteolytic activity, which were subsequently characterized as metalloproteases and serine proteases. ..
  25. Findlay G, MacCoss M, Swanson W. Proteomic discovery of previously unannotated, rapidly evolving seminal fluid genes in Drosophila. Genome Res. 2009;19:886-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate the utility of applying proteomic gene discovery methods to a specific biological process and provide a more complete picture of the molecules that are critical to reproductive success in Drosophila. ..
  26. Mueller J, Page J, Wolfner M. An ectopic expression screen reveals the protective and toxic effects of Drosophila seminal fluid proteins. Genetics. 2007;175:777-83 pubmed
    ..We also tested ectopic expression females for other Acp-induced effects, but found no additional Acps that affected egg laying or receptivity upon ectopic expression...
  27. Mracek T, Gao D, Tzanavari T, Bao Y, Xiao X, Stocker C, et al. Downregulation of zinc-{alpha}2-glycoprotein in adipose tissue and liver of obese ob/ob mice and by tumour necrosis factor-alpha in adipocytes. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The reduced ZAG production may advance the susceptibility to lipid accumulation in these tissues in obesity, and this could be at least in part attributable to the inhibitory effect of TNFalpha. ..
  28. Andrés J, Maroja L, Bogdanowicz S, Swanson W, Harrison R. Molecular evolution of seminal proteins in field crickets. Mol Biol Evol. 2006;23:1574-84 pubmed
    ..In spite of the contrasting characteristics of the Drosophila and Gryllus mating systems, the mean selection parameter omega and the proportion of loci estimated to be affected by positive selection are very similar. ..
  29. Bing C, Mracek T, Gao D, Trayhurn P. Zinc-?2-glycoprotein: an adipokine modulator of body fat mass?. Int J Obes (Lond). 2010;34:1559-65 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review summarizes these new perspectives of ZAG and the potential mechanisms by which it might modulate adipose tissue mass and function. ..
  30. Rolland A, Lavigne R, Dauly C, Calvel P, Kervarrec C, Freour T, et al. Identification of genital tract markers in the human seminal plasma using an integrative genomics approach. Hum Reprod. 2013;28:199-209 pubmed publisher
    ..Non-liquefied seminal plasma proteins from a healthy donor were prefractionated using two sequential Proteominer™ libraries...
  31. Wong A, Turchin M, Wolfner M, Aquadro C. Evidence for positive selection on Drosophila melanogaster seminal fluid protease homologs. Mol Biol Evol. 2008;25:497-506 pubmed publisher
    ..The second gene, CG9997, was previously shown to be essential for normal sperm usage, suggesting that sexual selection may underlie its history of adaptation...
  32. Ratto M, Huanca W, Adams G. Ovulation-inducing factor: a protein component of llama seminal plasma. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2010;8:44 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ovulation-inducing factor (OIF) in llama seminal plasma is a protein molecule that is resistant to heat and enzymatic digestion with proteinase K, and has a molecular mass of approximately equal or higher than 30 kDa. ..
  33. Stejskal D, Karpisek M, Reutová H, Stejskal P, Kotolova H, Kollar P. Determination of serum zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein in patients with metabolic syndrome by a new ELISA. Clin Biochem. 2008;41:313-6 pubmed
    ..4+/-8.3 mg/L; N=132) from patients with metabolic syndrome (24.9+/-8.1; N=92). ZAG correlated with glucose, creatinine and uric acid. The immunoassay offers a new research tool for glucose metabolism. ..
  34. Bjartell A, Johansson R, Bjork T, Gadaleanu V, Lundwall A, Lilja H, et al. Immunohistochemical detection of cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 in tissue and in serum from men with cancer or benign enlargement of the prostate gland. Prostate. 2006;66:591-603 pubmed
    ..Strong immunostaining for CRISP-3 is common in HG-PIN and preserved in most PCa specimens, which warrant further immunohistochemical studies of CRISP-3 in PCa. Serum levels of CRISP-3 do not primarily reflect PCa. ..
  35. Lin Y, Hsu C, Yen P. A two-step protocol for the detection of rearrangements at the AZFc region on the human Y chromosome. Mol Hum Reprod. 2006;12:347-51 pubmed
    ..It offers a simple and reliable way to screen large populations for AZFc rearrangements and study their effects on male fertility. ..
  36. Krausz C, Degl Innocenti S. Y chromosome and male infertility: update, 2006. Front Biosci. 2006;11:3049-61 pubmed
    ..Future studies should focus on understanding the biological function of AZF genes which is an essential step for the development of more appropriate and knowledge-based therapies. ..
  37. Varilová T, Seménková H, Horak P, Madera M, Pacáková V, Ticha M, et al. Affinity liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis of seminal plasma proteins. J Sep Sci. 2006;29:1110-5 pubmed
    Interactions of boar, bull, and human seminal plasma proteins with heparin and phosphorylcholine were studied by affinity LC using heparin immobilized to a Toyopearl support. A step gradient elution from 0.15 to 1...
  38. Lefebvre J, Fan J, Chevalier S, Sullivan R, Carmona E, Manjunath P. Genomic structure and tissue-specific expression of human and mouse genes encoding homologues of the major bovine seminal plasma proteins. Mol Hum Reprod. 2007;13:45-53 pubmed
    ..This work shows, for the first time, that BSP homologues are expressed in mouse and human and may be involved in sperm capacitation in these species. ..
  39. Bjartell A, Al Ahmadie H, Serio A, Eastham J, Eggener S, Fine S, et al. Association of cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 and beta-microseminoprotein with outcome after radical prostatectomy. Clin Cancer Res. 2007;13:4130-8 pubmed
    ..However, addition of the markers does not importantly improve the performance of existing predictive models. Further research should aim to elucidate the functions of CRISP-3 and MSP in prostate cancer cells. ..
  40. Kleiman S, Bar Shira Maymon B, Hauser R, Botchan A, Paz G, Yavetz H, et al. Histone H4 acetylation and AZFc involvement in germ cells of specimens of impaired spermatogenesis. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:1728-36 pubmed
    ..Spermatids Hypac-H4 impairment in mixed atrophy did not deteriorate further by AZFc region deletion. ..
  41. Henshall S, Horvath L, Quinn D, Eggleton S, Grygiel J, Stricker P, et al. Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein expression as a predictor of metastatic prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2006;98:1420-4 pubmed
  42. Bing C, Trayhurn P. New insights into adipose tissue atrophy in cancer cachexia. Proc Nutr Soc. 2009;68:385-92 pubmed publisher
    ..ZAG may therefore act locally, as well as systemically, to promote lipid mobilisation in cancer cachexia. Further elucidation of ZAG function in adipose tissue may lead to novel targets for preventing adipose atrophy in malignancy. ..
  43. Yang Y, Ma M, Xiao C, Li L, Li S, Zhang S. Massive deletion in AZFb/b+c and azoospermia with Sertoli cell only and/or maturation arrest. Int J Androl. 2008;31:573-8 pubmed
  44. Töpfer Petersen E, Ekhlasi Hundrieser M, Tsolova M, Leeb T, Kirchhoff C, Muller P. Structure and function of secretory proteins of the male genital tract. Andrologia. 2005;37:202-4 pubmed
  45. Rodriguez Martinez H, Kvist U, Ernerudh J, Sanz L, Calvete J. Seminal plasma proteins: what role do they play?. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011;66 Suppl 1:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Proteins of the seminal plasma have an ample panorama of action, and some appear responsible for establishing fertility. ..
  46. Lu C, Zhang F, Yang H, Xu M, Du G, Wu W, et al. Additional genomic duplications in AZFc underlie the b2/b3 deletion-associated risk of spermatogenic impairment in Han Chinese population. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:4411-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Notably, genomic duplications and deletions in AZFc deserve comprehensive investigations to uncover spermatogenic roles of the AZFc region. ..
  47. Udby L, Lundwall A, Johnsen A, Fernlund P, Valtonen Andre C, Blom A, et al. beta-Microseminoprotein binds CRISP-3 in human seminal plasma. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333:555-61 pubmed
    ..Immunoprecipitation and gel filtration of seminal plasma proteins combined with examination of the proteins in their pure form showed that MSP and CRISP-3 form stable, non-..
  48. Mogielnicka Brzozowska M, Kordan W. Characteristics of selected seminal plasma proteins and their application in the improvement of the reproductive processes in mammals. Pol J Vet Sci. 2011;14:489-99 pubmed
    ..Ability to bind phosphorylcholine is one of the conditions for the coating of the seminal plasma proteins on the sperm membrane and also determines the formation of oligomeric forms of certain proteins...
  49. Sharma R, Agarwal A, Mohanty G, Jesudasan R, Gopalan B, Willard B, et al. Functional proteomic analysis of seminal plasma proteins in men with various semen parameters. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2013;11:38 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to determine if analysis of differential expression of proteins in varying semen parameters can serve as potential biomarkers for male infertility...
  50. Cram D, Osborne E, McLachlan R. Y chromosome microdeletions: implications for assisted conception. Med J Aust. 2006;185:433-4 pubmed
  51. Gong F, Zhang S, Deng J, Zhu H, Pan H, Li N, et al. Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein is involved in regulation of body weight through inhibition of lipogenic enzymes in adipose tissue. Int J Obes (Lond). 2009;33:1023-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum ZAG level is inversely associated with body weight and percentage of body fat. The action of ZAG is associated with downregulated lipogenic enzymes and upregulated lipolytic enzyme expressions in adipose tissue of mice. ..
  52. Russell S, Tisdale M. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on expression of a lipid mobilizing factor in adipose tissue in cancer cachexia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;72:409-14 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that EPA may preserve adipose tissue in cachectic mice by downregulation of ZAG expression through interference with glucocorticoid signalling. ..
  53. Bosch E, Jobling M. Duplications of the AZFa region of the human Y chromosome are mediated by homologous recombination between HERVs and are compatible with male fertility. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:341-7 pubmed
  54. Brysk M, Lei G, Adler Storthz K, Chen Z, Brysk H, Tyring S, et al. Zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein expression as a marker of differentiation in human oral tumors. Cancer Lett. 1999;137:117-20 pubmed
    ..Markers of oral epithelial maturation (keratin K13 and involucrin) are less simply related to tumor histology. ..