Summary: A steroid-inducible protein that was originally identified in uterine fluid. It is a secreted homodimeric protein with identical 70-amino acid subunits that are joined in an antiparallel orientation by two disulfide bridges. A variety of activities are associated with uteroglobin including the sequestering of hydrophobic ligands and the inhibition of SECRETORY PHOSPHOLIPASE A2.

Top Publications

  1. Ciampa A, Fanger G, Khan A, Rock K, Xu B. Mammaglobin and CRxA-01 in pleural effusion cytology: potential utility of distinguishing metastatic breast carcinomas from other cytokeratin 7-positive/cytokeratin 20-negative carcinomas. Cancer. 2004;102:368-72 pubmed
    ..When used together, CRxA-01 and mammaglobin greatly improved the sensitivity and specificity for the detection of metastatic breast carcinoma in pleural effusion specimens. ..
  2. Plopper C, Mango G, Hatch G, Wong V, Toskala E, Reynolds S, et al. Elevation of susceptibility to ozone-induced acute tracheobronchial injury in transgenic mice deficient in Clara cell secretory protein. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2006;213:74-85 pubmed
    ..Whether this is due to the presence of CCSP on the acellular lining layer surface and/or its intracellular distribution in the secretory cell population needs to be defined. ..
  3. Moreno J. Effects of antiflammins on transglutaminase and phospholipase A2 activation by transglutaminase. Int Immunopharmacol. 2006;6:300-3 pubmed
    ..named antiflammins (AFs), corresponding to a region with high amino acid similarity between lipocortin-1 and uteroglobin were tested for their ability to inhibit transglutaminase (TG) and low-molecular-mass phospholipase A2 (PLA2)...
  4. Bonetto G, Corradi M, Carraro S, Zanconato S, Alinovi R, Folesani G, et al. Longitudinal monitoring of lung injury in children after acute chlorine exposure in a swimming pool. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:545-9 pubmed
    ..Acute exposure to chlorine gas results in respiratory impairment, but few data are available on the pathobiology of the underlying lung damage...
  5. Lesur O, Langevin S, Berthiaume Y, Legare M, Skrobik Y, Bellemare J, et al. Outcome value of Clara cell protein in serum of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Intensive Care Med. 2006;32:1167-74 pubmed
    ..CC-16 is a valuable biomarker of ARDS that may help predict outcome among ARDS patients with high-risk mortality. ..
  6. Determann R, Wolthuis E, Choi G, Bresser P, Bernard A, Lutter R, et al. Lung epithelial injury markers are not influenced by use of lower tidal volumes during elective surgery in patients without preexisting lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008;294:L344-50 pubmed
    ..Mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes and PEEP did not have a different effect on levels of biomarkers of lung epithelial injury compared with conventional mechanical ventilation. ..
  7. Han J, Li C, Liu H, Fen D, Hu W, Liu Y, et al. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-mediated rat alveolar macrophage activation in vitro by antiflammin-1. Cell Biol Int. 2008;32:1108-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The data show for the first time that AF-1 modulates the AM response to LPS by regulating TLR-4 expression and upregulating IL-10 secretion, which could be another important mechanism in the AF-1 inhibiting effect on inflammation. ..
  8. Benson M, Jansson L, Adner M, Luts A, Uddman R, Cardell L. Gene profiling reveals decreased expression of uteroglobin and other anti-inflammatory genes in nasal fluid cells from patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:473-8 pubmed
    ..Little is known about anti-inflammatory mediators in IAR. DNA microarrays allow simultaneous analysis of the whole transcriptome in a sample...
  9. van Boven W, Gerritsen W, Zanen P, Grutters J, van Dongen H, Bernard A, et al. Pneumoproteins as a lung-specific biomarker of alveolar permeability in conventional on-pump coronary artery bypass graft surgery vs mini-extracorporeal circuit: a pilot study. Chest. 2005;127:1190-5 pubmed
    ..Further randomized studies need to confirm the value of CC16 as marker in monitoring alveolar capillary damage during coronary bypass grafting. ..

More Information


  1. Ku M, Sun H, Lu K, Sheu J, Lee H, Yang S, et al. The CC16 A38G polymorphism is associated with the development of asthma in children with allergic rhinitis. Clin Exp Allergy. 2011;41:794-800 pubmed publisher
    ..Early identification of rhinitis children at risk may assist in designing preventative approach to asthma development. ..
  2. O Brien N, O Donovan N, Ryan B, Hill A, McDermott E, O Higgins N, et al. Mammaglobin a in breast cancer: existence of multiple molecular forms. Int J Cancer. 2005;114:623-7 pubmed
    ..As expression of MGA is almost breast specific, it is a promising marker for breast cancer. Its most immediate use is likely to be in detecting micrometastases from breast cancer. ..
  3. Andiappan A, Yeo W, Parate P, Anantharaman R, Suri B, Wang D, et al. Variation in Uteroglobin-Related Protein 1 (UGRP1) gene is associated with allergic rhinitis in Singapore Chinese. BMC Med Genet. 2011;12:39 pubmed publisher
    b>Uteroglobin-Related Protein 1 (UGRP1) is a secretoglobulin protein which has been suggested to play a role in lung inflammation and allergic diseases...
  4. Lomas D, Silverman E, Edwards L, Miller B, Coxson H, Tal Singer R. Evaluation of serum CC-16 as a biomarker for COPD in the ECLIPSE cohort. Thorax. 2008;63:1058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum CC-16 levels are reduced in individuals with COPD and there is a weak correlation with disease severity in former smokers. ..
  5. Snyder J, Reynolds S, Hollingsworth J, Li Z, Kaminski N, Stripp B. Clara cells attenuate the inflammatory response through regulation of macrophage behavior. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:161-71 pubmed publisher
  6. Ellenberger C, Wilsher S, Allen W, Hoffmann C, Kolling M, Bazer F, et al. Immunolocalisation of the uterine secretory proteins uterocalin, uteroferrin and uteroglobin in the mare's uterus and placenta throughout pregnancy. Theriogenology. 2008;70:746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..the immunohistochemical placental distribution of these two proteins is rare and information regarding uteroglobin is still lacking...
  7. Wang H, Long X, Cao P, Wang N, Liu Y, Cui Y, et al. Clara cell 10-kD protein suppresses chitinase 3-like 1 expression associated with eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;181:908-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CHI3L1 is a novel molecule involved in ECRS and that CC10 plays a regulatory role in ECRS, presumably by attenuating CHI3L1 expression. ..
  8. Van De Velde V, Courtens W, Bernard A. Development of a new sensitive ELISA for the determination of uteroglobin-related protein 1, a new potential biomarker. Biomarkers. 2010;15:619-24 pubmed publisher
    b>Uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP-1) is a protein specifically secreted in airways, where it could play an anti-inflammatory role...
  9. LaKind J, Holgate S, Ownby D, Mansur A, Helms P, Pyatt D, et al. A critical review of the use of Clara cell secretory protein (CC16) as a biomarker of acute or chronic pulmonary effects. Biomarkers. 2007;12:445-67 pubmed
    ..is the serum concentration of the Clara cell secretory protein (CC16, sometimes referred to as CC10 or uteroglobin). In this review, we examine serum CC16's relation to asthma aetiology and exacerbation...
  10. Ray R, Choi M, Zhang Z, Silverman G, Askew D, Mukherjee A. Uteroglobin suppresses SCCA gene expression associated with allergic asthma. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9761-4 pubmed
    b>Uteroglobin (UG), the founding member of the Secretoglobin superfamily, is a potent anti-inflammatory protein constitutively expressed at a high level in the airway epithelia of all mammals...
  11. Chiba Y, Srisodsai A, Supavilai P, Kimura S. Interleukin-5 reduces the expression of uteroglobin-related protein (UGRP) 1 gene in allergic airway inflammation. Immunol Lett. 2005;97:123-9 pubmed
    ..The uteroglobin-related protein (UGRP) 1 was proposed to be an asthma candidate gene and play a role in regulating lung ..
  12. Bjerk S, Baker J, Emery S, Neuhaus J, Angus B, Gordin F, et al. Biomarkers and bacterial pneumonia risk in patients with treated HIV infection: a case-control study. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56249 pubmed publisher
  13. Morimoto M, Liu Z, Cheng H, Winters N, Bader D, Kopan R. Canonical Notch signaling in the developing lung is required for determination of arterial smooth muscle cells and selection of Clara versus ciliated cell fate. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:213-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These analyses suggest that the impact of gamma-secretase inhibitors on branching in vitro reflect a non-cell autonomous contribution from endothelial or vSMC-derived signals. ..
  14. Zafrakas M, Petschke B, Donner A, Fritzsche F, Kristiansen G, Knüchel R, et al. Expression analysis of mammaglobin A (SCGB2A2) and lipophilin B (SCGB1D2) in more than 300 human tumors and matching normal tissues reveals their co-expression in gynecologic malignancies. BMC Cancer. 2006;6:88 pubmed
  15. Batra J, Niphadkar P, Sharma S, Ghosh B. Uteroglobin-related protein 1(UGRP1) gene polymorphisms and atopic asthma in the Indian population. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2005;136:1-6 pubmed
    The secretory protein, uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1), is mainly expressed in the lung and trachea and has recently been implicated in asthma...
  16. Coppens J, Van Winkle L, Pinkerton K, Plopper C. Distribution of Clara cell secretory protein expression in the tracheobronchial airways of rhesus monkeys. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;292:L1155-62 pubmed publisher
  17. Vanspauwen M, Linssen C, Bruggeman C, Jacobs J, Drent M, Bergmans D, et al. Clara cell protein in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid: a predictor of ventilator-associated pneumonia?. Crit Care. 2011;15:R14 pubmed publisher
    ..06). However, CC-10 concentrations did differ significantly between the late-onset VAP group and the non-VAP group. The CC-10 concentration in BAL fluid yielded low diagnostic accuracy in confirming the presence of VAP. ..
  18. Lu X, Wang N, Long X, You X, Cui Y, Liu Z. The cytokine-driven regulation of secretoglobins in normal human upper airway and their expression, particularly that of uteroglobin-related protein 1, in chronic rhinosinusitis. Respir Res. 2011;12:28 pubmed publisher
    ..Among those SCGBs, SCGB3A2 (uteroglobin-related protein 1, UGRP1) is particularly interesting, given its structure and function similarities with ..
  19. Diamond J, Kawut S, Lederer D, Ahya V, Kohl B, Sonett J, et al. Elevated plasma clara cell secretory protein concentration is associated with high-grade primary graft dysfunction. Am J Transplant. 2011;11:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..02. Elevated CC16 levels were associated with increased odds of PGD after lung transplantation. Damage to airway epithelium or altered alveolar permeability as a result of lung ischemia and reperfusion may explain this association. ..
  20. Mercatali L, Valenti V, Calistri D, Calpona S, Rosti G, Folli S, et al. RT-PCR determination of maspin and mammaglobin B in peripheral blood of healthy donors and breast cancer patients. Ann Oncol. 2006;17:424-8 pubmed
    ..The validation of these markers as indicators of high risk of relapse is ongoing in a series of patients with an adequate follow-up. ..
  21. Tompkins D, Besnard V, Lange A, Wert S, Keiser A, Smith A, et al. Sox2 is required for maintenance and differentiation of bronchiolar Clara, ciliated, and goblet cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8248 pubmed publisher
    ..Sox2 is required for proliferation and differentiation of Clara cells that serve as the progenitor cells from which Clara, ciliated, and goblet cells are derived...
  22. Mattsson J, Remberger M, Andersson O, Sundberg B, Nord M. Decreased serum levels of clara cell secretory protein (CC16) are associated with bronchiolitis obliterans and may permit early diagnosis in patients after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Transplantation. 2005;79:1411-6 pubmed
    ..Low levels of CC16 are associated with BO after allogeneic SCT. Monitoring of CC16 in serum after SCT may have potential as an early marker for BO. ..
  23. Gowdy K, Krantz Q, Daniels M, Linak W, Jaspers I, Gilmour M. Modulation of pulmonary inflammatory responses and antimicrobial defenses in mice exposed to diesel exhaust. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2008;229:310-9 pubmed publisher
  24. Bignotti E, Tassi R, Calza S, Ravaggi A, Romani C, Rossi E, et al. Differential gene expression profiles between tumor biopsies and short-term primary cultures of ovarian serous carcinomas: identification of novel molecular biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapy. Gynecol Oncol. 2006;103:405-16 pubmed
    ..Mammaglobin 2, kallikreins 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, claudin 3 and 4 and B7-H4 gene expression products represent candidate biomarkers endowed with great potential for early screening and therapy of OSPC patients. ..
  25. Ventura E, Balza E, Borsi L, Tutolo G, Carnemolla B, Castellani P, et al. Selective targeted delivery of the TNF-alpha receptor p75 and uteroglobin to the vasculature of inflamed tissues: a preliminary report. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:104 pubmed publisher
    ..Using uteroglobin (UG), a potent anti-inflammatory protein, as a scaffold, we prepared a bispecific tetravalent molecule ..
  26. Mukherjee A, Zhang Z, Chilton B. Uteroglobin: a steroid-inducible immunomodulatory protein that founded the Secretoglobin superfamily. Endocr Rev. 2007;28:707-25 pubmed
    Blastokinin or uteroglobin (UG) is a steroid-inducible, evolutionarily conserved, secreted protein that has been extensively studied from the standpoint of its structure and molecular biology...
  27. Benson M, Fransson M, Martinsson T, Naluai A, Uddman R, Cardell L. Inverse relation between nasal fluid Clara Cell Protein 16 levels and symptoms and signs of rhinitis in allergen-challenged patients with intermittent allergic rhinitis. Allergy. 2007;62:178-83 pubmed
    ..There was an inverse relation between nasal fluid CC16 levels and symptoms and signs of rhinitis in allergen-challenged patients with IAR. However, there was no association between IAR and the A38G SNP. ..
  28. Chapman H, Li X, Alexander J, Brumwell A, Lorizio W, Tan K, et al. Integrin ?6?4 identifies an adult distal lung epithelial population with regenerative potential in mice. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:2855-62 pubmed publisher
  29. Perl A, Wert S, Loudy D, Shan Z, Blair P, Whitsett J. Conditional recombination reveals distinct subsets of epithelial cells in trachea, bronchi, and alveoli. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005;33:455-62 pubmed
    ..Conditional expression of Cre-recombinase in the respiratory epithelium provides a useful model for the study of gene expression and function in the mouse respiratory tract and in the lung. ..
  30. Tsoumakidou M, Bouloukaki I, Thimaki K, Tzanakis N, Siafakas N. Innate immunity proteins in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Exp Lung Res. 2010;36:373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..019). beta-Defensin-2 was not detected in BALF. In conclusion, in COPD, secretion of CC16 and beta-defensin-2 might be suppressed, whereas SLPI and elafin secretion is up-regulated. In IPF, only CC16 secretion is up-regulated. ..
  31. Kurotani R, Kumaki N, Naizhen X, Ward J, Linnoila R, Kimura S. Secretoglobin 3A2/uteroglobin-related protein 1 is a novel marker for pulmonary carcinoma in mice and humans. Lung Cancer. 2011;71:42-8 pubmed publisher
    Secretoglobin (SCGB) 3A2, also called uteroglobin-related protein (UGRP) 1, is a downstream target for a homeodomain transcription factor NKX2-1, which is critical for the development of lung, thyroid and ventral forebrain...
  32. Determann R, Royakkers A, Haitsma J, Zhang H, Slutsky A, Ranieri V, et al. Plasma levels of surfactant protein D and KL-6 for evaluation of lung injury in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. BMC Pulm Med. 2010;10:6 pubmed publisher
    ..Plasma levels of SP-D and KL-6 rise with potentially injurious ventilator settings, and thus may serve as biological markers of VALI in patients with ALI/ARDS. ..
  33. Wong A, Keating A, Waddell T. Airway regeneration: the role of the Clara cell secretory protein and the cells that express it. Cytotherapy. 2009;11:676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of this protein or CCSP-expressing cells as an indication of biologic processes that contribute to lung injury or repair is highlighted. ..
  34. Sjödin A, Guo D, Lund Johansen M, Krossnes B, Lilleng P, Henriksson R, et al. Secretoglobins in the human pituitary: high expression of lipophilin B and its down-regulation in pituitary adenomas. Acta Neuropathol. 2005;109:381-6 pubmed
    ..No secretoglobin mRNA was detected in the HP75 cells. The present report demonstrates, for the first time, lipophilin B expression in the pituitary and its apparent down-regulation in pituitary adenomas. ..
  35. Katavolos P, Ackerley C, Clark M, Bienzle D. Clara cell secretory protein increases phagocytic and decreases oxidative activity of neutrophils. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2011;139:1-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Presence in the nucleus suggests a potential transcriptional role of CCSP in neutrophils. ..
  36. Romberg K, Bjermer L, Tufvesson E. Exercise but not mannitol provocation increases urinary Clara cell protein (CC16) in elite swimmers. Respir Med. 2011;105:31-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes seen in urinary levels of 11?-PGF(2?) and LTE(4) indicate a pathophysiological role in both mannitol and exercise challenge. ..
  37. Stoeckelhuber M, Messmer E, Schmidt C, Xiao F, Schubert C, Klug J. Immunohistochemical analysis of secretoglobin SCGB 2A1 expression in human ocular glands and tissues. Histochem Cell Biol. 2006;126:103-9 pubmed
    ..Implications of the presence in tear fluid of an androgen-regulated secretoglobin, which most likely binds hydrophobic ligands, for tear film lipid layer formation and function is discussed. ..
  38. Ventura E, Sassi F, Fossati S, Parodi A, Blalock W, Balza E, et al. Use of uteroglobin for the engineering of polyvalent, polyspecific fusion proteins. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26646-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The procedure is based on the use of a central skeleton of uteroglobin, a small and very soluble covalently linked homodimeric protein that is very resistant to proteolytic enzymes ..
  39. Kropski J, Fremont R, Calfee C, Ware L. Clara cell protein (CC16), a marker of lung epithelial injury, is decreased in plasma and pulmonary edema fluid from patients with acute lung injury. Chest. 2009;135:1440-1447 pubmed publisher
    ..CC16 is a promising diagnostic biomarker for helping to discriminate ALI from CPE. Larger scale validation is warranted to better characterize the utility of CC16 in the diagnosis of this underrecognized syndrome. ..
  40. Kim C, Jackson E, Woolfenden A, Lawrence S, Babar I, Vogel S, et al. Identification of bronchioalveolar stem cells in normal lung and lung cancer. Cell. 2005;121:823-35 pubmed
    ..Although bronchiolar cells and alveolar cells are proposed to be the precursor cells of adenocarcinoma, this work points to BASCs as the putative cells of origin for this subtype of lung cancer. ..
  41. Tassi R, Bignotti E, Rossi E, Falchetti M, Donzelli C, Calza S, et al. Overexpression of mammaglobin B in epithelial ovarian carcinomas. Gynecol Oncol. 2007;105:578-85 pubmed
    Mammaglobin B is a uteroglobin gene family member recently found highly differentially expressed in serous papillary ovarian cancer by gene expression profiling...
  42. de Burbure C, Pignatti P, Corradi M, Malerba M, Clippe A, Dumont X, et al. Uteroglobin-related protein 1 and clara cell protein in induced sputum of patients with asthma and rhinitis. Chest. 2007;131:172-9 pubmed
    b>Uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) and Clara cell protein (CC16), members of the secretoglobin family, increasingly appear to play a role in airway inflammatory response...
  43. Steiner D, Jeggli S, Tschopp A, Bernard A, Oppliger A, Hilfiker S, et al. Clara cell protein and surfactant protein B in garbage collectors and in wastewater workers exposed to bioaerosols. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2005;78:189-97 pubmed
    ..No clue to work-related respiratory diseases was found. The increase in CC16 in serum supports the hypothesis that bioaerosols cause subclinical "toxic pneumonitis", even at low exposure. ..
  44. Liu Z, Lu X, Zhang X, Bochner B, Long X, Zhang F, et al. Clara cell 10-kDa protein expression in chronic rhinosinusitis and its cytokine-driven regulation in sinonasal mucosa. Allergy. 2009;64:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Different cytokines can regulate CC10 expression in nasal mucosa differentially through modulating mRNA stability and certain transcriptional factors expression. ..
  45. Jaramillo A, Narayanan K, Campbell L, Benshoff N, Lybarger L, Hansen T, et al. Recognition of HLA-A2-restricted mammaglobin-A-derived epitopes by CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes from breast cancer patients. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004;88:29-41 pubmed
    ..1+ breast cancer cell line. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the immunotherapeutic potential of mammaglobin-A for the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. ..
  46. Wang X, Dakir E, Naizhen X, Jensen Taubman S, DeMayo F, Linnoila R. Achaete-scute homolog-1 linked to remodeling and preneoplasia of pulmonary epithelium. Lab Invest. 2007;87:527-39 pubmed
    ..The collective results suggest a novel model of BOA formation via hASH1-induced suppression of the apoptotic pathway. Our study yields a promising new preclinical tool for chemoprevention of peripheral lung carcinomas. ..
  47. Fujita M, Shannon J, Ouchi H, Voelker D, Nakanishi Y, Mason R. Serum surfactant protein D is increased in acute and chronic inflammation in mice. Cytokine. 2005;31:25-33 pubmed
    ..These data clarified profile of SP-A and SP-D in acute and chronic inflammation and indicated that serum SP-D can serve as a biomarker of lung inflammation in both acute and chronic lung injury in mice. ..
  48. Antico G, Lingen M, Sassano A, Melby J, Welch R, Fiore S, et al. Recombinant human uteroglobin/CC10 inhibits the adhesion and migration of primary human endothelial cells via specific and saturable binding to fibronectin. J Cell Physiol. 2006;207:553-61 pubmed
    b>Uteroglobin (UG) or Clara Cell 10 kDa protein (CC10) is a small, stable, epithelial secretory anti-inflammatory protein...
  49. Nie X, Li Q, Cai G, Dai Y, Zhang J. The effect of N-acetylcysteine on Clara cells and Clara cell 16 kDa protein in a murine model of allergen-induced airway inflammation. Respirology. 2005;10:157-63 pubmed
    ..Antioxidants can enhance the expression of CC16, which might be a mechanism by which they suppress airway inflammation. ..
  50. Yang S, Shin S, Oh J, Jin J, Chung N, Lim C, et al. The protective role of uteroglobin through the modulation of tissue transglutaminase in the experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2008;23:3437-45 pubmed publisher
    ..experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis (ecGN) has been inhibited by the administration of recombinant uteroglobin (rUG). However, the ability of UG on tTG modulation has not been thoroughly assessed...
  51. Michel O, Murdoch R, Bernard A. Inhaled LPS induces blood release of Clara cell specific protein (CC16) in human beings. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005;115:1143-7 pubmed
    ..These observations further validate plasma CC16 as a noninvasive test of the alveolocapillary barrier permeability. ..
  52. Inoue K, Wang X, Saito J, Tanino Y, Ishida T, Iwaki D, et al. Plasma UGRP1 levels associate with promoter G-112A polymorphism and the severity of asthma. Allergol Int. 2008;57:57-64 pubmed
    b>Uteroglobin-related protein 1 (UGRP1) is a secretory protein expressed in the airways and is speculated to have anti-inflammatory activity...
  53. Yang Y, Lingling S, Ying J, Yushu L, Zhongyan S, Wei H, et al. Association study between the IL4, IL13, IRF1 and UGRP1 genes in chromosomal 5q31 region and Chinese Graves' disease. J Hum Genet. 2005;50:574-82 pubmed
    ..But those individuals who were TT homozygous at IRF1 6477 T/G locus seemed to be attacked by GD much earlier than others. ..