activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule


Summary: Cell adhesion molecule expressed on activated leukocytes, fibroblasts, and neurons. It is a ligand for CD6. ALCAM-CD6 interactions may play a role in the binding of T and B cells to activated leukocytes.

Top Publications

  1. Pourquie O, Corbel C, Le Caer J, Rossier J, Le Douarin N. BEN, a surface glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is expressed in a variety of developing systems. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992;89:5261-5 pubmed
    ..L. (1991) Neuron 7, 535-545]. Their pattern of expression and structural properties are consistent with those reported for BEN. Therefore BEN, DM-GRASP, and SC1 are likely to be the same molecule of the immunoglobulin superfamily. ..
  2. Kristiansen G, Pilarsky C, Wissmann C, Stephan C, Weissbach L, Loy V, et al. ALCAM/CD166 is up-regulated in low-grade prostate cancer and progressively lost in high-grade lesions. Prostate. 2003;54:34-43 pubmed
    b>Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM, CD166) is expressed in various tissues, including malignant melanoma, prostate cancer cell lines, and prostate cancer...
  3. Arai F, Ohneda O, Miyamoto T, Zhang X, Suda T. Mesenchymal stem cells in perichondrium express activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and participate in bone marrow formation. J Exp Med. 2002;195:1549-63 pubmed, we purified and characterized perichondrial cells using a monoclonal antibody against activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and investigated the role of perichondrial cells in hematopoietic bone marrow formation...
  4. Ikeda K, Quertermous T. Molecular isolation and characterization of a soluble isoform of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule that modulates endothelial cell function. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:55315-23 pubmed
    ..Recently, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a member of the Ig superfamily, has been detected in the primitive subsets of ..
  5. Weichert W, Knösel T, Bellach J, Dietel M, Kristiansen G. ALCAM/CD166 is overexpressed in colorectal carcinoma and correlates with shortened patient survival. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:1160-4 pubmed
    ..028; relative risk, 2.3) with shortened patient survival. ALCAM is frequently upregulated in colorectal cancer and is a new independent prognostic marker, underscoring the importance of ALCAM in tumour progression in this disease. ..
  6. van Kempen L, Nelissen J, Degen W, Torensma R, Weidle U, Bloemers H, et al. Molecular basis for the homophilic activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM)-ALCAM interaction. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25783-90 pubmed
    b>Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, facilitates heterophilic (ALCAM-CD6) and homophilic (ALCAM-ALCAM) cell-cell ..
  7. Swart G, Lunter P, Kilsdonk J, Kempen L. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166): signaling at the divide of melanoma cell clustering and cell migration?. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2005;24:223-36 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) and its role in human melanoma progression...
  8. Masedunskas A, King J, Tan F, Cochran R, Stevens T, Sviridov D, et al. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is a component of the endothelial junction involved in transendothelial monocyte migration. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:2637-45 pubmed
    ..b>Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is an Ig CAM expressed by activated monocytes and endothelial cells...
  9. Roth A, Drummond D, Conrad F, Hayes M, Kirpotin D, Benz C, et al. Anti-CD166 single chain antibody-mediated intracellular delivery of liposomal drugs to prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther. 2007;6:2737-46 pubmed
    ..Further studies on intracellular tracking of endocytosed liposomal drugs will help identify and overcome the barriers limiting the potency of liposomal drugs. ..

More Information


  1. Ofori Acquah S, King J. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule: a new paradox in cancer. Transl Res. 2008;151:122-8 pubmed publisher
    The activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule [ALCAM/CD166/melanoma metastasis clone D (MEMD)] is an immunoglobulin superfamily cell adhesion molecule. It is expressed developmentally in cells of all 3 embryonic lineages...
  2. van Kilsdonk J, Wilting R, Bergers M, Van Muijen G, Schalkwijk J, van Kempen L, et al. Attenuation of melanoma invasion by a secreted variant of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule. Cancer Res. 2008;68:3671-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166/MEMD), a marker of various cancers and mesenchymal stem cells, is involved in melanoma metastasis...
  3. Ihnen M, Wirtz R, Kalogeras K, Milde Langosch K, Schmidt M, Witzel I, et al. Combination of osteopontin and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule as potent prognostic discriminators in HER2- and ER-negative breast cancer. Br J Cancer. 2010;103:1048-56 pubmed publisher
    To analyse the discriminative impact of osteopontin (OPN) and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), combined with human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) and oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer...
  4. Zheng X, Ding W, Xie L, Chen Z. [Expression and significance of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue. 2004;10:265-8 pubmed
    To investigate the expression of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule(ALCAM) protein in prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma, and the relationship between ALCAM expression and clinicopathological features of ..
  5. Cayrol R, Wosik K, Berard J, Dodelet Devillers A, Ifergan I, Kebir H, et al. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule promotes leukocyte trafficking into the central nervous system. Nat Immunol. 2008;9:137-45 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate an important function for ALCAM in the recruitment of leukocytes into the brain and identify ALCAM as a potential target for the therapeutic dampening of neuroinflammation. ..
  6. Bowen M, Bajorath J, D Egidio M, Whitney G, Palmer D, Kobarg J, et al. Characterization of mouse ALCAM (CD166): the CD6-binding domain is conserved in different homologs and mediates cross-species binding. Eur J Immunol. 1997;27:1469-78 pubmed
    b>Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM; CD166) is a member of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily (IgSF) which is expressed by activated leukocytes and thymic epithelial cells and is a ligand for the lymphocyte antigen CD6...
  7. Burkhardt M, Mayordomo E, Winzer K, Fritzsche F, Gansukh T, Pahl S, et al. Cytoplasmic overexpression of ALCAM is prognostic of disease progression in breast cancer. J Clin Pathol. 2006;59:403-9 pubmed
    ..6, p = 0.052) was of borderline significance. The data suggest that strong cytoplasmic ALCAM expression in primary breast cancer, as detected by immunohistochemistry, might be a new marker for a more aggressive breast cancer biology. ..
  8. Verma A, Shukla N, Deo S, Gupta S, Ralhan R. MEMD/ALCAM: a potential marker for tumor invasion and nodal metastasis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Oncology. 2005;68:462-70 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that MEMD/ALCAM may serve as a potential marker for early diagnosis, tumor invasion and nodal metastasis in ESCCs. ..
  9. Bowen M, Patel D, Li X, Modrell B, Malacko A, Wang W, et al. Cloning, mapping, and characterization of activated leukocyte-cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a CD6 ligand. J Exp Med. 1995;181:2213-20 pubmed
  10. Bruder S, Ricalton N, Boynton R, Connolly T, Jaiswal N, Zaia J, et al. Mesenchymal stem cell surface antigen SB-10 corresponds to activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and is involved in osteogenic differentiation. J Bone Miner Res. 1998;13:655-63 pubmed
    ..Together, these results provide evidence that ALCAM plays a critical role in the differentiation of mesenchymal tissues in multiple species across the phylogenetic tree. ..
  11. Peduzzi J, Irwin M, Geisert E. Distribution and characteristics of a 90 kDa protein, KG-CAM, in the rat CNS. Brain Res. 1994;640:296-307 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal the varied roles of this adhesion molecule in the developing brain and spinal cord, as well as its potential role in the maintenance of the structural integrity of the adult CNS. ..
  12. Whitney G, Starling G, Bowen M, Modrell B, Siadak A, Aruffo A. The membrane-proximal scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domain of CD6 contains the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule binding site. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:18187-90 pubmed
    ..This ligand was found to be a member of the immunoglobulin supergene family and was named ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule)...
  13. King J, Ofori Acquah S, Stevens T, Al Mehdi A, Fodstad O, Jiang W. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule in breast cancer: prognostic indicator. Breast Cancer Res. 2004;6:R478-87 pubmed
    b>Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) (CD166) is an immunoglobulin molecule that has been implicated in cell migration...
  14. Ohneda O, Ohneda K, Arai F, Lee J, Miyamoto T, Fukushima Y, et al. ALCAM (CD166): its role in hematopoietic and endothelial development. Blood. 2001;98:2134-42 pubmed
    ..between YSCL-72 and an adult aorta-derived endothelial cell line, EOMA, demonstrated that activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM, or CD166) was specifically expressed in YSCL-72 but not in EOMA...
  15. Piazza T, Cha E, Bongarzone I, Canevari S, Bolognesi A, Polito L, et al. Internalization and recycling of ALCAM/CD166 detected by a fully human single-chain recombinant antibody. J Cell Sci. 2005;118:1515-25 pubmed
    b>Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily with five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains, promotes heterophilic (ALCAM-CD6) and homophilic (ALCAM-ALCAM) cell-cell ..
  16. van Kempen L, Meier F, Egeblad M, Kersten Niessen M, Garbe C, Weidle U, et al. Truncation of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule: a gateway to melanoma metastasis. J Invest Dermatol. 2004;122:1293-301 pubmed
    ..of human cutaneous primary melanoma is, among others, accompanied by de novo expression of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) and enhanced activity of proteolytic cascades in the invasive, vertical growth ..
  17. Bech Serra J, Santiago Josefat B, Esselens C, Saftig P, Baselga J, Arribas J, et al. Proteomic identification of desmoglein 2 and activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule as substrates of ADAM17 and ADAM10 by difference gel electrophoresis. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5086-95 pubmed
    ..extracellular domain of the transferrin receptor and those of two cell-cell adhesion molecules, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and desmoglein 2 (Dsg-2), is increased in cells overexpressing ADAM17...
  18. Choi S, Kim K, Kim J, Kim J, Lee H, Kim J, et al. Expression of human NDRG2 by myeloid dendritic cells inhibits down-regulation of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) and contributes to maintenance of T cell stimulatory activity. J Leukoc Biol. 2008;83:89-98 pubmed
    ..RNA interference of NDRG2 demonstrated that activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) expression is down-regulated specifically in DC differentiated from NDRG2 small ..
  19. Burns F, von Kannen S, Guy L, Raper J, Kamholz J, Chang S. DM-GRASP, a novel immunoglobulin superfamily axonal surface protein that supports neurite extension. Neuron. 1991;7:209-20 pubmed
    ..Consequently we have named this protein DM-GRASP, since it is an immunoglobulin-like restricted axonal surface protein that is expressed in the dorsal funiculus and ventral midline of the chick spinal cord. ..
  20. Tanaka H, Matsui T, Agata A, Tomura M, Kubota I, McFarland K, et al. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel adhesion molecule, SC1. Neuron. 1991;7:535-45 pubmed
    ..SC1 molecules bind to each other via a homophilic adhesion mechanism, independently of calcium or magnesium ions. SC1 may have a role in lateral motor column formation or neurite growth or fasciculation. ..
  21. Matsumoto A, Mitchell A, Kurata H, Pyle L, Kondo K, Itakura H, et al. Cloning and characterization of HB2, a candidate high density lipoprotein receptor. Sequence homology with members of the immunoglobulin superfamily of membrane proteins. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:16778-82 pubmed
  22. Swart G. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (CD166/ALCAM): developmental and mechanistic aspects of cell clustering and cell migration. Eur J Cell Biol. 2002;81:313-21 pubmed
    b>Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and belongs to a recent subgroup with five extracellular immunoglobulin-like domains (VVC2C2C2)...
  23. Degen W, van Kempen L, Gijzen E, van Groningen J, van Kooyk Y, Bloemers H, et al. MEMD, a new cell adhesion molecule in metastasizing human melanoma cell lines, is identical to ALCAM (activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule). Am J Pathol. 1998;152:805-13 pubmed
    ..The encoded protein, MEMD, is identical to activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), a recently identified ligand of CD6...
  24. Inaguma S, Lasota J, Felisiak Golabek A, Kowalik A, Wang Z, Zięba S, et al. Histopathological and genotypic characterization of metastatic colorectal carcinoma with PD-L1 (CD274)-expression: Possible roles of tumour micro environmental factors for CD274 expression. J Pathol Clin Res. 2017;3:268-278 pubmed publisher
    ..immunophenotype defined by down-regulation of homeobox protein CDX2 and membranous expression of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM)...
  25. Yokoi N, Komeda K, Wang H, Yano H, Kitada K, Saitoh Y, et al. Cblb is a major susceptibility gene for rat type 1 diabetes mellitus. Nat Genet. 2002;31:391-4 pubmed
    ..Impairment of the Cblb signaling pathway may contribute to human autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes...
  26. Saifullah M, Fox D, Sarkar S, Abidi S, Endres J, Piktel J, et al. Expression and characterization of a novel CD6 ligand in cells derived from joint and epithelial tissues. J Immunol. 2004;173:6125-33 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data identifies a novel 130-kDa CD6L that may mediate interactions of synovial and epithelial cells with T lymphocytes. ..
  27. Hen Chow E, Cheng S. Cadmium affects muscle type development and axon growth in zebrafish embryonic somitogenesis. Toxicol Sci. 2003;73:149-59 pubmed
    ..Taken together, it appears that cadmium exposure led to abnormal somite patterning of the muscle fibers and defects in axonogenesis. ..
  28. Wrang M, Møller F, Alsbo C, Diemer N. Changes in gene expression following induction of ischemic tolerance in rat brain: detection and verification. J Neurosci Res. 2001;65:54-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, our results show that the expression of genes hitherto not related to IT changes with the induction of IT and that the degree of regulation displayed by RFDD-PCR can be verified by quantitative PCR. ..
  29. Ott H, Diekmann H, Stuermer C, Bastmeyer M. Function of Neurolin (DM-GRASP/SC-1) in guidance of motor axons during zebrafish development. Dev Biol. 2001;235:86-97 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this idea is the binding pattern of a soluble Neurolin-Fc construct showing that putative ligands are distributed along the common path, the ventral projection, and in the area where the rostral projection develops. ..
  30. Cambi A, Gijzen K, de Vries l, Torensma R, Joosten B, Adema G, et al. The C-type lectin DC-SIGN (CD209) is an antigen-uptake receptor for Candida albicans on dendritic cells. Eur J Immunol. 2003;33:532-8 pubmed
    ..albicans receptor expressed by DC. Together, these results demonstrate that DC-SIGN is an exquisite pathogen-uptake receptor that captures not only viruses but also fungi. ..
  31. Diekmann H, Stuermer C. Zebrafish neurolin-a and -b, orthologs of ALCAM, are involved in retinal ganglion cell differentiation and retinal axon pathfinding. J Comp Neurol. 2009;513:38-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Without Neurolin-b, RGC axons grow in highly aberrant routes along the optic tract and/or fail to reach the optic tectum. Thus, the zebrafish Neurolin paralogs are involved in distinct steps of retinotectal development. ..
  32. Campbell I, Foulkes W, Senger G, Trowsdale J, Garin Chesa P, Rettig W. Molecular cloning of the B-CAM cell surface glycoprotein of epithelial cancers: a novel member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Cancer Res. 1994;54:5761-5 pubmed
    ..This homology is suggestive of a role for B-CAM in cell-cell or cell-matrix adhesion. The gene for B-CAM has been mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization to chromosome 19q13.2-13.3. ..
  33. Te Riet J, Zimmerman A, Cambi A, Joosten B, Speller S, Torensma R, et al. Distinct kinetic and mechanical properties govern ALCAM-mediated interactions as shown by single-molecule force spectroscopy. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:3965-76 pubmed
    The activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) mediates dynamic homotypic and heterotypic cellular interactions...
  34. Aruffo A, Bowen M, Patel D, Haynes B, Starling G, Gebe J, et al. CD6-ligand interactions: a paradigm for SRCR domain function?. Immunol Today. 1997;18:498-504 pubmed
    ..article reviews recent progress in understanding the interaction between CD6 and its ligand, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM)...
  35. Kristiansen G, Pilarsky C, Wissmann C, Kaiser S, Bruemmendorf T, Roepcke S, et al. Expression profiling of microdissected matched prostate cancer samples reveals CD166/MEMD and CD24 as new prognostic markers for patient survival. J Pathol. 2005;205:359-76 pubmed
    ..7, p = 0.006) in a Cox regression model, and was also superior to conventional markers. This combination of molecular markers thus appears to allow improved prediction of patient prognosis, but should be validated in larger studies. ..
  36. Ringuette M, Rogers I, Varmuza S, Rush S, Brown I. Expression of SC1 is associated with the migration of myotomes along the dermomyotome during somitogenesis in early mouse embryos. Dev Genes Evol. 1998;208:403-6 pubmed
    ..The data indicate that SC1 expression is restricted to the initial stages of epaxial myotome differentiation and migration, undergoing rapid downregulation prior to myotome emigration from the somitic environment. ..
  37. Abidi S, Saifullah M, Zafiropulos M, Kaput C, Bowen M, Cotton C, et al. CD166 expression, characterization, and localization in salivary epithelium: implications for function during sialoadenitis. J Clin Immunol. 2006;26:12-21 pubmed
    ..We suggest that altered CD166 function may contribute to the pro-inflammatory milieu during sialoadenitis seen in Sjögren's syndrome. ..
  38. Ochwat D, Hoja Łukowicz D, Litynska A. N-glycoproteins bearing beta1-6 branched oligosaccharides from the A375 human melanoma cell line analysed by tandem mass spectrometry. Melanoma Res. 2004;14:479-85 pubmed
    ..In addition, L1, Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2-BP), activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule/CD166 (ALCAM) and melanotransferrin were shown to react with PHA-L...
  39. Figdor C. Molecular characterization of dendritic cells operating at the interface of innate or acquired immunity. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2003;51:61-3 pubmed
    ..ALCAM (Activated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion Molecule) is another cell surface protein expressed by DC upon differentiation from monocytes...
  40. Konno A, Ahn J, Kitamura H, Hamilton M, Gebe J, Aruffo A, et al. Tissue distribution of CD6 and CD6 ligand in cattle: expression of the CD6 ligand (CD166) in the autonomic nervous system of cattle and the human. J Leukoc Biol. 2001;69:944-50 pubmed
    ..the tissue distribution of CD6(+) lymphocytes and cells expressing the CD6 ligand (also known as activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule CD166) in calves by immunohistochemistry using an anti-bovine CD6 monoclonal antibody (mAb), a ..
  41. Johnston I, Paladino T, Gurd J, Brown I. Molecular cloning of SC1: a putative brain extracellular matrix glycoprotein showing partial similarity to osteonectin/BM40/SPARC. Neuron. 1990;4:165-76 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with the hypothesis that SC1 is an extracellular matrix glycoprotein in the brain. ..
  42. Kim E, Kim H, Lee S, Kang J, Lee D, Choi H, et al. Melphalan modulates the expression of E7-specific biomarkers in E7-Tg mice. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:2773-83 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that melphalan inhibits carcinogenesis via modulating E7-specific genes and proteins expressed in the lung tissues of E7 Tg mice. ..
  43. Nakamura Y, Arai F, Iwasaki H, Hosokawa K, Kobayashi I, Gomei Y, et al. Isolation and characterization of endosteal niche cell populations that regulate hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. 2010;116:1422-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data suggest that multiple subsets of osteoblasts and mesenchymal progenitor cells constitute the endosteal niche and regulate HSCs in adult bone marrow. ..
  44. Gil M, Bieniasz M, Wierzbicki A, Bambach B, Rokita H, Kozbor D. Targeting a mimotope vaccine to activating Fcgamma receptors empowers dendritic cells to prime specific CD8+ T cell responses in tumor-bearing mice. J Immunol. 2009;183:6808-18 pubmed publisher
  45. Sakaguchi T, Sadler K, Crosnier C, Stainier D. Endothelial signals modulate hepatocyte apicobasal polarization in zebrafish. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1565-71 pubmed publisher
  46. Wierzbicki A, Gil M, Ciesielski M, Fenstermaker R, Kaneko Y, Rokita H, et al. Immunization with a mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces CD8+ T cells that recognize cell adhesion molecules on tumor cells. J Immunol. 2008;181:6644-53 pubmed
    ..showed decreases in matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, a process regulated by the 105 kDa-activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166)...
  47. Ott H, Bastmeyer M, Stuermer C. Neurolin, the goldfish homolog of DM-GRASP, is involved in retinal axon pathfinding to the optic disk. J Neurosci. 1998;18:3363-72 pubmed
    ..Because disrupted fascicles and errant axon routes were found only in the dorsal retinal half, a cooperation with so-called positional markers may be conceived. ..
  48. Kanki J, Chang S, Kuwada J. The molecular cloning and characterization of potential chick DM-GRASP homologs in zebrafish and mouse. J Neurobiol. 1994;25:831-45 pubmed
    ..The highly selective expression of zebrafish DM-GRASP suggests that it is involved in the selective fasciculation and guidance of axons along their normal pathways. ..
  49. Bajorath J, Bowen M, Aruffo A. Molecular model of the N-terminal receptor-binding domain of the human CD6 ligand ALCAM. Protein Sci. 1995;4:1644-7 pubmed
    ..Predicted structural characteristics of the A'GFCC'C" face of the model are consistent with the presence of monomeric and dimeric forms of ALCAMD1, which has implications for the receptor-ligand interactions. ..
  50. Liu B, Conrad F, Roth A, Drummond D, Simko J, Marks J. Recombinant full-length human IgG1s targeting hormone-refractory prostate cancer. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007;85:1113-23 pubmed
    ..We have identified one target antigen as activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM)/MEMD/CD166 and have further studied tissue specificity of this internalizing ALCAM ..
  51. Ibáñez A, Sarrias M, Farnós M, Gimferrer I, Serra Pagès C, Vives J, et al. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation by the CD6 lymphocyte surface receptor. J Immunol. 2006;177:1152-9 pubmed
    ..Through its binding to activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166), CD6 is considered to play an important role in lymphocyte development and ..
  52. Starling G, Whitney G, Siadak A, Llewellyn M, Bowen M, Farr A, et al. Characterization of mouse CD6 with novel monoclonal antibodies which enhance the allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. Eur J Immunol. 1996;26:738-46 pubmed
    ..domain 3, but not domain 1, inhibited the interaction of CD6 with a recently identified ligand, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM)...
  53. Pourquie O, Hallonet M, Le Douarin N. Association of BEN glycoprotein expression with climbing fiber axonogenesis in the avian cerebellum. J Neurosci. 1992;12:1548-57 pubmed