prokaryotic initiation factor 3


Summary: A prokaryotic initiation factor that plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits for a new round of translational initiation. It binds to 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and stimulates the dissociation of vacant 70S ribosomes. It may also be involved in the preferential binding of initiator tRNA to the 30S initiation complex.

Top Publications

  1. Singh N, Das G, Seshadri A, Sangeetha R, Varshney U. Evidence for a role of initiation factor 3 in recycling of ribosomal complexes stalled on mRNAs in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5591-601 pubmed
    ..coli EFG in vivo and in vitro. These lines of evidence clearly demonstrate the physiological importance of IF3 in the overall mechanism of ribosome recycling in E.coli. ..
  2. Yoo J, RajBhandary U. Requirements for translation re-initiation in Escherichia coli: roles of initiator tRNA and initiation factors IF2 and IF3. Mol Microbiol. 2008;67:1012-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Strikingly, overexpression of IF3 also blocked E. coli from acting as a host for propagation of M13 phage. ..
  3. Hirokawa G, Nijman R, Raj V, Kaji H, Igarashi K, Kaji A. The role of ribosome recycling factor in dissociation of 70S ribosomes into subunits. RNA. 2005;11:1317-28 pubmed
    ..The three-factor-dependent stable dissociation of ribosomes into subunits completes the ribosome cycle and the resulting subunits are ready for the next round of translation. ..
  4. Singh N, Ahmad R, Sangeetha R, Varshney U. Recycling of ribosomal complexes stalled at the step of elongation in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:451-64 pubmed publisher
    ..coli. We show that the RRF-mediated process also alleviates the ung-stopless construct-mediated toxicity to the host by releasing the ung mRNA from the ribosomes harboring long-chain peptidyl-tRNAs. ..
  5. Antoun A, Pavlov M, Lovmar M, Ehrenberg M. How initiation factors maximize the accuracy of tRNA selection in initiation of bacterial protein synthesis. Mol Cell. 2006;23:183-93 pubmed
    ..We suggest why IF1 is essential for E. coli, discuss the role of the G-C base pairs in the anticodon stem of some tRNAs, and clarify gene expression changes with varying IF3 concentration in the living cell. ..
  6. Yu N, Spremulli L. Structural and mechanistic studies on chloroplast translational initiation factor 3 from Euglena gracilis. Biochemistry. 1997;36:14827-35 pubmed
    ..Mutation of these residues affects the interaction of the homology domain with the tail...
  7. Tapprich W, Goss D, Dahlberg A. Mutation at position 791 in Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA affects processes involved in the initiation of protein synthesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:4927-31 pubmed
  8. Mangroo D, RajBhandary U. Mutants of Escherichia coli initiator tRNA defective in initiation. Effects of overproduction of methionyl-tRNA transformylase and the initiation factors IF2 and IF3. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:12203-9 pubmed
    ..mRNA.fMet-tRNA initiation complex in Escherichia coli. Over-production of IF3 did not affect the initiator activity of any of the tRNA mutants studied. ..
  9. Fabbretti A, Pon C, Hennelly S, Hill W, Lodmell J, Gualerzi C. The real-time path of translation factor IF3 onto and off the ribosome. Mol Cell. 2007;25:285-96 pubmed
    ..Upon 30S-50S association, IF3 dissociates concomitantly with the establishment of the 30S-50S bridges, following the reverse path of its binding with the IF3N-A790 interaction being lost before the IF3C-G700 interaction. ..

More Information


  1. Seshadri A, Varshney U. Mechanism of recycling of post-termination ribosomal complexes in eubacteria: a new role of initiation factor 3. J Biosci. 2006;31:281-9 pubmed
    ..However, in model 3, both the genetic and biochemical evidence support a more active role for IF3 even at the step of dissociation of the post-TC by RRF and EFG into the 50S and 30S subunits. ..
  2. Firpo M, Connelly M, Goss D, Dahlberg A. Mutations at two invariant nucleotides in the 3'-minor domain of Escherichia coli 16 S rRNA affecting translational initiation and initiation factor 3 function. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:4693-8 pubmed
    ..The results indicate that the two functions of IF3, tRNA discrimination and subunit dissociation, are separable and that the invariant nucleotides are important for correct subunit function during initiation. ..
  3. Moazed D, Samaha R, Gualerzi C, Noller H. Specific protection of 16 S rRNA by translational initiation factors. J Mol Biol. 1995;248:207-10 pubmed
    ..We were unable to detect any effect of IF-2 on the reactivity pattern of 16 S rRNA, suggesting that this factor may interact primarily through protein-protein interactions. ..
  4. Cheng Y, Kalman L, Kaiser D. The dsg gene of Myxococcus xanthus encodes a protein similar to translation initiation factor IF3. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:1427-33 pubmed
    ..xanthus dsg gene in E. coli cells initiates at an AUC codon, an atypical initiation codon in the AUU class. The dsg mutants DK429 and DK439 carry the same missense mutation that changes Gly-134 to Glu in a region of amino acid identity. ..
  5. Lancaster L, Noller H. Involvement of 16S rRNA nucleotides G1338 and A1339 in discrimination of initiator tRNA. Mol Cell. 2005;20:623-32 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our findings indicate that discrimination also involves recognition of at least one additional feature of the tRNA(fMet) anticodon stem loop. ..
  6. Kalman L, Cheng Y, Kaiser D. The Myxococcus xanthus dsg gene product performs functions of translation initiation factor IF3 in vivo. J Bacteriol. 1994;176:1434-42 pubmed
    ..Partial and complete deletion of this tail showed that it is needed for certain vegetative and developmental functions but not for viability. ..
  7. Pavlov M, Antoun A, Lovmar M, Ehrenberg M. Complementary roles of initiation factor 1 and ribosome recycling factor in 70S ribosome splitting. EMBO J. 2008;27:1706-17 pubmed publisher
    ..With support from our experimental data, we discuss the principally different mechanisms of ribosome splitting by IF1/IF3 and by RRF/EF-G. ..
  8. Lin Q, Yu N, Spremulli L. Expression and functional analysis of Euglena Gracilis chloroplast initiation factor 3. Plant Mol Biol. 1996;32:937-45 pubmed
    ..This observation suggests that regions of IF-3chl lying outside of the homology domain may down-regulate the activity of this factor...
  9. Yu N, Spremulli L. Regulation of the activity of chloroplast translational initiation factor 3 by NH2- and COOH-terminal extensions. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:3871-7 pubmed
    ..The entire COOH-terminal extension reduces the proofreading ability by about half. These results are discussed in terms of the proposed three-dimensional structure of the homology domain of IF3chl. ..
  10. Hartz D, Binkley J, Hollingsworth T, Gold L. Domains of initiator tRNA and initiation codon crucial for initiator tRNA selection by Escherichia coli IF3. Genes Dev. 1990;4:1790-800 pubmed
    ..IF3 allows the selection of an initiator tRNA anticodon stem and loop fragment on GUG and UUG codons but does not select that tRNA fragment in response to AUU. ..
  11. Schmitt E, Guillon J, Meinnel T, Mechulam Y, Dardel F, Blanquet S. Molecular recognition governing the initiation of translation in Escherichia coli. A review. Biochimie. 1996;78:543-54 pubmed
    ..Finally, peptide deformylase and methionine aminopeptidase, which catalyze the amino terminal maturation of nascent polypeptides, can also be associated to the translation initiation process. ..
  12. Soffientini A, Lorenzetti R, Gastaldo L, Parlett J, Spurio R, La Teana A, et al. Purification procedure for bacterial translational initiation factors IF2 and IF3. Protein Expr Purif. 1994;5:118-24 pubmed
    ..Using this procedure we have been able to obtain chromatographically pure and biologically active preparations of both IF2 and IF3. ..
  13. Hirokawa G, Kaji H, Kaji A. Inhibition of antiassociation activity of translation initiation factor 3 by paromomycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51:175-80 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the stabilization of 70S ribosomes by paromomycin may in part be responsible for its inhibitory effects on translocation and ribosome recycling. ..
  14. Grigoriadou C, Marzi S, Pan D, Gualerzi C, Cooperman B. The translational fidelity function of IF3 during transition from the 30 S initiation complex to the 70 S initiation complex. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:551-61 pubmed
  15. Kolupaeva V, Pestova T, Hellen C. Ribosomal binding to the internal ribosomal entry site of classical swine fever virus. RNA. 2000;6:1791-807 pubmed
  16. Ganoza M, Cunningham C, Chung D, Neilson T. A proposed role for IF-3 and EF-T in maintaining the specificity of prokaryotic initiation complex formation. Mol Biol Rep. 1991;15:33-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that one function of EF-T may be to prevent the entry of aminoacyl-tRNAs into the 30S particle during initiation. The possibility that a special site for fMet-tRNA resides on 16S rRNA is also discussed. ..
  17. Welch E, Jacobson A. An internal open reading frame triggers nonsense-mediated decay of the yeast SPT10 mRNA. EMBO J. 1999;18:6134-45 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that mRNAs undergoing leaky scanning are a new class of endogenous NMD substrate, and suggest the existence of a novel cellular regulatory circuit. ..
  18. Song Z, Moore D, Hodson N, Ward C, Dent J, O Leary M, et al. Resistance exercise initiates mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) translocation and protein complex co-localisation in human skeletal muscle. Sci Rep. 2017;7:5028 pubmed publisher
    ..The translocation and association of mTOR with positive regulators (i.e. Rheb and eIF3F) is consistent with an enhanced mRNA translational capacity after resistance exercise. ..
  19. Denslow N, LiCata V, Gualerzi C, O Brien T. Interaction of bovine mitochondrial ribosomes with Escherichia coli initiation factor 3 (IF3). Biochemistry. 1988;27:3521-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, bacterial IF3 inhibits the Mg2+-dependent association of mitochondrial ribosomal subunits, suggesting that the bacterial IF3 binds to mitochondrial small subunits in a functional way. ..
  20. Asano K, Shalev A, Phan L, Nielsen K, Clayton J, VALASEK L, et al. Multiple roles for the C-terminal domain of eIF5 in translation initiation complex assembly and GTPase activation. EMBO J. 2001;20:2326-37 pubmed
  21. Christian B, Spremulli L. Evidence for an active role of IF3mt in the initiation of translation in mammalian mitochondria. Biochemistry. 2009;48:3269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that IF3(mt) plays an active role in initiation of translation. ..
  22. Hua Y, Raleigh D. On the global architecture of initiation factor IF3: a comparative study of the linker regions from the Escherichia coli protein and the Bacillus stearothermophilus protein. J Mol Biol. 1998;278:871-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, studies with mutant peptides show that the first Asp residue in the linker sequence helps to stabilize the helix via an N- capping interaction. ..
  23. Glickman M, Maytal V. Regulating the 26S proteasome. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;268:43-72 pubmed
    ..It is not be surprising that the proteasome plays diverse roles, and that its specific functions can be fine-tuned depending on biological context or need. ..
  24. Hasek J, Kovarik P, VALASEK L, Malinska K, Schneider J, Kohlwein S, et al. Rpg1p, the subunit of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF3 core complex, is a microtubule-interacting protein. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2000;45:235-46 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Rpg1p is a microtubule-interacting protein that indicates an interesting connection between the translation initiation machinery and cytoskeleton in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  25. Lee H, Chen C, Ho C, Lee S, Chang C, Chen K, et al. EIF3C-enhanced exosome secretion promotes angiogenesis and tumorigenesis of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2018;9:13193-13205 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrated that EIF3C overexpression is a potential target of angiogenesis for treatment with exosome inhibitor or S100A11 reduction to suppress HCC angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. ..
  26. Lomakin I, Shirokikh N, Yusupov M, Hellen C, Pestova T. The fidelity of translation initiation: reciprocal activities of eIF1, IF3 and YciH. EMBO J. 2006;25:196-210 pubmed
  27. Kycia J, Biou V, Shu F, Gerchman S, Graziano V, Ramakrishnan V. Prokaryotic translation initiation factor IF3 is an elongated protein consisting of two crystallizable domains. Biochemistry. 1995;34:6183-7 pubmed
    ..We suggest that these two domains are involved in ribosome binding across the cleft of the 30S ribosome. We also report the crystallization of each domain of IF3. ..
  28. Condon C, Liveris D, Squires C, Schwartz I, Squires C. rRNA operon multiplicity in Escherichia coli and the physiological implications of rrn inactivation. J Bacteriol. 1995;177:4152-6 pubmed
    ..coli. We have also found that one consequence of rrn operon inactivation is a miscoordination of the concentrations of initiation factor IF3 and ribosomes. ..
  29. Evans D, Rasmussen C, Hanic Joyce P, Johnston G, Singer R, Barnes C. Mutational analysis of the Prt1 protein subunit of yeast translation initiation factor 3. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:4525-35 pubmed
    ..Subcellular fractionation suggested that the dominant-negative Prt1p competes with wild-type Prt1p for association with a component of large Prt1p complexes and as a result inhibits the binding of wild-type Prt1p to the 40S ribosome. ..
  30. Lei Y, Pius J, Liu Y, Tong man O. [Establishment and identification of stable transfection of CHO and COS7 cells with TIF3cDNA]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2003;34:55-7 pubmed
    ..The cell lines are of great value for the future exploration of Cd compounds related oncogenens and for the studies of the other biological functions of the compounds. ..
  31. Spurio R, Paci M, Pawlik R, La Teana A, DiGiacco B, Pon C, et al. Site-directed mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopic approaches to the elucidation of the structure-function relationships in translation initiation factors IF1 and IF3. Biochimie. 1991;73:1001-6 pubmed
  32. VALASEK L, Phan L, Schoenfeld L, Valášková V, Hinnebusch A. Related eIF3 subunits TIF32 and HCR1 interact with an RNA recognition motif in PRT1 required for eIF3 integrity and ribosome binding. EMBO J. 2001;20:891-904 pubmed
    ..Hence, the PRT1 RRM is crucial for the integrity and ribosome-binding activity of eIF3. ..
  33. Wei L, Lei Y, Wang M, Hu B. [Expression change of TIF3 p36 at different stages of human bronchial epithelial cells transformed and induced by cadmium chloride]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi. 2006;24:578-81 pubmed
  34. Liu X, Wang X, Wang Q, Luo M, Guo H, Gong W, et al. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit E binds to classical swine fever virus NS5A and facilitates viral replication. Virology. 2018;515:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that eIF3E plays an important role in CSFV replication, thereby identifying it as a potential target for inhibition of the virus. ..
  35. Cooperman B, Expert Bezançon A, Kahan L, Dondon J, Grunberg Manago M. IF-3 crosslinking to Escherichia coli ribosomal 30 S subunits by three different light-dependent procedures: identification of 30 S proteins crosslinked to IF-3--utilization of a new two-stage crosslinking reagent, p-nitrobenzylmaleimide. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1981;208:554-62 pubmed
  36. Elseviers D, Gallagher P, Hoffman A, Weinberg B, Schwartz I. Molecular cloning and regulation of expression of the genes for initiation factor 3 and two aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases. J Bacteriol. 1982;152:357-62 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the genes for initiation factor 3 and phenylalanyl- and threonyl-tRNA synthetase are regulated by different mechanisms. ..
  37. Pérez Sánchez G, Jimenez A, Quezada Ramírez M, Estudillo E, Ayala Sarmiento A, Mendoza Hernandez G, et al. Annexin A1, Annexin A2, and Dyrk 1B are upregulated during GAS1-induced cell cycle arrest. J Cell Physiol. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provided further evidence showing that GAS1 through Dyrk 1B leads not only to the arrest of NIH3T3 cells but also maintains cell viability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...
  38. Haque M, Spremulli L. Roles of the N- and C-terminal domains of mammalian mitochondrial initiation factor 3 in protein biosynthesis. J Mol Biol. 2008;384:929-40 pubmed publisher
    ..IF3(mt) promotes the formation of a binary complex between IF2(mt) and fMet-tRNA that may play an important role in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Both domains play a role promoting the formation of this complex. ..
  39. De Cock E, Springer M, Dardel F. The interdomain linker of Escherichia coli initiation factor IF3: a possible trigger of translation initiation specificity. Mol Microbiol. 1999;32:193-202 pubmed
    ..A model is presented in which the extended linker would act as a 'strap', triggering a conformational change in the 30S subunit, which would then ensure initiator tRNA selection. ..
  40. Chiaruttini C, Milet M, de Smit M, Springer M. Translational coupling in the Escherichia coli operon encoding translation initiation factor IF3 and ribosomal proteins L20 and L35. Biochimie. 1996;78:555-67 pubmed
    ..In vitro 'toeprinting' analysis enabled us to show that the wild-type inhibitory secondary structure directly blocks ribosome binding to the ribosome binding site of rpIT. ..
  41. Grigoriadou C, Marzi S, Kirillov S, Gualerzi C, Cooperman B. A quantitative kinetic scheme for 70 S translation initiation complex formation. J Mol Biol. 2007;373:562-72 pubmed
    ..GDPCP does not affect stable 70 S formation, but perturbs fMet-tRNA(fMet) positioning in the P-site. In contrast, thiostrepton severely retards stable 70 S formation, but allows normal binding of fMet-tRNA(fMet)(prf20) to the P-site. ..
  42. Hartz D, McPheeters D, Gold L. Selection of the initiator tRNA by Escherichia coli initiation factors. Genes Dev. 1989;3:1899-912 pubmed
  43. Laughrea M, Tam J. Ribosomal protein S1 and initiation factor IF3 do not promote the ribosomal binding of approximately 19-nucleotide-long mDNA and mRNA models. Biochem Cell Biol. 1989;67:812-7 pubmed
    ..A pulse-chase experiment with one of the mRNAs also showed that S1 or IF3 did not influence the exchange rate of mRNA bound to the 30S subunit. ..
  44. Laughrea M, Tam J. Interaction of ribosomal protein S1 and initiation factor IF3 with the 3' major domain and the decoding site of the 30S subunit of Escherichia coli. Biochemistry. 1991;30:11412-20 pubmed
    ..Neomycin does not interfere with this effect of IF3, but IF3 interferes with the protective effect of neomycin against dimethyl sulfate attack at A1408. ..
  45. Canonaco M, Gualerzi C, Pon C. Alternative occupancy of a dual ribosomal binding site by mRNA affected by translation initiation factors. Eur J Biochem. 1989;182:501-6 pubmed
    ..This shift does not require the presence of fMet-tRNA and, depending upon the type of mRNA, is mediated by IF-2 and/or IF-3. ..
  46. Muralikrishna P, Wickstrom E. Escherichia coli initiation factor 3 protein binding to 30S ribosomal subunits alters the accessibility of nucleotides within the conserved central region of 16S rRNA. Biochemistry. 1989;28:7505-10 pubmed
    ..Many of these central domain sites are strongly conserved and with the conserved 3'-terminal site define a binding domain for IF3 which correlates with a predicted cleft in two independent models of the 30S ribosomal subunit. ..
  47. Liveris D, Klotsky R, Schwartz I. Growth rate regulation of translation initiation factor IF3 biosynthesis in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 1991;173:3888-93 pubmed
    ..A model accounting for these results and describing a mechanism for coordinate growth rate-regulated expression of ribosomes and IF3 is presented. ..
  48. Cousineau B, Leclerc F, Cedergren R. On the origin of protein synthesis factors: a gene duplication/fusion model. J Mol Evol. 1997;45:661-70 pubmed
    ..The repeated fundamental motif of this protein superfamily is a small RNA binding domain composed of two alpha-helices packed along side of an antiparallel beta-sheet. ..
  49. Moreau M, De Cock E, Fortier P, Garcia C, Albaret C, Blanquet S, et al. Heteronuclear NMR studies of E. coli translation initiation factor IF3. Evidence that the inter-domain region is disordered in solution. J Mol Biol. 1997;266:15-22 pubmed
    ..Such a high degree of flexibility of the inter-domain linker might be required for IF3 domains to interact with distant regions of the ribosome. ..
  50. Liepinsh E, Leonchiks A, Sharipo A, Guignard L, Otting G. Solution structure of the R3H domain from human Smubp-2. J Mol Biol. 2003;326:217-23 pubmed
    ..A strong correlation between conservation of hydrophobic amino acids and side-chain solvent protection indicates that the structure of the Smubp-2 R3H domain is representative of R3H domains in general. ..
  51. Nupponen N, Porkka K, Kakkola L, Tanner M, Persson K, Borg A, et al. Amplification and overexpression of p40 subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 in breast and prostate cancer. Am J Pathol. 1999;154:1777-83 pubmed
    ..These results imply that genomic aberrations of translation initiation factors, such as eIF3-p40, may contribute to the pathogenesis of breast and prostate cancer. ..
  52. Chaudhuri J, Chowdhury D, Maitra U. Distinct functions of eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF1A and eIF3 in the formation of the 40 S ribosomal preinitiation complex. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:17975-80 pubmed
    ..eIF2.GTP to 40 S subunits, and eIF3 stabilizing the resulting complex and preventing its disruption by 60 S ribosomal subunits. ..
  53. Wickstrom E. Escherichia coli initiation factor IF3 binding to AUG and AUG-containing single strands and hairpin loops, and nonspecific binding to polymers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1974;349:125-30 pubmed
    ..No binding was detected for GUA, A8 U, or the hairpin loop A5 GC5 U5. AUG-specific binding, per nucleotide, is strong; nonspecific binding, per nucleotide, is weak. ..
  54. Shapkina T, Dolan M, Babin P, Wollenzien P. Initiation factor 3-induced structural changes in the 30 S ribosomal subunit and in complexes containing tRNA(f)(Met) and mRNA. J Mol Biol. 2000;299:615-28 pubmed
    ..The changes that occur in the decoding region, even in the absence of mRNA and tRNA, may be induced by IF3 from a short distance or could be caused by the second IF3 structural domain. ..
  55. Kitten T, Willis D. Suppression of a sensor kinase-dependent phenotype in Pseudomonas syringae by ribosomal proteins L35 and L20. J Bacteriol. 1996;178:1548-55 pubmed
    ..It is unclear how alteration of ribosomal protein expression compensates in this instance for loss of a transcriptional activator, but a regulatory role for L20 and L35 apart from their function in the ribosome may be indicated. ..
  56. Wolfrum A, Brock S, Mac T, Grillenbeck N. Expression in E. coli and purification of Thermus thermophilus translation initiation factors IF1 and IF3. Protein Expr Purif. 2003;29:15-23 pubmed
    ..Using these procedures we obtained chromatographically pure and biologically active preparations of both T. thermophilus IF1 and IF3...
  57. VALASEK L, Hasek J, Trachsel H, Imre E, Ruis H. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae HCR1 gene encoding a homologue of the p35 subunit of human translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is a high copy suppressor of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the Rpg1p subunit of yeast eIF3. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:27567-72 pubmed
    ..In a computer search, a significant homology to the human p35 subunit of the eIF3 complex was found. We assume that the yeast Hcr1 protein participates in translation initiation likely as a protein associated with the eIF3 complex. ..
  58. Betney R, de Silva E, Krishnan J, Stansfield I. Autoregulatory systems controlling translation factor expression: thermostat-like control of translational accuracy. RNA. 2010;16:655-63 pubmed publisher
  59. Qin H, Grigoriadou C, Cooperman B. Interaction of IF2 with the ribosomal GTPase-associated center during 70S initiation complex formation. Biochemistry. 2009;48:4699-706 pubmed publisher
    ..coli 70SIC, relative reactivities toward dipeptide formation of 70SICs formed with the two IF2s suggest that the Bst-IF2.GDP complex is more difficult to displace from the GAC than the E. coli IF2.GDP complex. ..
  60. Chiaruttini C, Milet M, Springer M. A long-range RNA-RNA interaction forms a pseudoknot required for translational control of the IF3-L35-L20 ribosomal protein operon in Escherichia coli. EMBO J. 1996;15:4402-13 pubmed
    ..We propose that these two distant sites can base-pair to form a long-range pseudoknot which is required for the control of the expression of the L35 gene. ..
  61. Akiyoshi Y, Clayton J, Phan L, Yamamoto M, Hinnebusch A, Watanabe Y, et al. Fission yeast homolog of murine Int-6 protein, encoded by mouse mammary tumor virus integration site, is associated with the conserved core subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10056-62 pubmed
    ..We propose that Int6 is not an essential subunit of eIF3 but might be involved in regulating the activity of eIF3 for translation of specific mRNAs in S. pombe. ..
  62. Wertheimer S, Klotsky R, Schwartz I. Transcriptional patterns for the thrS-infC-rplT operon of Escherichia coli. Gene. 1988;63:309-20 pubmed
  63. Shanina N, Ivanov P, Chudinova E, Severin F, Nadezhdina E. [Translation initiation factor eIF3 is able to bind with microtubules in mammalian cells]. Mol Biol (Mosk). 2001;35:638-46 pubmed
    ..These new experimental data indicate that mammalian translation factor eIF3 may bind with microtubules. ..
  64. Kramer G, Ramachandiran V, Horowitz P, Hardesty B. The molecular chaperone DnaK is not recruited to translating ribosomes that lack trigger factor. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;403:63-70 pubmed
    ..These translating ribosomes that lack TF contain the molecular chaperone DnaK in considerably less than stoichiometric amounts. ..
  65. Haque M, Grasso D, Spremulli L. The interaction of mammalian mitochondrial translational initiation factor 3 with ribosomes: evolution of terminal extensions in IF3mt. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:589-97 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the extensions have evolved to ensure the proper dissociation of IF3(mt) from the 28S subunits upon 39S subunit joining. ..
  66. Katoh E, Hatta T, Shindo H, Ishii Y, Yamada H, Mizuno T, et al. High precision NMR structure of YhhP, a novel Escherichia coli protein implicated in cell division. J Mol Biol. 2000;304:219-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a structure-based hypothesis in which binding to an RNA target plays an essential role in the function of this ubiquitous protein...
  67. Ganoza M, Aoki H, Burkhardt N, Murphy B. The ribosome as affinity matrix': efficient purification scheme for translation factors. Biochimie. 1996;78:51-61 pubmed
    ..The procedure markedly simplifies the isolation, in homogeneous form, of all the non-ribosomal proteins required to reconstruct translation. ..
  68. Hirokawa G, Iwakura N, Kaji A, Kaji H. The role of GTP in transient splitting of 70S ribosomes by RRF (ribosome recycling factor) and EF-G (elongation factor G). Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:6676-87 pubmed publisher
    ..6 microM 70S ribosomes (12 times higher than the 70S ribosomes for routine assay) were split. Spermidine (2 mM) completely inhibited anti-association activity of IF3, and the RRF/EF-G/GTP-dependent splitting of 70S ribosomes. ..
  69. Witard O, Tieland M, Beelen M, Tipton K, van Loon L, Koopman R. Resistance exercise increases postprandial muscle protein synthesis in humans. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41:144-54 pubmed publisher
    ..05). We conclude that resistance-type exercise performed in a fed state further elevates postprandial muscle protein synthesis rates, which is accompanied by an increase in S6 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation state. ..
  70. MacKeen L, Kahan L, Wahba A, Schwartz I. Photochemical cross-linking of initiation factor-3 to Escherichia coli 30 S ribosomal subunits. J Biol Chem. 1980;255:10526-31 pubmed
    ..The target proteins have been identified as S7, S11, S12, S18, and S21 by immunochemical techniques. ..
  71. Lei Y, Chen X, Wu G, Chen J. Abnormal expression of eukaryotic translation factors in malignant transformed human bronchial epithelial cells induced by crystalline nickel sulfide. Biomed Environ Sci. 2006;19:53-60 pubmed
    ..They seem to be the molecular mechanisms potentially responsible for human carcinogensis due to nickel. ..
  72. Bandyopadhyay A, Lakshmanan V, Matsumoto T, Chang E, Maitra U. Moe1 and spInt6, the fission yeast homologues of mammalian translation initiation factor 3 subunits p66 (eIF3d) and p48 (eIF3e), respectively, are required for stable association of eIF3 subunits. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:2360-7 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that Moe1 and spInt6 are each required for stable association of eIF3 subunits in fission yeast. ..
  73. Petrelli D, Garofalo C, Lammi M, Spurio R, Pon C, Gualerzi C, et al. Mapping the active sites of bacterial translation initiation factor IF3. J Mol Biol. 2003;331:541-56 pubmed
    ..Overall, the results define two active surfaces in IF3C, and indicate that the different functions of IF3 rely on different molecular mechanisms involving separate active sites. ..
  74. Liveris D, Schwartz J, Geertman R, Schwartz I. Molecular cloning and sequencing of infC, the gene encoding translation initiation factor IF3, from four enterobacterial species. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1993;112:211-6 pubmed
    ..Analysis of these sequences, as well as that from Bacillus stearothermophilus, revealed several regions (e.g. residues 62-73 and 173-177) of absolute sequence conservation, suggesting an important role for these regions in IF3 function. ..
  75. Gonzalez M, Andrews E, Folch H, Sáez D, Cabrera A, Salgado P, et al. Cloning, expression and immunogenicity of the translation initiation factor 3 homologue of Brucella abortus. Immunobiology. 2009;214:113-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, immunization with the Brucella recombinant IF3 protein promotes a TH-1 polarized response, allowing us to propose it as a promising candidate antigen for the development of subunit vaccines against Brucella. ..
  76. Kieft J, Zhou K, Jubin R, Murray M, Lau J, Doudna J. The hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site adopts an ion-dependent tertiary fold. J Mol Biol. 1999;292:513-29 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the 40 S ribosomal subunit and eIF3 bind an HCV IRES that is prefolded to spatially organize recognition domains. ..