eukaryotic initiation factor 4g


Summary: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor-4F that is involved in multiple protein interactions at the site of translation initiation. Thus it may serve a role in bringing together various initiation factors at the site of translation initiation.

Top Publications

  1. Ling J, Morley S, Pain V, Marzluff W, Gallie D. The histone 3'-terminal stem-loop-binding protein enhances translation through a functional and physical interaction with eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and eIF3. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7853-67 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that SLBP stimulates the translation of histone mRNAs through a functional interaction with both the mRNA stem-loop and the 5' cap that is mediated by eIF4G and eIF3. ..
  2. Marcotrigiano J, Gingras A, Sonenberg N, Burley S. Cap-dependent translation initiation in eukaryotes is regulated by a molecular mimic of eIF4G. Mol Cell. 1999;3:707-16 pubmed
    ..The implications of our results for translation initiation are discussed in detail, and a molecular mechanism for relief of translation inhibition following phosphorylation of the 4E-BPs is proposed. ..
  3. Byrd M, Zamora M, Lloyd R. Translation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI (eIF4GI) proceeds from multiple mRNAs containing a novel cap-dependent internal ribosome entry site (IRES) that is active during poliovirus infection. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18610-22 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that intact eIF4GI protein is not required for the de novo synthesis of eIF4GI, suggesting its expression can continue under stress or infection conditions where eIF4GI is cleaved. ..
  4. Oberer M, Marintchev A, Wagner G. Structural basis for the enhancement of eIF4A helicase activity by eIF4G. Genes Dev. 2005;19:2212-23 pubmed
    ..This model can explain the cooperativity between all binding partners of eIF4A (eIF4G, RNA, ATP) and stimulation of eIF4A activity in the eIF4F complex. ..
  5. Groft C, Burley S. Recognition of eIF4G by rotavirus NSP3 reveals a basis for mRNA circularization. Mol Cell. 2002;9:1273-83 pubmed
    ..Site-directed mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry documented that NSP3 and PABP use analogous eIF4G recognition strategies, despite marked differences in tertiary structure. ..
  6. Vary T, Deiter G, Lang C. Cytokine-triggered decreases in levels of phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4G in skeletal muscle during sepsis. Shock. 2006;26:631-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the findings support a role of IL-1 as the proinflammatory mediator responsible for the reduced level of phosphorylated eIF4G. ..
  7. Gallie D. Cap-independent translation conferred by the 5' leader of tobacco etch virus is eukaryotic initiation factor 4G dependent. J Virol. 2001;75:12141-52 pubmed
    ..TEV IRES activity was enhanced moderately by the poly(A)-binding protein. These observations suggest that the TEV IRES directs cap-independent translation through a mechanism that involves eIF4G specifically. ..
  8. Svitkin Y, Imataka H, Khaleghpour K, Kahvejian A, Liebig H, Sonenberg N. Poly(A)-binding protein interaction with elF4G stimulates picornavirus IRES-dependent translation. RNA. 2001;7:1743-52 pubmed
    ..The elF4G cleavage-induced loss of the stimulatory effect of poly(A) on translation was mimicked by the addition of the C-terminal portion of elF4G. Thus, PABP stimulates picornavirus translation through its interaction with elF4G. ..
  9. Jivotovskaya A, VALASEK L, Hinnebusch A, Nielsen K. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and eIF2 can promote mRNA binding to 40S subunits independently of eIF4G in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1355-72 pubmed

More Information


  1. Braunstein S, Karpisheva K, Pola C, Goldberg J, Hochman T, Yee H, et al. A hypoxia-controlled cap-dependent to cap-independent translation switch in breast cancer. Mol Cell. 2007;28:501-12 pubmed
    ..The switch from cap-dependent to cap-independent mRNA translation facilitates tumor angiogenesis and hypoxia responses in animal models. ..
  2. Piron M, Vende P, Cohen J, Poncet D. Rotavirus RNA-binding protein NSP3 interacts with eIF4GI and evicts the poly(A) binding protein from eIF4F. EMBO J. 1998;17:5811-21 pubmed
    ..These results also suggest that NSP3A, by taking the place of PABP on eIF4GI, is responsible for the shut-off of cellular protein synthesis. ..
  3. Gray N, Coller J, Dickson K, Wickens M. Multiple portions of poly(A)-binding protein stimulate translation in vivo. EMBO J. 2000;19:4723-33 pubmed
    ..Our results establish that oocytes contain the machinery necessary to support PAB-mediated translation and suggest that PAB may be an important participant in translational regulation during early development. ..
  4. Clarkson B, Gilbert W, Doudna J. Functional overlap between eIF4G isoforms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9114 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that total eIF4G levels, but not isoform-specific functions, determine mRNA-specific translational efficiency...
  5. Goodfellow I, Chaudhry Y, Gioldasi I, Gerondopoulos A, Natoni A, Labrie L, et al. Calicivirus translation initiation requires an interaction between VPg and eIF 4 E. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:968-72 pubmed
    ..This work lends support to the idea that calicivirus VPg acts as a novel 'cap substitute' during initiation of translation on virus mRNA. ..
  6. Tarun S, Wells S, Deardorff J, Sachs A. Translation initiation factor eIF4G mediates in vitro poly(A) tail-dependent translation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:9046-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that eIF4G mediates poly(A) tail stimulated translation in vitro, and that Pab1p and the domain encompassing the Pab1p-binding site on eIF4G can compensate for partial loss of eIF4E function in vivo. ..
  7. Baker C, Fuller M. Translational control of meiotic cell cycle progression and spermatid differentiation in male germ cells by a novel eIF4G homolog. Development. 2007;134:2863-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that an alternate form of the translation initiation machinery may be required for regulation and execution of key steps in male germ cell differentiation. ..
  8. Lamphear B, Kirchweger R, Skern T, Rhoads R. Mapping of functional domains in eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) with picornaviral proteases. Implications for cap-dependent and cap-independent translational initiation. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:21975-83 pubmed
    ..of mRNA to the 40 S ribosomal subunit during translational initiation requires the association of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G; formerly eIF-4 gamma and p220) with other initiation factors, notably eIF4E, eIF4A, and eIF3...
  9. Nicaise V, Gallois J, Chafiai F, Allen L, Schurdi Levraud V, Browning K, et al. Coordinated and selective recruitment of eIF4E and eIF4G factors for potyvirus infection in Arabidopsis thaliana. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:1041-6 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the eIF4G selective involvement parallels eIF4E recruitment. This is the first report of a coordinated and selective recruitment of eIF4E and eIF4G factors, suggesting the whole eIF4F recruitment. ..
  10. Alvarez E, Menendez Arias L, Carrasco L. The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI is cleaved by different retroviral proteases. J Virol. 2003;77:12392-400 pubmed
  11. Borman A, Kean K. Intact eukaryotic initiation factor 4G is required for hepatitis A virus internal initiation of translation. Virology. 1997;237:129-36 pubmed
    ..Thus the HAV IRES requires intact eIF4G for activity. This is unique among the picornavirus IRESes studied to date and may help explain why HAV does not inhibit host cell translation during viral infection. ..
  12. Han B, Zhang J. Regulation of gene expression by internal ribosome entry sites or cryptic promoters: the eIF4G story. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7372-84 pubmed
    ..The promoterless dicistronic vector might therefore prove useful in future studies to examine more rigorously the claim that there is IRES activity in cellular mRNAs. ..
  13. Pöyry T, Kaminski A, Jackson R. What determines whether mammalian ribosomes resume scanning after translation of a short upstream open reading frame?. Genes Dev. 2004;18:62-75 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that resumption of scanning may depend on the interaction between eIF4F (or the eIF4G central domain) and the ribosome being maintained while the ribosome translates the sORF. ..
  14. Long X, Spycher C, Han Z, Rose A, Muller F, Avruch J. TOR deficiency in C. elegans causes developmental arrest and intestinal atrophy by inhibition of mRNA translation. Curr Biol. 2002;12:1448-61 pubmed
    ..The developmental arrest and intestinal phenotypes of CeTOR deficiency are due to an inhibition of global mRNA translation. Thus, TOR is a major upstream regulator of overall mRNA translation in C. elegans, as in yeast. ..
  15. Henis Korenblit S, Shani G, Sines T, Marash L, Shohat G, Kimchi A. The caspase-cleaved DAP5 protein supports internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of death proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:5400-5 pubmed
    ..Altogether, the data suggest that DAP5 is a caspase-activated translation factor that mediates translation through a repertoire of IRES elements, supporting the translation of apoptosis-related proteins. ..
  16. Ventoso I, Blanco R, Perales C, Carrasco L. HIV-1 protease cleaves eukaryotic initiation factor 4G and inhibits cap-dependent translation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:12966-71 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that HIV-1, a member of retrovirus group, shares with picornaviruses the capacity to proteolyze eIF4G. ..
  17. Marcotrigiano J, Lomakin I, Sonenberg N, Pestova T, Hellen C, Burley S. A conserved HEAT domain within eIF4G directs assembly of the translation initiation machinery. Mol Cell. 2001;7:193-203 pubmed
    ..The structural and biochemical results provide mechanistic insights into both cap-dependent and cap-independent translation initiation. ..
  18. Vary T, Deiter G, Lynch C. Rapamycin limits formation of active eukaryotic initiation factor 4F complex following meal feeding in rat hearts. J Nutr. 2007;137:1857-62 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the rapamycin-sensitive reductions in phosphorylation of eIF4G may also lead to decreased formation of active eIF4G-eIF4E complex. ..
  19. Yang H, Jansen A, Komar A, Zheng X, Merrick W, Costes S, et al. The transformation suppressor Pdcd4 is a novel eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4A binding protein that inhibits translation. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:26-37 pubmed
    ..Pdcd4 binding to eIF4A is linked to its transformation-suppressing activity, as Pdcd4-eIF4A binding and consequent inhibition of translation are required for Pdcd4 transrepression of AP-1. ..
  20. Ali I, McKendrick L, Morley S, Jackson R. Activity of the hepatitis A virus IRES requires association between the cap-binding translation initiation factor (eIF4E) and eIF4G. J Virol. 2001;75:7854-63 pubmed
  21. Nousch M, Reed V, Bryson Richardson R, Currie P, Preiss T. The eIF4G-homolog p97 can activate translation independent of caspase cleavage. RNA. 2007;13:374-84 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that full-length p97 is a translational activator with essential role(s) in unstressed cells, suggesting a reassessment of current models of p97 function. ..
  22. Dominguez D, Kislig E, Altmann M, Trachsel H. Structural and functional similarities between the central eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)4A-binding domain of mammalian eIF4G and the eIF4A-binding domain of yeast eIF4G. Biochem J. 2001;355:223-30 pubmed
  23. Dominguez D, Altmann M, Benz J, Baumann U, Trachsel H. Interaction of translation initiation factor eIF4G with eIF4A in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:26720-6 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that yeast eIF4A and eIF4G interact and suggest that this interaction is required for translation and cell growth. ..
  24. Vitour D, Lindenbaum P, Vende P, Becker M, Poncet D. RoXaN, a novel cellular protein containing TPR, LD, and zinc finger motifs, forms a ternary complex with eukaryotic initiation factor 4G and rotavirus NSP3. J Virol. 2004;78:3851-62 pubmed
  25. Schütz P, Bumann M, Oberholzer A, Bieniossek C, Trachsel H, Altmann M, et al. Crystal structure of the yeast eIF4A-eIF4G complex: an RNA-helicase controlled by protein-protein interactions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Conformational changes between eIF4A's closed and open state provide a model for its RNA-helicase activity. ..
  26. Gross J, Moerke N, von der Haar T, Lugovskoy A, Sachs A, McCarthy J, et al. Ribosome loading onto the mRNA cap is driven by conformational coupling between eIF4G and eIF4E. Cell. 2003;115:739-50 pubmed
    The eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) is the core of a multicomponent switch controlling gene expression at the level of translation initiation...
  27. Prévôt D, Decimo D, Herbreteau C, Roux F, Garin J, Darlix J, et al. Characterization of a novel RNA-binding region of eIF4GI critical for ribosomal scanning. EMBO J. 2003;22:1909-21 pubmed
    ..Based on these findings, we propose that this 40 aa motif of eIF4GI is critical for ribosome scanning. ..
  28. Marintchev A, Wagner G. eIF4G and CBP80 share a common origin and similar domain organization: implications for the structure and function of eIF4G. Biochemistry. 2005;44:12265-72 pubmed
  29. Castello A, Sanz M, Molina S, Carrasco L. Translation of Sindbis virus 26S mRNA does not require intact eukariotic initiation factor 4G. J Mol Biol. 2006;355:942-56 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, despite the presence of a cap structure in the 5' end of the subgenomic SV mRNA, intact eIF4G is not necessary for its translation. ..
  30. Constantinou C, Clemens M. Regulation of translation factors eIF4GI and 4E-BP1 during recovery of protein synthesis from inhibition by p53. Cell Death Differ. 2007;14:576-85 pubmed
  31. Ali I, McKendrick L, Morley S, Jackson R. Truncated initiation factor eIF4G lacking an eIF4E binding site can support capped mRNA translation. EMBO J. 2001;20:4233-42 pubmed
    ..Our results imply that picornavirus-induced shut-off is not due to an intrinsic inability of p100 to support capped mRNA translation, but to the viral RNA outcompeting host cell mRNA for the limiting concentration of p100. ..
  32. Marash L, Liberman N, Henis Korenblit S, Sivan G, Reem E, Elroy Stein O, et al. DAP5 promotes cap-independent translation of Bcl-2 and CDK1 to facilitate cell survival during mitosis. Mol Cell. 2008;30:447-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, DAP5 is necessary for maintaining cell survival during mitosis by promoting cap-independent translation of at least two prosurvival proteins. ..
  33. Borman A, Michel Y, Kean K. Detailed analysis of the requirements of hepatitis A virus internal ribosome entry segment for the eukaryotic initiation factor complex eIF4F. J Virol. 2001;75:7864-71 pubmed
    ..Since these proteinases both cleave eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and HAV IRES activity could be rescued in vitro by addition of eIF4F to proteinase-treated ..
  34. Quevedo C, Salinas M, Alcazar A. Regulation of cap-dependent translation by insulin-like growth factor-1 in neuronal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;291:560-6 pubmed
    ..Therefore, our findings show that the IGF-1-induced regulation of cap-dependent translation is largely dependent on the PI-3K and mTOR pathway in neuronal cells. ..
  35. Alvarez E, Castello A, Menendez Arias L, Carrasco L. HIV protease cleaves poly(A)-binding protein. Biochem J. 2006;396:219-26 pubmed
    ..An additional cleavage site located at position 410 was detected for HIV-2 protease. These findings indicate that some retroviruses may share with picornaviruses and caliciviruses the capacity to proteolyse PABP. ..
  36. Imataka H, Gradi A, Sonenberg N. A newly identified N-terminal amino acid sequence of human eIF4G binds poly(A)-binding protein and functions in poly(A)-dependent translation. EMBO J. 1998;17:7480-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that, in addition to a recently identified mammalian PABP-binding protein, PAIP-1, eIF4G binds PABP and probably functions in poly(A)-dependent translation in mammalian cells. ..
  37. Karim M, Svitkin Y, Kahvejian A, De Crescenzo G, Costa Mattioli M, Sonenberg N. A mechanism of translational repression by competition of Paip2 with eIF4G for poly(A) binding protein (PABP) binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:9494-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, Paip2 can inhibit translation by a previously unrecognized mechanism, which is independent of its ability to disrupt PABP-poly(A) interaction. ..
  38. López de Quinto S, Martinez Salas E. Interaction of the eIF4G initiation factor with the aphthovirus IRES is essential for internal translation initiation in vivo. RNA. 2000;6:1380-92 pubmed
    ..The strong correlation found between eIF4G-RNA interaction and IRES activity in transfected cells suggests that eIF4G acts as a linker to recruit the translational machinery in IRES-dependent initiation. ..
  39. DeGracia D, Rafols J, Morley S, Kayali F. Immunohistochemical mapping of total and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 4G in rat hippocampus following global brain ischemia and reperfusion. Neuroscience. 2006;139:1235-48 pubmed
    Partial proteolysis and phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) occur in reperfused brain, but the contribution of eIF4G alterations to brain injury has not been established...
  40. Bauer C, Brass N, Diesinger I, Kayser K, Grässer F, Meese E. Overexpression of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G-1) in squamous cell lung carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2002;98:181-5 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of eIF4G-1 may result in an increased amount of the translation initiation complex eIF4F, which in turn may activate the translation of the same target mRNAs as eIF4E. ..
  41. Michel Y, Borman A, Paulous S, Kean K. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4G-poly(A) binding protein interaction is required for poly(A) tail-mediated stimulation of picornavirus internal ribosome entry segment-driven translation but not for X-mediated stimulation of hepatitis C virus translati. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:4097-109 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4G-poly(A) binding protein (eIF4G-PABP) interaction or cleavage of eIF4G abolished or severely reduced ..
  42. Niedzwiecka A, Marcotrigiano J, Stepinski J, Jankowska Anyszka M, Wyslouch Cieszynska A, Dadlez M, et al. Biophysical studies of eIF4E cap-binding protein: recognition of mRNA 5' cap structure and synthetic fragments of eIF4G and 4E-BP1 proteins. J Mol Biol. 2002;319:615-35 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 at Ser65 and Thr70 is insufficient to prevent binding to eIF4E. Enhancement of the eIF4E affinity for cap occurs after binding to eIF4G peptides. ..
  43. Wells S, Hillner P, Vale R, Sachs A. Circularization of mRNA by eukaryotic translation initiation factors. Mol Cell. 1998;2:135-40 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that formation of circular mRNA by translation factors could contribute to the control of mRNA expression in the eukaryotic cell. ..
  44. Craig A, Haghighat A, Yu A, Sonenberg N. Interaction of polyadenylate-binding protein with the eIF4G homologue PAIP enhances translation. Nature. 1998;392:520-3 pubmed
    ..Overexpression of PAIP-1 in COS-7 cells stimulates translation, perhaps by providing a physical link between the mRNA termini. ..
  45. Paulous S, Malnou C, Michel Y, Kean K, Borman A. Comparison of the capacity of different viral internal ribosome entry segments to direct translation initiation in poly(A)-dependent reticulocyte lysates. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:722-33 pubmed
    ..Finally, using poliovirus as an example, we show that the ribosome-depleted system is well suited to the study of the translational capacity of naturally occurring IRES variants. ..
  46. Perales C, Carrasco L, Ventoso I. Cleavage of eIF4G by HIV-1 protease: effects on translation. FEBS Lett. 2003;533:89-94 pubmed
    ..Our present findings suggest that eIF4GI intactness is necessary to maintain cap-dependent translation, not only in cell-free systems but also in mammalian cells. ..
  47. Comtesse N, Keller A, Diesinger I, Bauer C, Kayser K, Huwer H, et al. Frequent overexpression of the genes FXR1, CLAPM1 and EIF4G located on amplicon 3q26-27 in squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:2538-44 pubmed
    ..Our results contribute to the understanding of the frequent amplification processes in squamous cell carcinomas of the lung and to the understanding of the translation initiation that appears not to require eIF4E in lung carcinogenesis. ..
  48. Pyronnet S, Imataka H, Gingras A, Fukunaga R, Hunter T, Sonenberg N. Human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) recruits mnk1 to phosphorylate eIF4E. EMBO J. 1999;18:270-9 pubmed
    ..We also show that Mnk1 interacts with the C-terminal region of the translational inhibitor p97, an eIF4G-related protein that does not bind eIF4E, raising the possibility that p97 can block phosphorylation of eIF4E by sequestering Mnk1. ..
  49. Franklin Dumont T, Chatterjee C, Wasserman S, Dinardo S. A novel eIF4G homolog, Off-schedule, couples translational control to meiosis and differentiation in Drosophila spermatocytes. Development. 2007;134:2851-61 pubmed
    ..Based on these studies, we speculate that spermatocytes monitor G(2) growth as one means to coordinate the initiation of meiotic division and differentiation. ..
  50. LeFebvre A, Korneeva N, Trutschl M, Cvek U, Duzan R, Bradley C, et al. Translation initiation factor eIF4G-1 binds to eIF3 through the eIF3e subunit. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22917-32 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a specific, direct, and functional interaction of eIF3e with eIF4G during the process of cap-dependent translation initiation, although they do not rule out participation of other eIF3 subunits. ..
  51. Vary T. Acute oral leucine administration stimulates protein synthesis during chronic sepsis through enhanced association of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G with eukaryotic initiation factor 4E in rats. J Nutr. 2007;137:2074-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Leu stimulates a PKB-independent signal pathway elevating the eIF4G-eIF4E complex assembly through increased phosphorylation of eIF4G and decreased association of 4E-BP1 with eIF4E in skeletal muscle during sepsis. ..
  52. Gilbert W, Zhou K, Butler T, Doudna J. Cap-independent translation is required for starvation-induced differentiation in yeast. Science. 2007;317:1224-7 pubmed
    ..A 5'UTR mutation that impairs IRES activity compromises invasive growth, which indicates that cap-independent translation is required for physiological adaptation to stress. ..
  53. Foeger N, Glaser W, Skern T. Recognition of eukaryotic initiation factor 4G isoforms by picornaviral proteinases. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:44300-9 pubmed
    ..These experiments strongly suggest a novel interaction between picornaviral proteinases and eIF4G isoforms. ..
  54. Gallie D, Browning K. eIF4G functionally differs from eIFiso4G in promoting internal initiation, cap-independent translation, and translation of structured mRNAs. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:36951-60 pubmed
    ..This ability may also enable eIF4F to promote translation from standard mRNAs under cellular conditions in which cap-dependent translation is inhibited. ..
  55. Zakowicz H, Yang H, Stark C, Wlodawer A, Laronde Leblanc N, Colburn N. Mutational analysis of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4AII characterizes its interaction with transformation suppressor Pdcd4 and eIF4GI. RNA. 2005;11:261-74 pubmed
    ..A competition experiment revealed that Pdcd4 competes with C-terminal eIF4G for binding to eIF4A. In summary, the Pdcd4-binding domains on eIF4A impact both binding to eIF4G and translation initiation in cells. ..
  56. Yoshii M, Nishikiori M, Tomita K, Yoshioka N, Kozuka R, Naito S, et al. The Arabidopsis cucumovirus multiplication 1 and 2 loci encode translation initiation factors 4E and 4G. J Virol. 2004;78:6102-11 pubmed
  57. Xi Q, Cuesta R, Schneider R. Tethering of eIF4G to adenoviral mRNAs by viral 100k protein drives ribosome shunting. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1997-2009 pubmed
  58. Kuyumcu Martinez N, Van Eden M, Younan P, Lloyd R. Cleavage of poly(A)-binding protein by poliovirus 3C protease inhibits host cell translation: a novel mechanism for host translation shutoff. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:1779-90 pubmed
    ..We propose that enteroviruses use a dual strategy for host translation shutoff, requiring cleavage of PABP by 3Cpro and of eIF4G by 2Apro. ..
  59. Byrd M, Zamora M, Lloyd R. Generation of multiple isoforms of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GI by use of alternate translation initiation codons. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4499-511 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that expression of the eIF4GI isoforms is partly controlled by a complex translation strategy involving both cap-dependent and cap-independent mechanisms. ..
  60. Ramírez Valle F, Braunstein S, Zavadil J, Formenti S, Schneider R. eIF4GI links nutrient sensing by mTOR to cell proliferation and inhibition of autophagy. J Cell Biol. 2008;181:293-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the high levels of eIF4GI observed in many breast cancers might act to specifically increase proliferation, prevent autophagy, and release tumor cells from control by nutrient sensing...
  61. Silvera D, Arju R, Darvishian F, Levine P, Zolfaghari L, Goldberg J, et al. Essential role for eIF4GI overexpression in the pathogenesis of inflammatory breast cancer. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:903-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overexpression of eIF4GI promotes formation of IBC tumour emboli by enhancing translation of IRES-containing p120 mRNAs. These findings provide a new understanding of translational control in the development of advanced breast cancer. ..
  62. Lee S, McCormick F. p97/DAP5 is a ribosome-associated factor that facilitates protein synthesis and cell proliferation by modulating the synthesis of cell cycle proteins. EMBO J. 2006;25:4008-19 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that p97 is functionally different from the closely related C-terminal two-thirds of eIF4GI and it can positively promote protein synthesis and cell proliferation. ..
  63. Fontaine Rodriguez E, Taylor T, Olesky M, Knipe D. Proteomics of herpes simplex virus infected cell protein 27: association with translation initiation factors. Virology. 2004;330:487-92 pubmed
    ..initiation factors poly A binding protein (PABP), eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) in infected cells. Immunoprecipitation-western blot studies confirmed these associations...
  64. Kahvejian A, Svitkin Y, Sukarieh R, M Boutchou M, Sonenberg N. Mammalian poly(A)-binding protein is a eukaryotic translation initiation factor, which acts via multiple mechanisms. Genes Dev. 2005;19:104-13 pubmed
    ..PABP can thus be considered a canonical translation initiation factor, integral to initiation complex formation at the 5'-end of mRNA. ..
  65. Bellsolell L, Cho Park P, Poulin F, Sonenberg N, Burley S. Two structurally atypical HEAT domains in the C-terminal portion of human eIF4G support binding to eIF4A and Mnk1. Structure. 2006;14:913-23 pubmed
    ..Within the first AA-box, the aromatic residues contribute to the hydrophobic core of the domain, while the acidic residues form a negatively charged surface feature suitable for electrostatic interactions with basic residues in Mnk1. ..
  66. Lloyd R. Translational control by viral proteinases. Virus Res. 2006;119:76-88 pubmed
    ..However, new findings have shown that similar paradigms exist in other viral systems which will be discussed. ..
  67. Martín De La Vega C, Burda J, Nemethova M, Quevedo C, Alcazar A, Martin M, et al. Possible mechanisms involved in the down-regulation of translation during transient global ischaemia in the rat brain. Biochem J. 2001;357:819-26 pubmed
  68. Tu L, Fang W, Liu Z, Li X, He Y, Xie S, et al. [Establishment of a stable nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line with lentivirus-mediated RNA interference for EIF4G1 gene silencing]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2009;29:844-7, 851 pubmed
    ..The recombinant lentivirus vector pLenti6/BLOCK- iT-DEST/EIF4G1-shRNA we constructed results in marked downregulation of EIF4G1 mRNA expression and constant expression of EIF4G1-siRNA after infection of 5-8F cells. ..
  69. He H, von der Haar T, Singh C, Ii M, Li B, Hinnebusch A, et al. The yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) HEAT domain interacts with eIF1 and eIF5 and is involved in stringent AUG selection. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:5431-45 pubmed
    b>Eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) promotes mRNA recruitment to the ribosome by binding to the mRNA cap- and poly(A) tail-binding proteins eIF4E and Pap1p...
  70. Prévôt D, Darlix J, Ohlmann T. Conducting the initiation of protein synthesis: the role of eIF4G. Biol Cell. 2003;95:141-56 pubmed
    ..We will review the role of eIF4G and protein partners as well as the cellular and viral events that modulate eIF4G activity in the initiation of translation. ..
  71. Katsafanas G, Moss B. Colocalization of transcription and translation within cytoplasmic poxvirus factories coordinates viral expression and subjugates host functions. Cell Host Microbe. 2007;2:221-8 pubmed
    ..Hijacking of the host translation apparatus within the factory likely enhances the efficiency of virus replication and contributes to the suppression of host protein synthesis, thereby facilitating poxvirus subjugation of the cell. ..
  72. Burgui I, ARAGON T, Ortin J, Nieto A. PABP1 and eIF4GI associate with influenza virus NS1 protein in viral mRNA translation initiation complexes. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:3263-74 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these and previously published data suggest that NS1 interactions with eIF4GI and PABP1, as well as with viral mRNAs, could promote the specific recruitment of 43S complexes to the viral mRNAs. ..
  73. Gradi A, Foeger N, Strong R, Svitkin Y, Sonenberg N, Skern T, et al. Cleavage of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4GII within foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells: identification of the L-protease cleavage site in vitro. J Virol. 2004;78:3271-8 pubmed
    ..These results confirmed the specificity of each protease and showed that the mutant forms of the fusion protein substrate retained their correct sensitivity to other proteases. ..
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