eukaryotic initiation factor 3


Summary: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.

Top Publications

  1. Miyamoto S, Patel P, Hershey J. Changes in ribosomal binding activity of eIF3 correlate with increased translation rates during activation of T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28251-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the complex formation of eIF3 and its association with the ribosomes might contribute to increased translation rates during T lymphocyte activation. ..
  2. Wei Z, Zhang P, Zhou Z, Cheng Z, Wan M, Gong W. Crystal structure of human eIF3k, the first structure of eIF3 subunits. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:34983-90 pubmed
    eIF3k, the smallest subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), interacts with several other subunits of eIF3 and the 40 S ribosomal subunit...
  3. Valente S, Gilmartin G, Mott C, Falkard B, Goff S. Inhibition of HIV-1 replication by eIF3f. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:4071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The DNA clone that most potently inhibited HIV-1 expression encoded the N-terminal 91 aa of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit f (N91-eIF3f)...
  4. Johnson K, Merrick W, Zoll W, Zhu Y. Identification of cDNA clones for the large subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. Comparison of homologues from human, Nicotiana tabacum, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:7106-13 pubmed
    ..These sequences share significant identity with the human clone and probably represent the homologues of the p180 subunit in these organisms. This is the first report identifying the sequence of the large subunit of eIF-3. ..
  5. Pestova T, Lomakin I, Lee J, Choi S, Dever T, Hellen C. The joining of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes requires eIF5B. Nature. 2000;403:332-5 pubmed
    ..It is a homologue of the prokaryotic initiation factor IF2 (re and, like it, mediates joining of subunits and has a ribosome-dependent GTPase activity that is essential for its function. ..
  6. Mayeur G, Fraser C, Peiretti F, Block K, Hershey J. Characterization of eIF3k: a newly discovered subunit of mammalian translation initiation factor elF3. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:4133-9 pubmed
    ..The studies of eIF3k complete the characterization of mammalian eIF3 subunits. ..
  7. Traicoff J, Chung J, Braunschweig T, Mazo I, Shu Y, Ramesh A, et al. Expression of EIF3-p48/INT6, TID1 and Patched in cancer, a profiling of multiple tumor types and correlation of expression. J Biomed Sci. 2007;14:395-405 pubmed
    ..Additionally, these data suggest that the combination of INT6, TID1, and Patched protein levels may be useful biomarkers for the development of diagnostic assays. ..
  8. Daughenbaugh K, Fraser C, Hershey J, Hardy M. The genome-linked protein VPg of the Norwalk virus binds eIF3, suggesting its role in translation initiation complex recruitment. EMBO J. 2003;22:2852-9 pubmed
    ..Together, the data suggest that VPg may play a role in initiating translation on calicivirus RNA through unique protein-protein interactions with the translation machinery. ..
  9. Yen H, Gordon C, Chang E. Schizosaccharomyces pombe Int6 and Ras homologs regulate cell division and mitotic fidelity via the proteasome. Cell. 2003;112:207-17 pubmed
    ..We propose that human Int6, either alone or cooperatively with Ras, influences proteasome activities via Rpn5. Inactivating Int6 can lead to accumulation of mitotic regulators affecting cell division and mitotic fidelity. ..

More Information


  1. Dong Z, Liu L, Han B, Pincheira R, Zhang J. Role of eIF3 p170 in controlling synthesis of ribonucleotide reductase M2 and cell growth. Oncogene. 2004;23:3790-801 pubmed
  2. Shen X, Yang Y, Liu W, Sun M, Jiang J, Zong H, et al. Identification of the p28 subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3(eIF3k) as a new interaction partner of cyclin D3. FEBS Lett. 2004;573:139-46 pubmed, we screened a human fetal liver cDNA library using human cyclin D3 as bait and identified human eukaryotic initiation factor 3 p28 protein (eIF3k) as a partner of cyclin D3...
  3. Yen H, Chang E. Yin6, a fission yeast Int6 homolog, complexes with Moe1 and plays a role in chromosome segregation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14370-5 pubmed
    ..These data support a model in which INT6 mutations in humans either alone or together with additional mutations, such as a RAS mutation, may contribute to tumorigenesis by altering genome stability. ..
  4. Chang E, Schwechheimer C. ZOMES III: the interface between signalling and proteolysis. Meeting on The COP9 Signalosome, Proteasome and eIF3. EMBO Rep. 2004;5:1041-5 pubmed
  5. Luke Glaser S, Roy M, Larsen B, Le Bihan T, Metalnikov P, Tyers M, et al. CIF-1, a shared subunit of the COP9/signalosome and eukaryotic initiation factor 3 complexes, regulates MEL-26 levels in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4526-40 pubmed
    ..Importantly, we identified the uncharacterized protein K08F11.3/CIF-1 (for CSN-eukaryotic initiation factor 3 [eIF3]) as a stoichiometric and functionally important subunit of the CSN complex...
  6. Jivotovskaya A, VALASEK L, Hinnebusch A, Nielsen K. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and eIF2 can promote mRNA binding to 40S subunits independently of eIF4G in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1355-72 pubmed
  7. Savinainen K, Linja M, Saramäki O, Tammela T, Chang G, Brinkmann A, et al. Expression and copy number analysis of TRPS1, EIF3S3 and MYC genes in breast and prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2004;90:1041-6 pubmed
    ..029) in prostate carcinomas compared to BPH. The data suggest that the expression of EIF3S3 is increased in prostate cancer, and that one of the mechanisms underlying the overexpression is the amplification of the gene. ..
  8. Dallas A, Noller H. Interaction of translation initiation factor 3 with the 30S ribosomal subunit. Mol Cell. 2001;8:855-64 pubmed
    ..The N domain neighbors proteins S7 and S11 and may interfere with E site tRNA binding. Our model suggests that IF3 influences initiator tRNA selection indirectly. ..
  9. Marchetti A, Buttitta F, Miyazaki S, Gallahan D, Smith G, Callahan R. Int-6, a highly conserved, widely expressed gene, is mutated by mouse mammary tumor virus in mammary preneoplasia. J Virol. 1995;69:1932-8 pubmed
    ..Since the nonrearranged Int-6 alleles in these tumors contain no mutations, we favor the conclusion that truncation of the Int-6 gene product either biologically activates its function or represents a dominant-negative mutation. ..
  10. Ji H, Fraser C, Yu Y, Leary J, Doudna J. Coordinated assembly of human translation initiation complexes by the hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:16990-5 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the IRES RNA coordinates interactions of eIF3 and eIF2 on the ribosome required to position the initiator tRNA on the mRNA in the ribosomal peptidyl-tRNA site (P site). ..
  11. Chen L, Uchida K, Endler A, Shibasaki F. Mammalian tumor suppressor Int6 specifically targets hypoxia inducible factor 2 alpha for degradation by hypoxia- and pVHL-independent regulation. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:12707-16 pubmed
  12. Shi J, Hershey J, Nelson M. Phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3f by cyclin-dependent kinase 11 during apoptosis. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:971-7 pubmed publisher
    eIF3f is a subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3). We previously showed that eIF3f is phosphorylated by cyclin dependent kinase 11 (CDK11(p46)) which is an important effector in apoptosis...
  13. Ogawa F, Kasai M, Akiyama T. A functional link between Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia 1 and the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:771-6 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that DISC1 may function as a translational regulator and may be involved in stress response. ..
  14. Cheshenko N, Trepanier J, Segarra T, Fuller A, Herold B. HSV usurps eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit M for viral protein translation: novel prevention target. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11829 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are consistent with sequencing studies demonstrating that B5 is eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit m (eIF3m)...
  15. Park H, Himmelbach A, Browning K, Hohn T, Ryabova L. A plant viral "reinitiation" factor interacts with the host translational machinery. Cell. 2001;106:723-33 pubmed
  16. VALASEK L, Hasek J, Nielsen K, Hinnebusch A. Dual function of eIF3j/Hcr1p in processing 20 S pre-rRNA and translation initiation. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43351-60 pubmed
    ..We conclude that eIF3j/Hcr1p is required for rapid processing of 20 S to 18 S rRNA besides its role in translation initiation, providing an intriguing link between ribosome biogenesis and translation. ..
  17. Block K, Vornlocher H, Hershey J. Characterization of cDNAs encoding the p44 and p35 subunits of human translation initiation factor eIF3. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:31901-8 pubmed
    ..Possession of cloned cDNAs encoding all 10 subunits of eIF3 provides the tools necessary to elucidate the functions of the individual subunits and the structure of the eIF3 complex. ..
  18. Roy B, Vaughn J, Kim B, Zhou F, Gilchrist M, von Arnim A. The h subunit of eIF3 promotes reinitiation competence during translation of mRNAs harboring upstream open reading frames. RNA. 2010;16:748-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The conserved h subunit of Arabidopsis eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) mitigates the inhibitory effects of certain uORFs...
  19. Buttitta F, Martella C, Barassi F, Felicioni L, Salvatore S, Rosini S, et al. Int6 expression can predict survival in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2005;11:3198-204 pubmed
    ..0006) and disease-free (P=0.024) survival. Our results suggest that Int6 expression, evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR, may represent a new prognostic factor in patients with stage I NSCLC. ..
  20. Anderson J, Phan L, Hinnebusch A. The Gcd10p/Gcd14p complex is the essential two-subunit tRNA(1-methyladenosine) methyltransferase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:5173-8 pubmed
    ..Our results provide a demonstration of a two-component tRNA MTase and suggest that binding of AdoMet and tRNA substrates depends on different subunits of the complex. ..
  21. Morris C, Jalinot P. Silencing of human Int-6 impairs mitosis progression and inhibits cyclin B-Cdk1 activation. Oncogene. 2005;24:1203-11 pubmed
    ..These findings support the notion that the oncogenic properties associated with alteration of Int-6 originate from chromosomal instability. ..
  22. Crane R, Craig R, Murray R, Dunand Sauthier I, Humphrey T, Norbury C. A fission yeast homolog of Int-6, the mammalian oncoprotein and eIF3 subunit, induces drug resistance when overexpressed. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:3993-4003 pubmed
    ..Studies in fission yeast may therefore help to explain the ways in which Int-6 function can be perturbed during MMTV-induced mammary tumorigenesis. ..
  23. Fraser C, Doudna J. Structural and mechanistic insights into hepatitis C viral translation initiation. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2007;5:29-38 pubmed
    ..Direct interactions of the IRES with initiation factor eIF3 are also crucial for efficient translation initiation, providing clues to the role of eIF3 in protein synthesis. ..
  24. Phan L, Zhang X, Asano K, Anderson J, Vornlocher H, Greenberg J, et al. Identification of a translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) core complex, conserved in yeast and mammals, that interacts with eIF5. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:4935-46 pubmed
    ..Thus, eIF5 and Sui1p may be recruited to the 40S ribosomes through physical interactions with the Nip1p subunit of eIF3. ..
  25. Asano K, Merrick W, Hershey J. The translation initiation factor eIF3-p48 subunit is encoded by int-6, a site of frequent integration by the mouse mammary tumor virus genome. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:23477-80 pubmed
    ..We discuss how the cytosolic function of eIF3-p48 (Int-6) in protein synthesis may account for oncogenesis caused by these two viruses. ..
  26. Pestova T, Kolupaeva V. The roles of individual eukaryotic translation initiation factors in ribosomal scanning and initiation codon selection. Genes Dev. 2002;16:2906-22 pubmed
  27. Gorgoni B, Andrews S, Schaller A, Schumperli D, Gray N, Muller B. The stem-loop binding protein stimulates histone translation at an early step in the initiation pathway. RNA. 2005;11:1030-42 pubmed
    ..We propose a model in which a novel factor contacts eIF4E bound to the 5' cap and SLBP bound to the 3' end simultaneously, mediating formation of an alternative end-to-end complex. ..
  28. Kieft J, Zhou K, Jubin R, Doudna J. Mechanism of ribosome recruitment by hepatitis C IRES RNA. RNA. 2001;7:194-206 pubmed
    ..make intimate contacts to two purified components of the 43S particle: the 40S ribosomal subunit and eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3)...
  29. Csibi A, Leibovitch M, Cornille K, Tintignac L, Leibovitch S. MAFbx/Atrogin-1 controls the activity of the initiation factor eIF3-f in skeletal muscle atrophy by targeting multiple C-terminal lysines. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:4413-21 pubmed publisher
  30. Kim T, Hofmann K, von Arnim A, Chamovitz D. PCI complexes: pretty complex interactions in diverse signaling pathways. Trends Plant Sci. 2001;6:379-86 pubmed
  31. Kim T, Kim B, Yahalom A, Chamovitz D, von Arnim A. Translational regulation via 5' mRNA leader sequences revealed by mutational analysis of the Arabidopsis translation initiation factor subunit eIF3h. Plant Cell. 2004;16:3341-56 pubmed
  32. Yahalom A, Kim T, Winter E, Karniol B, von Arnim A, Chamovitz D. Arabidopsis eIF3e (INT-6) associates with both eIF3c and the COP9 signalosome subunit CSN7. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:334-40 pubmed
    ..This interaction may allow for translational control by the COP9 signalosome. ..
  33. LeFebvre A, Korneeva N, Trutschl M, Cvek U, Duzan R, Bradley C, et al. Translation initiation factor eIF4G-1 binds to eIF3 through the eIF3e subunit. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22917-32 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a specific, direct, and functional interaction of eIF3e with eIF4G during the process of cap-dependent translation initiation, although they do not rule out participation of other eIF3 subunits. ..
  34. Asano K, Vornlocher H, Richter Cook N, Merrick W, Hinnebusch A, Hershey J. Structure of cDNAs encoding human eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunits. Possible roles in RNA binding and macromolecular assembly. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:27042-52 pubmed
    ..The subunit composition of eIF3 appears to be highly conserved in Drosophila melanogaster, C. elegans, and Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas only 5 homologs of the 10 subunits of mammalian eIF3 are encoded in S. cerevisiae. ..
  35. Miyazaki S, Rasmussen S, Imatani A, Diella F, Sullivan D, Callahan R. Characterization of the Drosophila ortholog of mouse eIF-3p48/INT-6. Gene. 1999;233:241-7 pubmed
    ..eIF-3p48/INT-6 RNA is expressed throughout development in Drosophila and the encoded protein is associated with the microsomal subcellular fraction. ..
  36. Kolupaeva V, Unbehaun A, Lomakin I, Hellen C, Pestova T. Binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 to ribosomal 40S subunits and its role in ribosomal dissociation and anti-association. RNA. 2005;11:470-86 pubmed
    ..The potential biological role of stimulation of eIF3/40S subunit interaction by an RNA cofactor in the absence of eIF2-ternary complex is discussed. ..
  37. Fontaine Rodriguez E, Taylor T, Olesky M, Knipe D. Proteomics of herpes simplex virus infected cell protein 27: association with translation initiation factors. Virology. 2004;330:487-92 pubmed
    ..association of ICP27 with the cellular translation initiation factors poly A binding protein (PABP), eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) in infected cells...
  38. Dong Z, Zhang J. Initiation factor eIF3 and regulation of mRNA translation, cell growth, and cancer. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2006;59:169-80 pubmed
  39. Marchetti A, Buttitta F, Pellegrini S, Bertacca G, Callahan R. Reduced expression of INT-6/eIF3-p48 in human tumors. Int J Oncol. 2001;18:175-9 pubmed
    ..Additional studies on larger series of tumor specimens with long-term follow-up are needed to determine whether Int-6/eIF3-p48 expression may represent a new prognostic or predictive marker. ..
  40. Watkins S, Norbury C. Cell cycle-related variation in subcellular localization of eIF3e/INT6 in human fibroblasts. Cell Prolif. 2004;37:149-60 pubmed
    ..Loss of regulation of eIF3e/INT6 redistribution may therefore be a significant feature of malignancy in human cells. ..
  41. Koc E, Spremulli L. Identification of mammalian mitochondrial translational initiation factor 3 and examination of its role in initiation complex formation with natural mRNAs. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:35541-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, the ability of E. coli initiation factor 1 to stimulate initiation complex formation on E. coli 70 S and mitochondrial 55 S ribosomes was investigated in the presence of IF2(mt) and IF3(mt). ..
  42. VALASEK L, Phan L, Schoenfeld L, Valášková V, Hinnebusch A. Related eIF3 subunits TIF32 and HCR1 interact with an RNA recognition motif in PRT1 required for eIF3 integrity and ribosome binding. EMBO J. 2001;20:891-904 pubmed
    ..Hence, the PRT1 RRM is crucial for the integrity and ribosome-binding activity of eIF3. ..
  43. Shalev A, VALASEK L, Pise Masison C, Radonovich M, Phan L, Clayton J, et al. Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein Pci8p and human protein eIF3e/Int-6 interact with the eIF3 core complex by binding to cognate eIF3b subunits. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:34948-57 pubmed
    ..We discuss possible dual functions of Pci8p and Int-6 in transcriptional and translational control. ..
  44. Hinnebusch A. eIF3: a versatile scaffold for translation initiation complexes. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006;31:553-62 pubmed
    ..This location of eIF3 seems ideally suited for its other proposed regulatory functions, including reinitiating translation on polycistronic mRNAs and acting as a receptor for protein kinases that control protein synthesis. ..
  45. Mack D, Boulanger C, Callahan R, Smith G. Expression of truncated Int6/eIF3e in mammary alveolar epithelium leads to persistent hyperplasia and tumorigenesis. Breast Cancer Res. 2007;9:R42 pubmed
    ..These observations provide direct in vivo evidence that mammary-specific expression of the Int6sh truncation leads to persistence of alveolar hyperplasia with the accompanying increased predisposition to mammary tumorigenesis. ..
  46. Nielsen K, VALASEK L, Sykes C, Jivotovskaya A, Hinnebusch A. Interaction of the RNP1 motif in PRT1 with HCR1 promotes 40S binding of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2984-98 pubmed
    We found that mutating the RNP1 motif in the predicted RRM domain in yeast eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunit b/PRT1 (prt1-rnp1) impairs its direct interactions in vitro with both eIF3a/TIF32 and eIF3j/HCR1...
  47. Zhang L, Pan X, Hershey J. Individual overexpression of five subunits of human translation initiation factor eIF3 promotes malignant transformation of immortal fibroblast cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:5790-800 pubmed
    ..Cancer cells appear to require an aberrantly activated translational state to survive, suggesting that the initiation factors may be promising therapeutic targets for treating cancer. ..
  48. Harris T, Chi A, Shabanowitz J, Hunt D, Rhoads R, Lawrence J. mTOR-dependent stimulation of the association of eIF4G and eIF3 by insulin. EMBO J. 2006;25:1659-68 pubmed
    ..Thus, increasing eIF4G association with eIF3 represents a potentially important mechanism by which insulin, as well as amino acids and growth factors that activate mTOR, stimulate translation. ..
  49. Petrelli D, LaTeana A, Garofalo C, Spurio R, Pon C, Gualerzi C. Translation initiation factor IF3: two domains, five functions, one mechanism?. EMBO J. 2001;20:4560-9 pubmed
    ..The localization of IF3C far away from the decoding site and anticodon stem-loop of P-site-bound tRNA indicates that the IF3 fidelity function does not entail its direct contact with these structures. ..
  50. Holz M, Ballif B, Gygi S, Blenis J. mTOR and S6K1 mediate assembly of the translation preinitiation complex through dynamic protein interchange and ordered phosphorylation events. Cell. 2005;123:569-80 pubmed
    ..We show that mTOR and S6K1 maneuver on and off the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) translation initiation complex in a signal-dependent, choreographed fashion...
  51. Park H, Browning K, Hohn T, Ryabova L. Eucaryotic initiation factor 4B controls eIF3-mediated ribosomal entry of viral reinitiation factor. EMBO J. 2004;23:1381-91 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that TAV enters the host translation machinery at the eIF4B removal step to stabilize eIF3 on the translating ribosome, thereby allowing translation of polycistronic viral RNA. ..
  52. Bandyopadhyay A, Matsumoto T, Maitra U. Fission yeast Int6 is not essential for global translation initiation, but deletion of int6(+) causes hypersensitivity to caffeine and affects spore formation. Mol Biol Cell. 2000;11:4005-18 pubmed
    ..High dosage expression of a truncated mutant of int6(+) conferred a hypersensitivity to caffeine, but did not cause the defect in meiosis. A possible link between the function of int6(+) and the Deltaint6-phenotypes is discussed. ..
  53. Siridechadilok B, Fraser C, Hall R, Doudna J, Nogales E. Structural roles for human translation factor eIF3 in initiation of protein synthesis. Science. 2005;310:1513-5 pubmed
    ..Detailed modeling of eIF3 and eIF4F onto the 40S ribosomal subunit reveals that eIF3 uses eIF4F or the HCV IRES in structurally similar ways to position the mRNA strand near the exit site of 40S, promoting initiation complex assembly. ..
  54. Garcia Barrio M, Naranda T, Vazquez de Aldana C, Cuesta R, Hinnebusch A, Hershey J, et al. GCD10, a translational repressor of GCN4, is the RNA-binding subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor-3. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1781-96 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that GCN4 expression provides a sensitive in vivo assay for the function of eIF-3 in initiation complex formation. ..
  55. Methot N, Rom E, Olsen H, Sonenberg N. The human homologue of the yeast Prt1 protein is an integral part of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 complex and interacts with p170. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:1110-6 pubmed
    b>Eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) is a large multisubunit complex that stabilizes the ternary complex, eIF2 x GTP x tRNA(Met)i and promotes mRNA binding to the 40 S ribosomal subunit...
  56. Mayeur G, Hershey J. Malignant transformation by the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit p48 (eIF3e). FEBS Lett. 2002;514:49-54 pubmed
    ..Stable expression of full-length eIF3e does not cause transformation. The truncated eIF3e also inhibits the onset of apoptosis caused by serum starvation. ..
  57. Kim B, Cai X, Vaughn J, von Arnim A. On the functions of the h subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in late stages of translation initiation. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R60 pubmed
    ..The intact eIF3h protein contributes to efficient translation initiation on 5' leader sequences harboring multiple uORFs, although mRNA features independent of uORFs are also implicated. ..
  58. Akiyoshi Y, Clayton J, Phan L, Yamamoto M, Hinnebusch A, Watanabe Y, et al. Fission yeast homolog of murine Int-6 protein, encoded by mouse mammary tumor virus integration site, is associated with the conserved core subunits of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:10056-62 pubmed
    ..We propose that Int6 is not an essential subunit of eIF3 but might be involved in regulating the activity of eIF3 for translation of specific mRNAs in S. pombe. ..
  59. Kadaba S, Krueger A, Trice T, Krecic A, Hinnebusch A, Anderson J. Nuclear surveillance and degradation of hypomodified initiator tRNAMet in S. cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1227-40 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that a tRNA surveillance pathway exists in yeast that requires Trf4p and the exosome for polyadenylation and degradation of hypomodified pre-tRNA(i)(Met). ..
  60. Jenkins C, Mata J, Crane R, Thomas B, Akoulitchev A, Bahler J, et al. Activation of AP-1-dependent transcription by a truncated translation initiation factor. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:1840-50 pubmed
    ..Int6CT therefore activates Pap1-dependent transcription by a novel mechanism. ..
  61. VALASEK L, Nielsen K, Zhang F, Fekete C, Hinnebusch A. Interactions of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3) subunit NIP1/c with eIF1 and eIF5 promote preinitiation complex assembly and regulate start codon selection. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9437-55 pubmed
    ..Thus, the NIP1-NTD is required for efficient assembly of preinitiation complexes and also regulates the selection of AUG start codons in vivo. ..
  62. Rasmussen S, Kordon E, Callahan R, Smith G. Evidence for the transforming activity of a truncated Int6 gene, in vitro. Oncogene. 2001;20:5291-301 pubmed
    ..These observations provide direct evidence that the Int6 mutations observed in MMTV-induced tumors and hyperplasia contribute to the malignant transformation of the mammary epithelial cells. ..
  63. Shi J, Kahle A, Hershey J, Honchak B, Warneke J, Leong S, et al. Decreased expression of eukaryotic initiation factor 3f deregulates translation and apoptosis in tumor cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:4923-36 pubmed
    ..We propose that eIF3f may play a role in ribosome degradation during apoptosis. These data provide critical insights into the cellular function of eIF3f and in linking translation initiation and apoptosis. ..
  64. Szamecz B, Rutkai E, Cuchalová L, Munzarová V, Herrmannová A, Nielsen K, et al. eIF3a cooperates with sequences 5' of uORF1 to promote resumption of scanning by post-termination ribosomes for reinitiation on GCN4 mRNA. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2414-25 pubmed publisher
    Yeast initiation factor eIF3 (eukaryotic initiation factor 3) has been implicated in multiple steps of translation initiation...
  65. Lagirand Cantaloube J, Offner N, Csibi A, Leibovitch M, Batonnet Pichon S, Tintignac L, et al. The initiation factor eIF3-f is a major target for atrogin1/MAFbx function in skeletal muscle atrophy. EMBO J. 2008;27:1266-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present evidence that during muscle atrophy MAFbx targets the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit 5 (eIF3-f) for ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome...
  66. Tedin K, Moll I, Grill S, Resch A, Graschopf A, Gualerzi C, et al. Translation initiation factor 3 antagonizes authentic start codon selection on leaderless mRNAs. Mol Microbiol. 1999;31:67-77 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in the absence of a leader or a Shine-Dalgarno sequence, the function(s) of IF3 limits stable 30S ternary complex formation. ..
  67. Hui D, Terenzi F, Merrick W, Sen G. Mouse p56 blocks a distinct function of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 in translation initiation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:3433-40 pubmed
    ..reported that human p56 inhibits initiation of translation by binding to the "e" subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 (eIF3) and subsequently interfering with the eIF3/eIF2.GTP.Met-tRNAi (ternary complex) interaction...
  68. Dunand Sauthier I, Walker C, Wilkinson C, Gordon C, Crane R, Norbury C, et al. Sum1, a component of the fission yeast eIF3 translation initiation complex, is rapidly relocalized during environmental stress and interacts with components of the 26S proteasome. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:1626-40 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, Sum1 interacts with the Mts2 and Mts4 components of the 26S proteasome. These data indicate a functional link between components of the structurally related eIF3 translation initiation and 26S proteasome complexes. ..
  69. Hoareau Alves K, Bochard V, Rety S, Jalinot P. Association of the mammalian proto-oncoprotein Int-6 with the three protein complexes eIF3, COP9 signalosome and 26S proteasome. FEBS Lett. 2002;527:15-21 pubmed
    ..Taken together these results show that the Int-6 protein can bind the three complexes with various efficiencies, possibly exerting a regulatory activity in both protein translation and degradation. ..
  70. Savinainen K, Helenius M, Lehtonen H, Visakorpi T. Overexpression of EIF3S3 promotes cancer cell growth. Prostate. 2006;66:1144-50 pubmed
    ..0022) the growth of all breast and prostate cancer cell lines studied. The results suggest that EIF3S3 regulates cell growth and viability, and that overexpression of the gene may provide growth advantage to the cancer cells. ..
  71. Masutani M, Sonenberg N, Yokoyama S, Imataka H. Reconstitution reveals the functional core of mammalian eIF3. EMBO J. 2007;26:3373-83 pubmed
    ..Extensive deletion analyses suggest that three evolutionarily conserved subunits (eIF3a, eIF3b, and eIF3c) and three non-conserved subunits (eIF3e, eIF3f, and eIF3h) comprise the functional core of mammalian eIF3. ..
  72. Morris Desbois C, Rety S, Ferro M, Garin J, Jalinot P. The human protein HSPC021 interacts with Int-6 and is associated with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:45988-95 pubmed
    ..These protein motifs are also present in subunits of eIF3, of the lid of the 26 S proteasome, and of the COP9 signalosome. ..
  73. Shi J, Feng Y, Goulet A, Vaillancourt R, Sachs N, Hershey J, et al. The p34cdc2-related cyclin-dependent kinase 11 interacts with the p47 subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 3 during apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:5062-71 pubmed
    ..We used a yeast two-hybrid screening strategy and identified eukaryotic initiation factor 3 p47 protein (eIF3 p47) as an interacting partner of caspase-processed C-terminal kinase domain of ..
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    ..We discuss these observations as they relate to IF3 autoregulation and the mechanism of IF3 function. ..
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    ..It is noteworthy that none of these four subunits were found to be phosphorylated. These data raise interesting questions about the function of phosphorylation as it relates to the core subunits of the complex. ..