eukaryotic initiation factors


Summary: Peptide initiation factors from eukaryotic organisms. Over twelve factors are involved in PEPTIDE CHAIN INITIATION, TRANSLATIONAL in eukaryotic cells. Many of these factors play a role in controlling the rate of MRNA TRANSLATION.

Top Publications

  1. Mitchell S, Walker S, Algire M, Park E, Hinnebusch A, Lorsch J. The 5'-7-methylguanosine cap on eukaryotic mRNAs serves both to stimulate canonical translation initiation and to block an alternative pathway. Mol Cell. 2010;39:950-62 pubmed publisher
  2. Meister G. miRNAs get an early start on translational silencing. Cell. 2007;131:25-8 pubmed
    ..2007; Mathonnet et al., 2007; Thermann and Hentze, 2007; Wakiyama et al., 2007). These new findings indicate that miRNAs inhibit translation at early steps of initiation. ..
  3. Valášek L. 'Ribozoomin'--translation initiation from the perspective of the ribosome-bound eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2012;13:305-30 pubmed
    ..I also summarize our current knowledge on how eukaryotic initiation factor eIF3 controls gene expression in the gene-specific manner via reinitiation. ..
  4. Singh C, Asano K. Localization and characterization of protein-protein interaction sites. Methods Enzymol. 2007;429:139-61 pubmed
    ..The effective strategy is to find mutations that reduce the interaction by genetic or site-directed mutational approaches and obtain correlations between their effects in vitro (GST pull down) and effects in vivo (co-IP). ..
  5. Ghildiyal M, Xu J, Seitz H, Weng Z, Zamore P. Sorting of Drosophila small silencing RNAs partitions microRNA* strands into the RNA interference pathway. RNA. 2010;16:43-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide the first genome-wide test for the idea that Drosophila small RNAs are sorted between Ago1 and Ago2 according to their duplex structure and the identity of their first nucleotide. ..
  6. Choudhuri A, Evans T, Maitra U. Non-core subunit eIF3h of translation initiation factor eIF3 regulates zebrafish embryonic development. Dev Dyn. 2010;239:1632-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the non-core subunits of eIF3 regulate specific developmental programs during vertebrate embryogenesis. ..
  7. Behm Ansmant I, Rehwinkel J, Izaurralde E. MicroRNAs silence gene expression by repressing protein expression and/or by promoting mRNA decay. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2006;71:523-30 pubmed
    ..We propose that the final outcome of miRNA regulation (i.e., degradation vs. translational repression) is influenced by other RNA-binding proteins interacting with the targeted mRNA. ..
  8. Pacheco A, Reigadas S, Martinez Salas E. Riboproteomic analysis of polypeptides interacting with the internal ribosome-entry site element of foot-and-mouth disease viral RNA. Proteomics. 2008;8:4782-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Compilation of factors preferentially associated with FMDV or HCV IRES provides a basis for examining the strategies used by IRESs to recruit the translation machinery. ..
  9. Valdmanis P, Gu S, Schüermann N, Sethupathy P, Grimm D, Kay M. Expression determinants of mammalian argonaute proteins in mediating gene silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3704-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has implications for the evolutionary conservation of Ago proteins in the mammalian lineage and the biological role that potentially redundant Ago proteins may have. ..

More Information


  1. Kawamura Y, Saito K, Kin T, Ono Y, Asai K, Sunohara T, et al. Drosophila endogenous small RNAs bind to Argonaute 2 in somatic cells. Nature. 2008;453:793-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in Dicer-2 caused an increase in retrotransposon transcripts. Together, our findings indicate that different types of small RNAs and Argonautes are used to repress retrotransposons in germline and somatic cells in Drosophila. ..
  2. Gallois J, Charron C, Sánchez F, Pagny G, Houvenaghel M, Moretti A, et al. Single amino acid changes in the turnip mosaic virus viral genome-linked protein (VPg) confer virulence towards Arabidopsis thaliana mutants knocked out for eukaryotic initiation factors eIF(iso)4E and eIF(iso)4G. J Gen Virol. 2010;91:288-93 pubmed publisher
    ..thaliana eIF4Es and VPgs of virulent and avirulent TuMVs was performed. The results suggest that virulent TuMV variants may use an eIF4F-independent pathway. ..
  3. Burroughs A, Ando Y, de Hoon M, Tomaru Y, Nishibu T, Ukekawa R, et al. A comprehensive survey of 3' animal miRNA modification events and a possible role for 3' adenylation in modulating miRNA targeting effectiveness. Genome Res. 2010;20:1398-410 pubmed publisher
  4. Broderick J, Salomon W, Ryder S, Aronin N, Zamore P. Argonaute protein identity and pairing geometry determine cooperativity in mammalian RNA silencing. RNA. 2011;17:1858-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Ago2 binds its targets by a mechanism fundamentally distinct from that used by the three other mammalian Argonaute proteins. ..
  5. Bidinosti M, Ran I, Sanchez Carbente M, Martineau Y, Gingras A, Gkogkas C, et al. Postnatal deamidation of 4E-BP2 in brain enhances its association with raptor and alters kinetics of excitatory synaptic transmission. Mol Cell. 2010;37:797-808 pubmed publisher
    ..4E-BP2 deamidation may represent a compensatory mechanism for the developmental reduction of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling. ..
  6. Czech B, Hannon G. Small RNA sorting: matchmaking for Argonautes. Nat Rev Genet. 2011;12:19-31 pubmed publisher
  7. Souii A, M hadheb Gharbi M, Aouni M, Gharbi J. In vitro molecular characterization of RNA-proteins interactions during initiation of translation of a wild-type and a mutant Coxsackievirus B3 RNAs. Mol Biotechnol. 2013;54:515-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the reduction efficiency of the mutant RNA to bind to cellular proteins involved in the translation initiation could be the reason behind inefficient IRES function. ..
  8. Easow G, Teleman A, Cohen S. Isolation of microRNA targets by miRNP immunopurification. RNA. 2007;13:1198-204 pubmed
    ..This approach provides a means to identify functional miRNA targets based on their physical interaction in vivo. ..
  9. Pisarev A, Unbehaun A, Hellen C, Pestova T. Assembly and analysis of eukaryotic translation initiation complexes. Methods Enzymol. 2007;430:147-77 pubmed
    ..It involves the coordinated interactions of at least 11 eukaryotic initiation factors, 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits, mRNA, and aminoacylated initiator tRNA (Met-tRNA(i)(Met)), as well as ..
  10. Höck J, Weinmann L, Ender C, Rüdel S, Kremmer E, Raabe M, et al. Proteomic and functional analysis of Argonaute-containing mRNA-protein complexes in human cells. EMBO Rep. 2007;8:1052-60 pubmed
    ..Using reporter assays and knockdown experiments, we showed that the putative RNA-binding protein RBM4 is required for microRNA-guided gene regulation. ..
  11. Kim V, Han J, Siomi M. Biogenesis of small RNAs in animals. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009;10:126-39 pubmed publisher
    ..This Review summarizes our current knowledge of how these intriguing molecules are generated in animal cells. ..
  12. Hausser J, Landthaler M, Jaskiewicz L, Gaidatzis D, Zavolan M. Relative contribution of sequence and structure features to the mRNA binding of Argonaute/EIF2C-miRNA complexes and the degradation of miRNA targets. Genome Res. 2009;19:2009-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that structural features of the target site are only important for Argonaute/EIF2C binding, while sequence features such as the A/U content of the 3' UTR are important for mRNA degradation. ..
  13. Sokabe M, Fraser C, Hershey J. The human translation initiation multi-factor complex promotes methionyl-tRNAi binding to the 40S ribosomal subunit. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:905-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, three distinct pathways for Met-tRNA(i) delivery to the 40S ribosomal subunit are identified, but which one predominates in vivo remains to be elucidated. ..
  14. Tomari Y, Du T, Zamore P. Sorting of Drosophila small silencing RNAs. Cell. 2007;130:299-308 pubmed
    ..Thus, in flies small-RNA duplexes are actively sorted into Argonaute-containing complexes according to their intrinsic structures. ..
  15. Wilson F, Suryawan A, Gazzaneo M, Orellana R, Nguyen H, Davis T. Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis by prolonged parenteral infusion of leucine is dependent on amino acid availability in neonatal pigs. J Nutr. 2010;140:264-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, prolonged parenteral infusion of leucine activates mTOR and its downstream targets in neonatal skeletal muscle, but the stimulation of protein synthesis also is dependent upon amino acid availability. ..
  16. Cridge A, Castelli L, Smirnova J, Selley J, Rowe W, Hubbard S, et al. Identifying eIF4E-binding protein translationally-controlled transcripts reveals links to mRNAs bound by specific PUF proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:8039-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the combined action of each 4E-BP with specific 3'-UTR-binding proteins mediates mRNA-specific translational control in yeast, showing that this form of translational control is more widely employed than previously thought. ..
  17. Jackson R, Hellen C, Pestova T. The mechanism of eukaryotic translation initiation and principles of its regulation. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2010;11:113-27 pubmed publisher
  18. Eulalio A, Rehwinkel J, Stricker M, Huntzinger E, Yang S, Doerks T, et al. Target-specific requirements for enhancers of decapping in miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2558-70 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that miRNAs mediate post-transcriptional gene silencing by more than one mechanism. ..
  19. Abiko F, Tomoo K, Mizuno A, Morino S, Imataka H, Ishida T. Binding preference of eIF4E for 4E-binding protein isoform and function of eIF4E N-terminal flexible region for interaction, studied by SPR analysis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:667-72 pubmed
  20. Le Bacquer O, Petroulakis E, Paglialunga S, Poulin F, Richard D, Cianflone K, et al. Elevated sensitivity to diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in mice lacking 4E-BP1 and 4E-BP2. J Clin Invest. 2007;117:387-96 pubmed
    ..These data clearly demonstrate the role of 4E-BPs as a metabolic brake in the development of obesity and reinforce the idea that deregulated mTOR signaling is associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome. ..
  21. Miyoshi K, Okada T, Siomi H, Siomi M. Characterization of the miRNA-RISC loading complex and miRNA-RISC formed in the Drosophila miRNA pathway. RNA. 2009;15:1282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The AGO1-PIWI mutant showed no Slicer activity but associates with mature miRNA. These results indicate that these domains are required differently for miRLC and miRISC formation in the miRNA pathway. ..
  22. Diederichs S, Haber D. Dual role for argonautes in microRNA processing and posttranscriptional regulation of microRNA expression. Cell. 2007;131:1097-108 pubmed
    ..The multiple roles of Argonautes in the RNAi effector phase and miRNA biogenesis and maturation suggest coordinate regulation of microRNA expression and function. ..
  23. Beitzinger M, Peters L, Zhu J, Kremmer E, Meister G. Identification of human microRNA targets from isolated argonaute protein complexes. RNA Biol. 2007;4:76-84 pubmed
    ..Our data clearly indicate that miRNA targets can be experimentally identified from Ago complexes and therefore provide a new tool to directly analyze miRNA function. ..
  24. Ameres S, Hung J, Xu J, Weng Z, Zamore P. Target RNA-directed tailing and trimming purifies the sorting of endo-siRNAs between the two Drosophila Argonaute proteins. RNA. 2011;17:54-63 pubmed publisher
  25. Baillat D, Shiekhattar R. Functional dissection of the human TNRC6 (GW182-related) family of proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:4144-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the C-terminal domain containing the RNA recognition motif plays a critical role in the silencing mediated by the TNRC6B protein. ..
  26. Fringer J, Acker M, Fekete C, Lorsch J, Dever T. Coupled release of eukaryotic translation initiation factors 5B and 1A from 80S ribosomes following subunit joining. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2384-97 pubmed
    ..Following 80S complex formation, GTP hydrolysis by eIF5B enables the release of both eIF5B and eIF1A, and the ribosome enters the elongation phase of protein synthesis. ..
  27. Noto T, Kurth H, Kataoka K, Aronica L, DeSouza L, Siu K, et al. The Tetrahymena argonaute-binding protein Giw1p directs a mature argonaute-siRNA complex to the nucleus. Cell. 2010;140:692-703 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Giw1p senses the state of Twi1p-associated siRNAs and selectively transports the mature Twi1p-siRNA complex into the nucleus...
  28. Dmitriev S, Terenin I, Andreev D, Ivanov P, Dunaevsky J, Merrick W, et al. GTP-independent tRNA delivery to the ribosomal P-site by a novel eukaryotic translation factor. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:26779-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The corresponding gene is found in all eukaryotes and includes an SUI1 domain present also in translation initiation factor eIF1. The versatility of translation initiation strategies in eukaryotes is discussed. ..
  29. Helwak A, Kudla G, Dudnakova T, Tollervey D. Mapping the human miRNA interactome by CLASH reveals frequent noncanonical binding. Cell. 2013;153:654-65 pubmed publisher
    ..We speculate that these affect the response of RISC to miRNA-target binding. ..
  30. Eulalio A, Huntzinger E, Izaurralde E. GW182 interaction with Argonaute is essential for miRNA-mediated translational repression and mRNA decay. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings show that miRNA function is effected by AGO1-GW182 complexes and the role of GW182 in silencing goes beyond promoting deadenylation. ..
  31. Schult K, Meierhoff K, Paradies S, Töller T, Wolff P, Westhoff P. The nuclear-encoded factor HCF173 is involved in the initiation of translation of the psbA mRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2007;19:1329-46 pubmed
    ..Affinity chromatography of an HCF173 fusion protein uncovered the psbA mRNA as a component of this complex. ..
  32. Eulalio A, Huntzinger E, Nishihara T, Rehwinkel J, Fauser M, Izaurralde E. Deadenylation is a widespread effect of miRNA regulation. RNA. 2009;15:21-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that miRNAs promote mRNA decay by altering mRNP composition and/or conformation, rather than by directly interfering with the binding and function of ribosomal subunits. ..
  33. Wu L, Belasco J. Let me count the ways: mechanisms of gene regulation by miRNAs and siRNAs. Mol Cell. 2008;29:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, under certain conditions, miRNAs are also capable of activating translation. A variety of cellular proteins have been implicated in these regulatory mechanisms, yet their exact roles remain largely unresolved. ..
  34. Djuranovic S, Nahvi A, Green R. A parsimonious model for gene regulation by miRNAs. Science. 2011;331:550-3 pubmed publisher
    ..More systematic analyses of the molecular specificities of the core components coupled with analysis of the relative timing of the different events will ultimately shed light on the mechanism of miRNA-mediated repression. ..
  35. Unbehaun A, Marintchev A, Lomakin I, Didenko T, Wagner G, Hellen C, et al. Position of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF5B on the 80S ribosome mapped by directed hydroxyl radical probing. EMBO J. 2007;26:3109-23 pubmed
    ..Some of these changes could also occur upon binding of other translational GTPases, and may contribute to factor recognition. ..
  36. Allo M, Buggiano V, Fededa J, Petrillo E, Schor I, De la Mata M, et al. Control of alternative splicing through siRNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:717-24 pubmed publisher
  37. Wang D, Zhang Z, O Loughlin E, Lee T, Houel S, O Carroll D, et al. Quantitative functions of Argonaute proteins in mammalian development. Genes Dev. 2012;26:693-704 pubmed publisher
    ..4 × 10(5) to 1.7 × 10(5) molecules per cell. Together, our results reveal a quantitative picture for microRNA activity in mammals. ..
  38. Janas M, Wang B, Harris A, Aguiar M, Shaffer J, Subrahmanyam Y, et al. Alternative RISC assembly: binding and repression of microRNA-mRNA duplexes by human Ago proteins. RNA. 2012;18:2041-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to the consensus view that Agos bind miRNA duplexes, these data demonstrate that Agos can bind and repress miRNA-mRNA duplexes and support a model of catalytic Ago function in translational repression. ..
  39. Hsieh A, Liu Y, Edlind M, Ingolia N, Janes M, Sher A, et al. The translational landscape of mTOR signalling steers cancer initiation and metastasis. Nature. 2012;485:55-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings extend our understanding of how the 'cancerous' translation machinery steers specific cancer cell behaviours, including metastasis, and may be therapeutically targeted. ..
  40. Acker M, Shin B, Nanda J, Saini A, Dever T, Lorsch J. Kinetic analysis of late steps of eukaryotic translation initiation. J Mol Biol. 2009;385:491-506 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data, coupled with previous work, indicate that eIF1A is present on the ribosome throughout the entire initiation process and plays key roles at every stage. ..
  41. Kuang E, Fu B, Liang Q, Myoung J, ZHU F. Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (EIF4B) by open reading frame 45/p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (ORF45/RSK) signaling axis facilitates protein translation during Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:41171-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicated that ORF45/RSK axis-induced eIF4B phosphorylation is involved in translational regulation and is required for optimal KSHV lytic replication. ..
  42. Nakai N, Kawano F, Terada M, Oke Y, Ohira T, Ohira Y. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists on leucine-induced phosphorylation of translational targets in C2C12 cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1780:1101-5 pubmed publisher
  43. Mitchell S, Lorsch J. Should I stay or should I go? Eukaryotic translation initiation factors 1 and 1A control start codon recognition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27345-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Two eukaryotic initiation factors, eIF1 and eIF1A, are key actors in this process...
  44. Beitzinger M, Meister G. Experimental identification of microRNA targets by immunoprecipitation of Argonaute protein complexes. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;732:153-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide a detailed protocol for isolation and identification of miRNA target mRNAs from immunoprecipitated human Ago protein complexes. ..
  45. Mescalchin A, Detzer A, Weirauch U, Hahnel M, Engel C, Sczakiel G. Antisense tools for functional studies of human Argonaute proteins. RNA. 2010;16:2529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Using combinations of asONs we found that the simultaneous down-regulation of hAgo1, hAgo2, and hAgo4 led to the strongest decrease in miRNA activity, indicating a main role of these proteins. ..
  46. Hansen M, Taubert S, Crawford D, Libina N, Lee S, Kenyon C. Lifespan extension by conditions that inhibit translation in Caenorhabditis elegans. Aging Cell. 2007;6:95-110 pubmed
    ..Our findings link TOR, but not sir-2.1, to the longevity response induced by dietary restriction (DR) in C. elegans, and they suggest that neither TOR inhibition nor DR extends lifespan simply by reducing protein synthesis. ..
  47. Polikepahad S, Corry D. Profiling of T helper cell-derived small RNAs reveals unique antisense transcripts and differential association of miRNAs with argonaute proteins 1 and 2. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:1164-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings imply diversity in AGO protein function based on differential miRNA binding and indicate that RNA interference-based gene regulation is more complex than previously recognized. ..
  48. Kolupaeva V, de Breyne S, Pestova T, Hellen C. In vitro reconstitution and biochemical characterization of translation initiation by internal ribosomal entry. Methods Enzymol. 2007;430:409-39 pubmed
  49. Culjkovic B, Topisirovic I, Borden K. Controlling gene expression through RNA regulons: the role of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E. Cell Cycle. 2007;6:65-9 pubmed
    ..Here, the physiological implications of these observations are described and the clinical implications of directly targeting eIF4E, and the related regulon, are discussed. ..
  50. Lazzaretti D, Tournier I, Izaurralde E. The C-terminal domains of human TNRC6A, TNRC6B, and TNRC6C silence bound transcripts independently of Argonaute proteins. RNA. 2009;15:1059-66 pubmed publisher
  51. Rozovsky N, Butterworth A, Moore M. Interactions between eIF4AI and its accessory factors eIF4B and eIF4H. RNA. 2008;14:2136-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings mirror and expand on recent biochemical and structural data regarding the interaction of eIF4AI's close relative eIF4AIII with its accessory protein MLN51. ..
  52. Okamura K, Liu N, Lai E. Distinct mechanisms for microRNA strand selection by Drosophila Argonautes. Mol Cell. 2009;36:431-44 pubmed publisher
  53. Ender C, Krek A, Friedländer M, Beitzinger M, Weinmann L, Chen W, et al. A human snoRNA with microRNA-like functions. Mol Cell. 2008;32:519-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We further identify a number of human snoRNAs with microRNA (miRNA)-like processing signatures. We have, therefore, identified a class of small RNAs in human cells that originate from snoRNAs and can function like miRNAs. ..
  54. Iki T, Yoshikawa M, Nishikiori M, Jaudal M, Matsumoto Yokoyama E, Mitsuhara I, et al. In vitro assembly of plant RNA-induced silencing complexes facilitated by molecular chaperone HSP90. Mol Cell. 2010;39:282-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Removal of the siRNA passenger strand required the ribonuclease activity of AGO1, while that of the miRNA star strand did not. Based on these results, the mechanism of plant RISC formation is discussed...
  55. Lee S, Nahm M, Lee M, Kwon M, Kim E, Zadeh A, et al. The F-actin-microtubule crosslinker Shot is a platform for Krasavietz-mediated translational regulation of midline axon repulsion. Development. 2007;134:1767-77 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that Kra-mediated translational regulation plays important roles in midline axon repulsion and that Shot functions as a direct physical link between translational regulation and cytoskeleton reorganization. ..
  56. Cheng S, Gallie D. Competitive and noncompetitive binding of eIF4B, eIF4A, and the poly(A) binding protein to wheat translation initiation factor eIFiso4G. Biochemistry. 2010;49:8251-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations reveal an important function of the C-terminal eIF4A binding domain in maintaining the interaction of multiple partner proteins with eIFiso4G despite the substantial divergence in its size and domain organization. ..
  57. Van Stry M, Oguin T, Cheloufi S, Vogel P, Watanabe M, Pillai M, et al. Enhanced susceptibility of Ago1/3 double-null mice to influenza A virus infection. J Virol. 2012;86:4151-7 pubmed publisher
  58. Chendrimada T, Finn K, Ji X, Baillat D, Gregory R, Liebhaber S, et al. MicroRNA silencing through RISC recruitment of eIF6. Nature. 2007;447:823-8 pubmed
    ..These results uncover an evolutionarily conserved function of the ribosome anti-association factor eIF6 in miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional silencing. ..
  59. Finch A, Hilcenko C, Basse N, Drynan L, Goyenechea B, Menne T, et al. Uncoupling of GTP hydrolysis from eIF6 release on the ribosome causes Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. Genes Dev. 2011;25:917-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings establish a direct role for SBDS and EFL1 in catalyzing the translational activation of ribosomes in all eukaryotes, and define SDS as a ribosomopathy caused by uncoupling GTP hydrolysis from eIF6 release. ..
  60. Sarma N, Agarwal D, Shiflett L, Read G. Small interfering RNAs that deplete the cellular translation factor eIF4H impede mRNA degradation by the virion host shutoff protein of herpes simplex virus. J Virol. 2008;82:6600-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of the related factor eIF4B did not affect Vhs activity. The data suggest that eIF4H binding is required for Vhs-induced degradation of many mRNAs, perhaps by targeting Vhs to mRNAs and to preferred sites within mRNAs. ..
  61. Eulalio A, Tritschler F, Izaurralde E. The GW182 protein family in animal cells: new insights into domains required for miRNA-mediated gene silencing. RNA. 2009;15:1433-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Such findings reinforce the idea that GW182 proteins are key components of miRNA repressor complexes in metazoa. ..
  62. Yang J, Lai E. Alternative miRNA biogenesis pathways and the interpretation of core miRNA pathway mutants. Mol Cell. 2011;43:892-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, ongoing studies reveal a growing number of settings in which alternative microRNA pathways contribute to distinct phenotypes among core microRNA biogenesis mutants. ..
  63. Shahbazian D, Parsyan A, Petroulakis E, HERSHEY J, Sonenberg N. eIF4B controls survival and proliferation and is regulated by proto-oncogenic signaling pathways. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:4106-9 pubmed
    ..Moreover, eIF4B depletion in cancer cells attenuates proliferation, sensitizes them to genotoxic stress-driven apoptosis. Taken together, these findings identify eIF4B as a potential target for development of anti-cancer therapies. ..
  64. Colina R, Costa Mattioli M, Dowling R, Jaramillo M, Tai L, Breitbach C, et al. Translational control of the innate immune response through IRF-7. Nature. 2008;452:323-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings highlight the role of 4E-BPs as negative regulators of type-I IFN production, via translational repression of Irf7 mRNA. ..
  65. Burroughs A, Ando Y, de Hoon M, Tomaru Y, Suzuki H, Hayashizaki Y, et al. Deep-sequencing of human Argonaute-associated small RNAs provides insight into miRNA sorting and reveals Argonaute association with RNA fragments of diverse origin. RNA Biol. 2011;8:158-77 pubmed
    ..Finally, we observe antisense miRNA transcripts are frequently present in low copy numbers across a range of diverse miRNA loci and these transcripts appear to associate with AGO proteins. ..
  66. Okamura K, Robine N, Liu Y, Liu Q, Lai E. R2D2 organizes small regulatory RNA pathways in Drosophila. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:884-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data reveal new roles of R2D2 in organizing small RNA networks in Drosophila. ..
  67. Hutvagner G, Simard M. Argonaute proteins: key players in RNA silencing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2008;9:22-32 pubmed
    ..With their functional domains, Argonaute proteins can bind small non-coding RNAs and control protein synthesis, affect messenger RNA stability and even participate in the production of a new class of small RNAs, Piwi-interacting RNAs. ..
  68. Pisarev A, Skabkin M, Pisareva V, Skabkina O, Rakotondrafara A, Hentze M, et al. The role of ABCE1 in eukaryotic posttermination ribosomal recycling. Mol Cell. 2010;37:196-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, ABCE1 dissociates only post-TCs obtained with eRF1/eRF3 (or eRF1 alone), but not post-TCs obtained with puromycin in eRF1's absence...
  69. Eulalio A, Helms S, Fritzsch C, Fauser M, Izaurralde E. A C-terminal silencing domain in GW182 is essential for miRNA function. RNA. 2009;15:1067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our results indicate that miRNA silencing in animal cells is mediated by AGO1 in complex with GW182, and that P-body localization is not required for silencing. ..
  70. Dowling R, Topisirovic I, Alain T, Bidinosti M, Fonseca B, Petroulakis E, et al. mTORC1-mediated cell proliferation, but not cell growth, controlled by the 4E-BPs. Science. 2010;328:1172-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, control of cell size and cell cycle progression appear to be independent in mammalian cells, whereas in lower eukaryotes, 4E-BPs influence both cell growth and proliferation. ..
  71. Gu S, Jin L, Zhang F, Huang Y, Grimm D, Rossi J, et al. Thermodynamic stability of small hairpin RNAs highly influences the loading process of different mammalian Argonautes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:9208-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, Ago loading of siRNAs is less sensitive to thermostability than that of their shRNA equivalents. These results may have important implications for the future design of RNAi-based therapeutics. ..
  72. Xu X, Li Y, Wang F, Gao F. The steady-state level of the nervous-system-specific microRNA-124a is regulated by dFMR1 in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11883-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This effect could be explained in part by the reduced abundance of the Dicer-1-Ago1 complex in the absence of dFMR1. These findings suggest a modulatory role for dFMR1 to maintain proper levels of miRNAs during neuronal development. ..
  73. Eulalio A, Tritschler F, Büttner R, Weichenrieder O, Izaurralde E, Truffault V. The RRM domain in GW182 proteins contributes to miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:2974-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The conservation of structural and surface residues suggests that the RRM domain adopts a similar fold with a related function in insect and vertebrate GW182 family members. ..
  74. Locker N, Lukavsky P. A practical approach to isolate 48S complexes: affinity purification and analyses. Methods Enzymol. 2007;429:83-104 pubmed
    ..assembly of eukaryotic translation initiation complexes requires purification of ribosomal subunits, eukaryotic initiation factors, and initiator tRNA from natural sources and therefore yields only limited material for functional and ..
  75. Eulalio A, Huntzinger E, Izaurralde E. Getting to the root of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Cell. 2008;132:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we discuss current models for miRNA-mediated gene silencing and formulate a hypothesis to reconcile differences. ..
  76. Yang L, Chen D, Duan R, Xia L, Wang J, Qurashi A, et al. Argonaute 1 regulates the fate of germline stem cells in Drosophila. Development. 2007;134:4265-72 pubmed
    ..Given that AGO1 serves as a key component of the miRNA pathway, we propose that an AGO1-dependent miRNA pathway probably plays an instructive role in repressing GSC/cystoblast differentiation. ..
  77. Terenin I, Dmitriev S, Andreev D, Shatsky I. Eukaryotic translation initiation machinery can operate in a bacterial-like mode without eIF2. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:836-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The switch from the conventional eukaryotic mode of translation initiation to the eIF2-independent mechanism occurs when eIF2 is inactivated by phosphorylation under stress conditions. ..
  78. Nielsen K, Behrens M, He Y, Oliveira C, Jensen L, Hoffmann S, et al. Synergistic activation of eIF4A by eIF4B and eIF4G. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:2678-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrate that eIF4B and eIF4G-MC act synergistically in stimulating the ATPase activity of eIF4A. ..
  79. Standart N, Jackson R. MicroRNAs repress translation of m7Gppp-capped target mRNAs in vitro by inhibiting initiation and promoting deadenylation. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1975-82 pubmed
  80. Deng Y, Singer R, Gu W. Translation of ASH1 mRNA is repressed by Puf6p-Fun12p/eIF5B interaction and released by CK2 phosphorylation. Genes Dev. 2008;22:1037-50 pubmed publisher