reptilian proteins


Summary: Proteins obtained from species of REPTILES.

Top Publications

  1. dos Santos J, Soares A, Fontes M. Comparative structural studies on Lys49-phospholipases A(2) from Bothrops genus reveal their myotoxic site. J Struct Biol. 2009;167:106-16 pubmed publisher
  2. Landucci E, Castro R, Pereira M, Cintra A, Giglio J, Marangoni S, et al. Mast cell degranulation induced by two phospholipase A2 homologues: dissociation between enzymatic and biological activities. Eur J Pharmacol. 1998;343:257-63 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that p-bromophenacyl bromide may not be a suitable pharmacological tool to investigate the correlation between enzymatic activity and the inflammatory effects of phospholipases A2. ..
  3. Gallacci M, Cavalcante W. Understanding the in vitro neuromuscular activity of snake venom Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues. Toxicon. 2010;55:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that the neuromuscular blockade induced by Lys49 PLA(2) homologues in isolated preparations is mainly a consequence of the general membrane-destabilizing effect of these toxins. ..
  4. Mori N, Tu A. Amino-acid sequence of the minor neurotoxin from Acalyptophis peronii venom. Biol Chem Hoppe Seyler. 1988;369:521-6 pubmed
    ..The LD50 of the minor toxin is 0.170 microgram/g in mice when injected intravenously. The toxicity is slightly lower than that of the major toxins, which has an LD50 of 0.125 microgram/g. ..
  5. Cavalcante W, Campos T, Dal Pai Silva M, Pereira P, Oliveira C, Soares A, et al. Neutralization of snake venom phospholipase A2 toxins by aqueous extract of Casearia sylvestris (Flacourtiaceae) in mouse neuromuscular preparation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007;112:490-7 pubmed
    ..These findings expanded the spectrum of C. sylvestris antivenom activities, evidencing that it may be a good source of potentially useful PLA(2) inhibitors...
  6. Murakami M, Arruda E, Melo P, Martinez A, Calil Elias S, Tomaz M, et al. Inhibition of myotoxic activity of Bothrops asper myotoxin II by the anti-trypanosomal drug suramin. J Mol Biol. 2005;350:416-26 pubmed
  7. Brown R, Siler C, Das I, Min Y. Testing the phylogenetic affinities of Southeast Asia's rarest geckos: Flap-legged geckos (Luperosaurus), Flying geckos (Ptychozoon) and their relationship to the pan-Asian genus Gekko. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;63:915-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The Flying Gecko genus Ptychozoon is also nested within Gekko, suggesting that higher-level taxonomic revision of the generic boundaries within Southeast Asian gekkonines will be a priority for the immediate future...
  8. Wei J, Wei X, Chen Q, He S. Induction of inflammatory cell accumulation by TM-N49 and promutoxin, two novel phospholipase A(2). Toxicon. 2010;56:580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, induction of inflammatory cell accumulation by TM-N49 and promutoxin confirms that group II PLA(2)s is pivotal stimulus for cell infiltration, through which they participate in the formation of snakebite inflammation. ..
  9. Wei J, Mo Y, Qiao L, Wei X, Chen H, Xie H, et al. Potent histamine-releasing activity of atrahagin, a novel snake venom metalloproteinase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38:510-20 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, activation of human mast cells by atrahagin indicated that the enzyme might contribute to the pathogenesis of snakebite wound. ..

More Information


  1. Zuliani J, Gutierrez J, Casais e Silva L, Coccuzzo Sampaio S, Lomonte B, Pereira Teixeira C. Activation of cellular functions in macrophages by venom secretory Asp-49 and Lys-49 phospholipases A(2). Toxicon. 2005;46:523-32 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that, at non-cytotoxic concentrations, MT-II and MT-III activate defense mechanisms in macrophages up regulating phagocytosis, mainly via mannose and beta-glucan receptors, and the respiratory burst...
  2. Ji W, Zhang X, Hu H, Chen J, Gao Y, Liang S, et al. Expression and purification of Huwentoxin-I in baculovirus system. Protein Expr Purif. 2005;41:454-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the baculovirus expression system and native purification strategy are viable ways to produce active HWTX-I. ..
  3. Mori N, Tu A. Isolation and primary structure of the major toxin from sea snake, Acalyptophis peronii, venom. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1988;260:10-7 pubmed
    ..The toxin replaces alpha-bungarotoxin in binding with the acetylcholine receptor, indicating that the A. peronii major neurotoxin competes with alpha-bungarotoxin for the same binding site of the acetylcholine receptor. ..
  4. Wei J, Wei X, Chen Q, Huang T, Qiao L, Wang W, et al. N49 phospholipase A2, a unique subgroup of snake venom group II phospholipase A2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1760:462-71 pubmed
    ..Structural and functional analysis indicated that these phospholipase A2s are distinct from the other subgroups (D49 PLA2, S49 PLA2 and K49 PLA2) and represent a unique subgroup of snake venom group II PLA2, named N49 PLA2 subgroup. ..
  5. Murakami M, Viçoti M, Abrego J, Lourenzoni M, Cintra A, Arruda E, et al. Interfacial surface charge and free accessibility to the PLA2-active site-like region are essential requirements for the activity of Lys49 PLA2 homologues. Toxicon. 2007;49:378-87 pubmed
    ..These results provide the framework for the potential application of both clinically approved drugs for the treatment of Viperidae snakebites. ..
  6. Araya C, Lomonte B. Antitumor effects of cationic synthetic peptides derived from Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues of snake venoms. Cell Biol Int. 2007;31:263-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the C-terminal peptides of Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologues present antitumor effects that might be of interest in developing therapeutic strategies against cancer. ..
  7. Rangel J, Quesada O, Gutierrez J, Angulo Y, Lomonte B. Membrane cholesterol modulates the cytolytic mechanism of myotoxin II, a Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologue from the venom of Bothrops asper. Cell Biochem Funct. 2011;29:365-70 pubmed publisher
  8. Diaz C, Leon G, Rucavado A, Rojas N, Schroit A, Gutierrez J. Modulation of the susceptibility of human erythrocytes to snake venom myotoxic phospholipases A(2): role of negatively charged phospholipids as potential membrane binding sites. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;391:56-64 pubmed
    ..The scarcity of anionic phospholipids in the outer leaflet of RBC could explain their resistance to the action of these PLA2s. ..
  9. Guo P, Liu Q, Xu Y, Jiang K, Hou M, Ding L, et al. Out of Asia: natricine snakes support the Cenozoic Beringian Dispersal Hypothesis. Mol Phylogenet Evol. 2012;63:825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This date is consistent with the dispersal of numerous other OW groups into the NW. ..
  10. Asara J, Schweitzer M, Freimark L, Phillips M, Cantley L. Protein sequences from mastodon and Tyrannosaurus rex revealed by mass spectrometry. Science. 2007;316:280-5 pubmed
  11. Magro A, Soares A, Giglio J, Fontes M. Crystal structures of BnSP-7 and BnSP-6, two Lys49-phospholipases A(2): quaternary structure and inhibition mechanism insights. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;311:713-20 pubmed
    ..These structures may be in an "active" state when nothing is bound to them and the Lys122/Cys29 interactions are weak or absent. ..
  12. Garcia Denegri M, Acosta O, Huancahuire Vega S, Martins de Souza D, Marangoni S, Maruñak S, et al. Isolation and functional characterization of a new acidic PLA(2) Ba SpII RP4 of the Bothrops alternatus snake venom from Argentina. Toxicon. 2010;56:64-74 pubmed publisher
  13. Soares A, Sestito W, Marcussi S, Stabeli R, Andrião Escarso S, Cunha O, et al. Alkylation of myotoxic phospholipases A2 in Bothrops moojeni venom: a promising approach to an enhanced antivenom production. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2004;36:258-70 pubmed
    ..moojeni venom or isolated myotoxins while retaining antigenicity, which suggests a promising procedure for an enhanced antiophidian serum production for practical purposes. ..
  14. Wang M, Guan X, Liang S. The cross channel activities of spider neurotoxin huwentoxin-I on rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;357:579-83 pubmed
    ..HWTX-I is the first discovered toxin with the cross channel activities from the spider O. huwena venom similar to micro O-conotoxins MrVIA and MrVIB. ..
  15. Lomonte B, Angulo Y, Santamaria C. Comparative study of synthetic peptides corresponding to region 115-129 in Lys49 myotoxic phospholipases A2 from snake venoms. Toxicon. 2003;42:307-12 pubmed
  16. Chen J, Zhang Y, Dai J, Luo Z, Liang S. Antinociceptive effects of intrathecally administered huwentoxin-I, a selective N-type calcium channel blocker, in the formalin test in conscious rats. Toxicon. 2005;45:15-20 pubmed
    ..0 microg/kg). Therefore, the present results show that, like omega-CTX-MVIIA, the intrathecal administration of HWTX-I is effective in antinociception in the rat model of the formalin test. ..
  17. Landucci E, de Castro R, Toyama M, Giglio J, Marangoni S, de Nucci G, et al. Inflammatory oedema induced by the lys-49 phospholipase A(2) homologue piratoxin-i in the rat and rabbit. Effect of polyanions and p-bromophenacyl bromide. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000;59:1289-94 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the suggestion that the cationic charge of PrTX-I plays a major role in the inflammatory responses induced by this PLA(2) homologue. ..
  18. Arni R, Fontes M, Barberato C, Gutierrez J, Diaz C, Ward R. Crystal structure of myotoxin II, a monomeric Lys49-phospholipase A2 homologue isolated from the venom of Cerrophidion (Bothrops) godmani. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999;366:177-82 pubmed
    ..godMT-II is also monomeric in the crystalline state, and small-angle X-ray scattering results demonstrate that the protein is monomeric in solution under fisicochemical conditions similar to those used in the crystallographic studies. ..
  19. Gutierrez J, Ponce Soto L, Marangoni S, Lomonte B. Systemic and local myotoxicity induced by snake venom group II phospholipases A2: comparison between crotoxin, crotoxin B and a Lys49 PLA2 homologue. Toxicon. 2008;51:80-92 pubmed
    ..In contrast, crotoxin B has a more selective interaction with targets in the muscle cell membrane. This selectivity might be the basis for the ability of crotoxin and crotoxin B to induce systemic myotoxicity. ..
  20. Zhou X, Tan T, Valiyaveettil S, Go M, Kini R, Velazquez Campoy A, et al. Structural characterization of myotoxic ecarpholin S from Echis carinatus venom. Biophys J. 2008;95:3366-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides significant structural and functional insights into the myotoxic activity of ecarpholin S and, in general, of non-Asp(49)-PLA(2) enzymes. ..
  21. Soares A, Andrião Escarso S, Bortoleto R, Rodrigues Simioni L, Arni R, Ward R, et al. Dissociation of enzymatic and pharmacological properties of piratoxins-I and -III, two myotoxic phospholipases A2 from Bothrops pirajai snake venom. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;387:188-96 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that PrTX-I and PrTX-III possess regions other than the catalytic site, which determine their toxic and pharmacological activities. ..
  22. Liu W, Ma J, Li W, Zhang J, Wang J, Nie Q, et al. The Long Intron 1 of Growth Hormone Gene from Reeves' Turtle (Chinemys reevesii) Correlates with Negatively Regulated GH Expression in Four Cell Lines. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:543 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the long intron 1 of GH gene in Reeves' turtle might correlate with downregulated gene expression. ..
  23. Hao J, Li Y, Xie M, Li A. Molecular cloning, recombinant expression and antibacterial activity analysis of hepcidin from Simensis crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2012;163:309-15 pubmed publisher
  24. Belekhova M, Chudinova T, Repérant J, Ward R, Jay B, Vesselkin N, et al. Core-and-belt organisation of the mesencephalic and forebrain auditory centres in turtles: expression of calcium-binding proteins and metabolic activity. Brain Res. 2010;1345:84-102 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are discussed in terms of the evolution of the auditory system in amniotes. ..
  25. Näreoja K, Nasman J. Selective targeting of G-protein-coupled receptor subtypes with venom peptides. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2012;204:186-201 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we will discuss the GPCR-directed peptide toxins found from different venoms and how some of these can be useful in exploring specific roles of receptor subtypes. ..
  26. Sumida K, Ooe N, Saito K, Kaneko H. Molecular cloning and characterization of reptilian estrogen receptor cDNAs. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2001;183:33-9 pubmed
  27. Gu H, Hu J, Ding Z, Fan Y, Ding X. [Extraction, purification and identification of type II collagen from Agkistrodon acutus]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2013;38:3672-5 pubmed
    ..The C II of A. acutus was obtained by extraction and purification. Appraisal analysis by SDS-PAGE, UV, IR and MS, C II of A. acutus was consistent with the standard C II of cow. It was proved that the extracted protein was C II. ..
  28. Nagy Z, Sonet G, Glaw F, Vences M. First large-scale DNA barcoding assessment of reptiles in the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar, based on newly designed COI primers. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34506 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a newly developed set of reptile-specific primers for COI we present the first comprehensive study targeting the entire reptile fauna of the fourth-largest island in the world, the biodiversity hotspot of Madagascar...
  29. McCue M. Western diamondback rattlesnakes demonstrate physiological and biochemical strategies for tolerating prolonged starvation. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2007;80:25-34 pubmed
  30. Tsai I, Chen Y, Wang Y, Liau M, Lu P. Differential expression and geographic variation of the venom phospholipases A2 of Calloselasma rhodostoma and Trimeresurus mucrosquamatus. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2001;387:257-64 pubmed
    ..This enzyme is structurally almost identical to the low- or nonexpressed Arg6-PLA2 from C. rhodostoma venom gland, and thus appears to be a regressing venom component in both of the Asian pitvipers. ..
  31. Sivaramakrishna Y, Amancha P, Siva Kumar N. Reptilian MPR 300 is also the IGF-IIR: cloning, sequencing and functional characterization of the IGF-II binding domain. Int J Biol Macromol. 2009;44:435-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We present here the first report on the calotes MPR 300/IGF-IIR binds IGF-II with K(d) of 12.02 nM; these findings provide new and strong evidence that MPR 300/IGF-IIR in Calotes versicolor binds IGFII with high affinity. ..
  32. Nie D, Li M, Xu H, He N, Liang S. [Expression and purification of recombinant huwentoxin-I in Pichia pastoris]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2002;18:172-7 pubmed
    ..The final yield of the purified HWTX-I was about 80 mg/L accounting for 23.6% of its total secretory proteins. ..
  33. Little M, Wilson H, Zappia C, Cestele S, Tyler M, Martin Eauclaire M, et al. Delta-atracotoxins from Australian funnel-web spiders compete with scorpion alpha-toxin binding on both rat brain and insect sodium channels. FEBS Lett. 1998;439:246-52 pubmed
    ..Thus the delta-atracotoxins represent a new class of toxins which bind to both mammalian and insect sodium channels at sites similar to, or partially overlapping with, the receptor binding sites of scorpion alpha-toxins. ..
  34. Roberto P, Kashima S, Marcussi S, Pereira J, Astolfi Filho S, Nomizo A, et al. Cloning and identification of a complete cDNA coding for a bactericidal and antitumoral acidic phospholipase A2 from Bothrops jararacussu venom. Protein J. 2004;23:273-85 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on the isolation and identification of a cDNA encoding a complete acidic PLA2 from Bothrops venom, exhibiting bactericidal and antitumoral effects. ..
  35. Yang Z, Yang Y, Chen Y, Cao J, Zhang C, Liu L, et al. Transcriptome and proteome of the highly neurotoxic venom of Gloydius intermedius. Toxicon. 2015;107:175-86 pubmed publisher
    ..intermedius and other hemorrhagic pitvipers. The bimorphism of hemorrhagic and neurotoxic venoms among Gloydius is confirmed; our results shed more lights on the co-evolution of both neurotoxicity and hypotension in some viperid venoms. ..
  36. Abiram A, Kolandaivel P. Effect of piratoxin II and acutohaemolysin phospholipase (PLA2) proteins on myristic fatty acid--an ONIOM and DFT study. J Mol Model. 2010;16:1853-65 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, this theoretical investigation shows that the loss of catalytic activity would take place only when fatty acid interacts at the center of phenyl ring. ..
  37. Zeng L, Sun Q, Jin Y, Zhang Y, Lee W, Zhang Y. Molecular cloning and characterization of a complement-depleting factor from king cobra, Ophiophagus hannah. Toxicon. 2012;60:290-301 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the importance of above mentioned specific characteristics might provide useful information on structure-function relationship between CVF and complement system. ..
  38. Wang Z, Pascual Anaya J, Zadissa A, Li W, Niimura Y, Huang Z, et al. The draft genomes of soft-shell turtle and green sea turtle yield insights into the development and evolution of the turtle-specific body plan. Nat Genet. 2013;45:701-706 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that turtle evolution was accompanied by an unexpectedly conservative vertebrate phylotypic period, followed by turtle-specific repatterning of development to yield the novel structure of the shell. ..
  39. Zhang C, Walker A, Zand R, Moscarello M, Yan J, Andrews P. Myelin basic protein undergoes a broader range of modifications in mammals than in lower vertebrates. J Proteome Res. 2012;11:4791-802 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined data from this study and information from previous studies extend the known MBP PTMs, and PTMs unique to higher vertebrates are proposed. ..
  40. Deane A, Chapman M, Horowitz M. The therapeutic potential of a venomous lizard: the use of glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues in the critically ill. Crit Care. 2010;14:1004 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, GLP-1 analogues are appealing therapies for hyperglycaemia in the critically ill patient and warrant further study. ..
  41. Arlinghaus F, Eble J. The collagen-binding integrin ?2?1 is a novel interaction partner of the Trimeresurus flavoviridis venom protein flavocetin-A. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:947-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our findings suggest that the separation of GPIb- and ?2?1 integrin-blocking members within the C-type lectin-related protein family is less strict than previously assumed...
  42. Casewell N, Huttley G, Wüster W. Dynamic evolution of venom proteins in squamate reptiles. Nat Commun. 2012;3:1066 pubmed publisher
    ..This requires a major reassessment of our previous understanding of how animal venoms evolve...
  43. Quinton L, Demeure K, Dobson R, Gilles N, Gabelica V, De Pauw E. New method for characterizing highly disulfide-bridged peptides in complex mixtures: application to toxin identification from crude venoms. J Proteome Res. 2007;6:3216-23 pubmed
    ..The use of 1,5-DAN for ISD top-down sequencing is also illustrated for higher molecular weight toxins such as snake cardiotoxins and neurotoxins (>6500 Da), where sequence coverage >70% is obtained from the c-ion series. ..
  44. Lizano S, Lambeau G, Lazdunski M. Cloning and cDNA sequence analysis of Lys(49) and Asp(49) basic phospholipase A(2) myotoxin isoforms from Bothrops asper. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2001;33:127-32 pubmed
    ..Sequence alignment studies indicated significant (>75% sequence identity) identities with other crotalid venom Lys(49) PLA(2)s, particularly bothropstoxin I/Ia isoforms of B. jararacussu and myotoxin II of B. asper. ..
  45. Unrine J, Jackson B, Hopkins W, Romanek C. Isolation and partial characterization of proteins involved in maternal transfer of selenium in the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006;25:1864-7 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest at least three pathways for maternal transfer of Se in vertebrates that may vary in importance depending on the species. ..
  46. Wang G, Ma B, Yang Y, Zhang H. Unexpected amino acid composition of modern Reptilia and its implications in molecular mechanisms of dinosaur extinction. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;333:1047-9 pubmed
  47. Leite R, Giuliani C, Lomonte B, Franco W, Selistre de Araujo H. Effect of a recombinant Lys49PLA2 myotoxin and Lys49PLA2-derived synthetic peptides from Agkistrodon species on membrane permeability to water. Toxicon. 2004;44:157-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the ACL myotoxin effect on water transport is not related to the cytotoxic C-terminal region...
  48. Bradley K, Rowan E, Harvey A. Effects of muscarinic toxins MT2 and MT7, from green mamba venom, on m1, m3 and m5 muscarinic receptors expressed in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells. Toxicon. 2003;41:207-15 pubmed
    ..However, MT2 is less selective for the m1 muscarinic receptor than previously described as it also exhibits agonist activity at the m3 and m5 muscarinic receptors, which was not detected in radioligand binding studies. ..
  49. Zhou X, Wang L, Feng H, Guo Q, Dai H. Acute phase response in Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Trionyx sinensis) with Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Dev Comp Immunol. 2011;35:441-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, the different expression patterns of five APP genes observed in present studies could provide clues for understanding the innate immune mechanisms in the APR of reptiles. ..
  50. Cocci P, Capriotti M, Mosconi G, Palermo F. Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on estrogen receptor alpha and heat shock protein 60 gene expression in primary cultures of loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) erythrocytes. Environ Res. 2017;158:616-624 pubmed publisher
    ..This work provides the first indication regarding the potential of primary erythrocytes as study models for evaluating the effects of EDCs on sea turtles. ..
  51. Wang Y, Liu R, Wang L, Mao H, Chen J. Effect of Huwentoxin-I on the Fas and TNF apoptosis pathway in the hippocampus of rat with global cerebral ischemia. Toxicon. 2007;50:1085-94 pubmed
    ..In summary, HWTX-I has an obvious neuroprotective effect, which may act through its inhibition on a certain apoptosis pathway. ..
  52. Villalobos J, Mora R, Lomonte B, Gutierrez J, Angulo Y. Cytotoxicity induced in myotubes by a Lys49 phospholipase A2 homologue from the venom of the snake Bothrops asper: evidence of rapid plasma membrane damage and a dual role for extracellular calcium. Toxicol In Vitro. 2007;21:1382-9 pubmed
  53. Ambigapathy G, Zheng Z, Li W, Keifer J. Identification of a functionally distinct truncated BDNF mRNA splice variant and protein in Trachemys scripta elegans. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e67141 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are required to determine the ubiquity of truncated BDNF alternative splice variants across species and the mechanisms of regulation and function of this newly recognized BDNF protein. ..
  54. Yamazaki Y, Matsunaga Y, Nakano Y, Morita T. Identification of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-binding protein in the venom of eastern cottonmouth. A new role of snake venom myotoxic Lys49-phospholipase A2. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:29989-92 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, KDR-bp would make a valuable tool for studying the structure and function of KDR, such as that expressed on skeletal muscle cells. ..
  55. Mahmoud I, Paulson J, Dudley M, Patzlaff J, Al Kindi A. Secretory proteins in the reproductive tract of the snapping turtle, Chelhydra serpentina. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2004;139:487-94 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the glandular secretory phase in the uterine tube is active and quite homogeneous in function regardless of location or phase of the reproductive cycle. ..
  56. Calvete J, Sanz L, Cid P, De La Torre P, Flores Díaz M, Dos Santos M, et al. Snake venomics of the Central American rattlesnake Crotalus simus and the South American Crotalus durissus complex points to neurotoxicity as an adaptive paedomorphic trend along Crotalus dispersal in South America. J Proteome Res. 2010;9:528-44 pubmed publisher
    ..simus envenomations. The identification of evolutionary trends among tropical Crotalus, as reported here, may have an impact in defining the mixture of venoms for immunization to produce an effective pan-American anti-Crotalus antivenom...
  57. Angulo Y, Olamendi Portugal T, Alape Girón A, Possani L, Lomonte B. Structural characterization and phylogenetic relationships of myotoxin II from Atropoides (Bothrops) nummifer snake venom, a Lys49 phospholipase A(2) homologue. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34:1268-78 pubmed
    ..Differences in several amino acid residues, either critical for toxicity, or influencing the conformation of free peptide 115-129 from A. nummifer myotoxin II, may account for its lack of direct membrane-damaging properties. ..
  58. Eguchi Y, Eguchi T. Amino acid sequence of the alpha- and beta-globin chains of the Hiroo sea snake (Laticauda laticaudata). J Protein Chem. 2002;21:215-21 pubmed
    ..The requirements for binding of ATP and of diphosphoglycerate as allosteric effectors at beta-globins seemed to be fullfilled. ..
  59. Gay C, Sanz L, Calvete J, Pla D. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina. Toxins (Basel). 2015;8: pubmed publisher
    ..diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. ..
  60. Lomonte B, Pizarro Cerda J, Angulo Y, Gorvel J, Moreno E. Tyr-->Trp-substituted peptide 115-129 of a Lys49 phospholipase A(2) expresses enhanced membrane-damaging activities and reproduces its in vivo myotoxic effect. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999;1461:19-26 pubmed
    ..This finding is in clear support of the proposed relevance of the C-terminal region 115-129 in all the membrane-damaging mechanisms exerted by myotoxin II, including the myotoxic mechanism. ..
  61. Murakami M, Lourenzoni M, Arruda E, Tomaz M, Viçoti M, Abrego J, et al. Biochemical and structural investigations of Bothropstoxin-II, a myotoxic Asp49 phospholipase A2 from Bothrops jararacussu venom. Protein Pept Lett. 2008;15:1002-8 pubmed
    ..In order to elucidate the structural determinants of its multiple pharmacological activities, we have studied the effects of suramin on Bothropstoxin-II and present details concerning the mode of binding. ..
  62. Meng E, Cai T, Li W, Zhang H, Liu Y, Peng K, et al. Functional expression of spider neurotoxic peptide huwentoxin-I in E. coli. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21608 pubmed publisher
    ..The heteroexpressed huwentoxin-I was able to block currents generated by human Na(v1.7) at an IC?? of 640 nmole/L, similar to that of the natural huwentoxin-I, which is 630 nmole/L. ..
  63. Morita T. Structures and functions of snake venom CLPs (C-type lectin-like proteins) with anticoagulant-, procoagulant-, and platelet-modulating activities. Toxicon. 2005;45:1099-114 pubmed
  64. Chen J, Chen W, Deng M, Li G, Kang Y, Ding Z, et al. [Analgesic effect of huwentoxin-I, a new N-type voltage-sensitive calcium channel blocker, on acute visceral pain in rats]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao. 2005;25:10-4 pubmed
  65. Yamazaki Y, Nakano Y, Imamura T, Morita T. Augmentation of vascular permeability of VEGF is enhanced by KDR-binding proteins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;355:693-9 pubmed
    ..Our findings implicate TIMP-3 as a critical player in the vascular leakage-enhancing effect of VEGF165 in vivo. ..
  66. Connolly P, Stern A, Turner C, Hoch J. Molecular dynamics of the long neurotoxin LSIII. Biochemistry. 2003;42:14443-51 pubmed
    ..Large excursions of the loop hinge angle may endow the protein with structural plasticity, allowing it to adapt to conformational changes induced in the receptor. ..
  67. Srihongthong S, Pakdeesuwan A, Daduang S, Araki T, Dhiravisit A, Thammasirirak S. Complete amino acid sequence of globin chains and biological activity of fragmented crocodile hemoglobin (Crocodylus siamensis). Protein J. 2012;31:466-76 pubmed publisher
    ..The novel amino acid substitutions of ?-chain and ?-chain are not associated with the heme binding site or the bicarbonate ion binding site, but could be important through their interactions with membranes of bacteria. ..
  68. Song J, Wang W, Carr C, Dai Z, Tang Y. Vestibular nuclei characterized by calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity and tract tracing in Gekko gecko. Hear Res. 2013;296:1-12 pubmed publisher
  69. Riggio M, Lee J, Scudiero R, Parisi E, Thiele D, Filosa S. High affinity copper transport protein in the lizard Podarcis sicula: molecular cloning, functional characterization and expression in somatic tissues, follicular oocytes and eggs. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1576:127-35 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that lizard Ctr1 protein may function in Cu acquisition in growing oocytes and eggs. ..
  70. Corasolla Carregari V, Stuani Floriano R, Rodrigues Simioni L, Winck F, Baldasso P, Ponce Soto L, et al. Biochemical, pharmacological, and structural characterization of new basic PLA2 Bbil-TX from Bothriopsis bilineata snake venom. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:612649 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in vascular permeability and in the levels of TNF-a, IL-6, and IL-1 was was induced. Since Bbil-TX exerts a stronger proinflammatory effect, the phospholipid hydrolysis may be relevant for these phenomena. ..
  71. Huang S, Li S, Bren N, Cheng K, Gomoto R, Chen L, et al. Complex between ?-bungarotoxin and an ?7 nicotinic receptor ligand-binding domain chimaera. Biochem J. 2013;454:303-310 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall findings highlight structural principles by which ?-neurotoxins interact with nicotinic receptors. ..
  72. Junqueira de Azevedo I, Farsky S, Oliveira M, Ho P. Molecular cloning and expression of a functional snake venom vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) from the Bothrops insularis pit viper. A new member of the VEGF family of proteins. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:39836-42 pubmed
    ..These results established that svVEGF is a novel and important active toxin during the early stages of bothropic snake bite envenoming and represents a new member of the VEGF family of proteins. ..
  73. Grummer J, Bryson R, Reeder T. Species delimitation using Bayes factors: simulations and application to the Sceloporus scalaris species group (Squamata: Phrynosomatidae). Syst Biol. 2014;63:119-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that species delimitation through the use of Bayes factors with marginal-likelihood estimates via PS or SS analyses provide a useful and complementary alternative to existing species delimitation methods. ..
  74. Brandley M, Wang Y, Guo X, de Oca A, Fería Ortíz M, Hikida T, et al. Accommodating heterogenous rates of evolution in molecular divergence dating methods: an example using intercontinental dispersal of Plestiodon (Eumeces) lizards. Syst Biol. 2011;60:3-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Analyses that best capture the rate of evolution in the combined data set infer that this exchange occurred via Beringia ?18.0-30 Ma. ..
  75. Aragão E, Chioato L, Ward R. Permeabilization of E. coli K12 inner and outer membranes by bothropstoxin-I, A LYS49 phospholipase A2 from Bothrops jararacussu. Toxicon. 2008;51:538-46 pubmed
  76. Vedovato N, Rispoli G. Modulation of the reaction cycle of the Na+:Ca2+, K+ exchanger. Eur Biophys J. 2007;36:787-93 pubmed
    ..3 and approximately 2.6, respectively, without modifying their voltage dependence. This indicates that Mg-ATP regulates the number of active exchanger sites and/or the exchanger turnover number, although via an unknown mechanism. ..
  77. Bhattacharya S, Das T, Biswas A, Gomes A, Gomes A, Dungdung S. A cytotoxic protein (BF-CT1) purified from Bungarus fasciatus venom acts through apoptosis, modulation of PI3K/AKT, MAPKinase pathway and cell cycle regulation. Toxicon. 2013;74:138-50 pubmed publisher
    ..BF-CT1 prevented angiogenesis in in vitro U937 cell line through decreased VEGF and TGF-?1 production. ..
  78. Plumel M, Wasselin T, Plot V, Strub J, Van Dorsselaer A, Carapito C, et al. Mass spectrometry-based sequencing and SRM-based quantitation of two novel vitellogenin isoforms in the leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea). J Proteome Res. 2013;12:4122-35 pubmed publisher
    ..The SRM assays developed here therefore provide an original and efficient approach for the reliable monitoring of reproduction cycles not only in D. coriacea, but potentially in other turtle species. ..
  79. Dhananjaya B, Gowda T, D Souza C. Evidence for existence of venom 5' nucleotidase in multiple forms through inhibition of concanavalin A. Cell Biochem Funct. 2010;28:620-2 pubmed publisher
    ..This study for the first time shows existence of 5' nucleotidase in multimeric forms. ..
  80. Wen Tao Z, Gu Yang T, Ying R, Mao Cai W, Lin L, Chi Miao L, et al. The antinociceptive efficacy of HWTX-I epidurally administered in rheumatoid arthritis rats. Int J Sports Med. 2011;32:869-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the present results show that the epidural administration of HWTX-I is effective in antinociception in the rat model of rheumatoid arthritis, which may act through its inhibition on certain inflammatory pathways. ..
  81. Ponce Soto L, Leiva L, Landucci E. Understanding the molecular mechanism and structure-function relationship of the toxicity of PLA2 and K49 homologs in snake venom. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:243047 pubmed publisher