pulmonary surfactant associated proteins


Summary: Proteins found in the LUNG that act as PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.

Top Publications

  1. Lin Z, Pearson C, Chinchilli V, Pietschmann S, Luo J, Pison U, et al. Polymorphisms of human SP-A, SP-B, and SP-D genes: association of SP-B Thr131Ile with ARDS. Clin Genet. 2000;58:181-91 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that SP-B or a linked gene contributes to susceptibility to ARDS. ..
  2. Haataja R, Ramet M, Marttila R, Hallman M. Surfactant proteins A and B as interactive genetic determinants of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2000;9:2751-60 pubmed
    ..001, OR = 0.2, CI 0.1-0.6). We propose that the SP-B Ile131Thr polymorphism is a determinant for certain SP-A alleles as factors causing genetic susceptibility to RDS (6A(2), 1A(0)) or protection against it (6A(3), 1A(2)). ..
  3. Ohnishi H, Yokoyama A, Kondo K, Hamada H, Abe M, Nishimura K, et al. Comparative study of KL-6, surfactant protein-A, surfactant protein-D, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 as serum markers for interstitial lung diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:378-81 pubmed
    ..The serum levels of SP-A and SP-D, but not of KL-6, were significantly higher in patients with bacterial pneumonia than in healthy volunteers. These results suggest that of the markers studied, KL-6 is the best serum marker for ILD. ..
  4. Khoor A, Gray M, Hull W, Whitsett J, Stahlman M. Developmental expression of SP-A and SP-A mRNA in the proximal and distal respiratory epithelium in the human fetus and newborn. J Histochem Cytochem. 1993;41:1311-9 pubmed
    ..The abundance of SP-A in tracheal and bronchial glands and epithelium of conducting airways supports the importance of non-surfactant-associated functions for SP-A and may be related to a role in host defense. ..
  5. Wang J, Shieh C, Yu C, Lei H. Allergen-induced bronchial inflammation is associated with decreased levels of surfactant proteins A and D in a murine model of asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2001;31:652-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicated the involvement of pulmonary surfactant proteins in the allergic bronchial inflammation of sensitized mice. ..
  6. Guo X, Lin H, Lin Z, Montano M, Sansores R, Wang G, et al. Surfactant protein gene A, B, and D marker alleles in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease of a Mexican population. Eur Respir J. 2001;18:482-90 pubmed
    ..These observations should now be confirmed in a larger study, designed according to strict epidemiological criteria. ..
  7. Griese M, Essl R, Schmidt R, Rietschel E, Ratjen F, Ballmann M, et al. Pulmonary surfactant, lung function, and endobronchial inflammation in cystic fibrosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:1000-5 pubmed
  8. Bernhard W, Gebert A, Vieten G, Rau G, Hohlfeld J, Postle A, et al. Pulmonary surfactant in birds: coping with surface tension in a tubular lung. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001;281:R327-37 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a surfactant composed primarily of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and SP-B is adequate to maintain patency of the air capillaries of the bird lung...
  9. Levine A, Whitsett J. Pulmonary collectins and innate host defense of the lung. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:161-6 pubmed
    ..SP-A and SP-D play critical and distinct roles in the regulation of alveolar macrophage function and inflammation, contributing to innate defense of the lung. ..

More Information


  1. Crouch E, Wright J. Surfactant proteins a and d and pulmonary host defense. Annu Rev Physiol. 2001;63:521-54 pubmed
  2. Schmidt R, Steinhilber W, Ruppert C, Daum C, Grimminger F, Seeger W, et al. An ELISA technique for quantification of surfactant apoprotein (SP)-C in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:470-4 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SP-C may be quantified with high specificity, reproducibility, and sensitivity in bronchoalveolar lavage samples by the presently described ELISA technique and that SP-C levels are significantly decreased in ARDS. ..
  3. Cogo P, Zimmermann L, Rosso F, Tormena F, Gamba P, Verlato G, et al. Surfactant synthesis and kinetics in infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;166:154-8 pubmed
    ..Other factors, such as lower surface area or increased DSPC catabolism, may contribute to surfactant pool alteration in CDH. ..
  4. Beresford M, Shaw N. Bronchoalveolar lavage surfactant protein a, B, and d concentrations in preterm infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome receiving natural and synthetic surfactants. Pediatr Res. 2003;53:663-70 pubmed
    ..BAL SP-A and SP-D concentrations did not differ significantly between infants randomized to receive a natural or synthetic surfactant. Lower BAL SP-B and SP-D but not SP-A concentrations were associated with worse clinical prognosis. ..
  5. Doyle I, Hermans C, Bernard A, Nicholas T, Bersten A. Clearance of Clara cell secretory protein 16 (CC16) and surfactant proteins A and B from blood in acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998;158:1528-35 pubmed
  6. Korfhagen T, Levine A, Whitsett J. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene targeted mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1408:296-302 pubmed
    ..These studies of SP-A (-/-) mice demonstrate that SP-A has an important role in the innate immune system of the lung in vivo. ..
  7. Clark H, Clark L. The genetics of neonatal respiratory disease. Semin Fetal Neonatal Med. 2005;10:271-82 pubmed
    ..The evidence that known variability in the expression of surfactant protein genes may contribute to the risk of development of neonatal chronic lung disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia is examined...
  8. Glasser S, Korfhagen T, Weaver T, Pilot Matias T, Fox J, Whitsett J. cDNA and deduced amino acid sequence of human pulmonary surfactant-associated proteolipid SPL(Phe). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:4007-11 pubmed
    ..These proteins, and specifically SPL(Phe), may therefore be useful for synthesis of replacement surfactants for treatment of hyaline membrane disease in newborn infants or of other surfactant-deficient states. ..
  9. Kuroki Y, Takahashi H, Chiba H, Akino T. Surfactant proteins A and D: disease markers. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1408:334-45 pubmed
    ..SP-A is also a marker for lung adenocarcinomas and can be used to differentiate lung adenocarcinomas from other types and metastatic cancers from other origins, and to detect metastasis of lung adenocarcinomas. ..
  10. Beck D, Ikegami M, Na C, Zaltash S, Johansson J, Whitsett J, et al. The role of homodimers in surfactant protein B function in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:3365-70 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate a role for SP-B dimer in surface tension reduction in the alveolus. ..
  11. Floros J, Fan R, Matthews A, Diangelo S, Luo J, Nielsen H, et al. Family-based transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) and case-control association studies reveal surfactant protein A (SP-A) susceptibility alleles for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and possible race differences. Clin Genet. 2001;60:178-87 pubmed
    ..Some differences between blacks and whites with regard to SP-A alleles may exist. ..
  12. Lacaze Masmonteil T, Fraslon C, Bourbon J, Raymondjean M, Kahn A. Characterization of the rat pulmonary surfactant protein A promoter. Eur J Biochem. 1992;206:613-23 pubmed
    ..Some of these motifs, specifically protected in DNase 1 footprinting studies, could therefore be involved in the regulation of SP-A gene expression. ..
  13. Takahashi H, Fujishima T, Koba H, Murakami S, Kurokawa K, Shibuya Y, et al. Serum surfactant proteins A and D as prognostic factors in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and their relationship to disease extent. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000;162:1109-14 pubmed
  14. von Bredow C, Birrer P, Griese M. Surfactant protein A and other bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins are altered in cystic fibrosis. Eur Respir J. 2001;17:716-22 pubmed
    ..Identification of altered bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteins may give new insights into pathogenic mechanisms and provide new targets for therapy. ..
  15. Weber B, Borkhardt A, Stoll Becker S, Reiss I, Gortner L. Polymorphisms of surfactant protein A genes and the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. Turk J Pediatr. 2000;42:181-5 pubmed
    ..In addition to previously established risk factors for BPD, 6A6 polymorphism for SP-A1 gene is an independent co-factor. We believe treatment of neonatal RDS should also include stratification according to genetic risk factors. ..
  16. Schleh C, Hohlfeld J. Interaction of nanoparticles with the pulmonary surfactant system. Inhal Toxicol. 2009;21 Suppl 1:97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential interactions of nano-sized particles with the pulmonary surfactant system and the effects on biophysical surfactant function, surfactant metabolism, particle clearance, and on particle-induced toxicity are reviewed. ..
  17. Floros J, Fan R, Diangelo S, Guo X, Wert J, Luo J. Surfactant protein (SP) B associations and interactions with SP-A in white and black subjects with respiratory distress syndrome. Pediatr Int. 2001;43:567-76 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, SP-A susceptibility or protective alleles, in specific SP-B background, are associated, based on OR, with an increased or reduced risk for RDS. ..
  18. Glasser S, Burhans M, Korfhagen T, Na C, Sly P, Ross G, et al. Altered stability of pulmonary surfactant in SP-C-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:6366-71 pubmed
  19. Takahashi H, Imai Y, Fujishima T, Shiratori M, Murakami S, Chiba H, et al. Diagnostic significance of surfactant proteins A and D in sera from patients with radiation pneumonitis. Eur Respir J. 2001;17:481-7 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, serum assays of surfactant proteins A and D may be of diagnostic value for detection of radiation pneumonitis, even when the radiographic change is faint. ..
  20. Griese M, Maderlechner N, Ahrens P, Kitz R. Surfactant proteins A and D in children with pulmonary disease due to gastroesophageal reflux. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002;165:1546-50 pubmed
    ..Such impairments of central components of the innate host defense system may contribute to the pathogenesis of the chronic lung disease commonly observed in these children. ..
  21. Dietl P, Haller T. Exocytosis of lung surfactant: from the secretory vesicle to the air-liquid interface. Annu Rev Physiol. 2005;67:595-621 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the fate of secreted material until it is rearranged into units that finally function to reduce the surface tension in the lung. ..
  22. Bates S, Gonzales L, Tao J, Rueckert P, Ballard P, Fisher A. Recovery of rat type II cell surfactant components during primary cell culture. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;282:L267-76 pubmed
    ..Surfactant mRNA and protein did not recover in cells cultured without hormones. This cell culture system restored surfactant components in rat type II cells. ..
  23. Griese M, von Bredow C, Birrer P. Reduced proteolysis of surfactant protein A and changes of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid proteome by inhaled alpha 1-protease inhibitor in cystic fibrosis. Electrophoresis. 2001;22:165-71 pubmed
  24. Ramirez M, Chung U, Williams M. Aquaporin-5 expression, but not other peripheral lung marker genes, is reduced in PTH/PTHrP receptor null mutant fetal mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2000;22:367-72 pubmed
    ..We conclude therefore that, although signaling through this receptor may influence expression of specific lung genes, it does not play a major role in the general regulation of lung development and growth. ..
  25. Malhotra R, Thiel S, Reid K, Sim R. Human leukocyte C1q receptor binds other soluble proteins with collagen domains. J Exp Med. 1990;172:955-9 pubmed
    ..One of the possible roles for ligand-receptor binding may be initiation of phagocytosis. ..
  26. Ertsey R, Chapin C, Kitterman J, Scavo L. Ontogeny of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in lung and developmental implications. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:853-61 pubmed
  27. Ikegami M, Le Cras T, Hardie W, Stahlman M, Whitsett J, Korfhagen T. TGF-alpha perturbs surfactant homeostasis in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2005;289:L34-43 pubmed
    ..Abnormalities in surfactant function and decreased surfactant level in the airways may contribute to the pathophysiology induced by TGF-alpha in both the developing and adult lung. ..
  28. Jobe A, Moss T, Nitsos I, Ikegami M, Kallapur S, Newnham J. Betamethasone for lung maturation: testing dose and formulation in fetal sheep. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007;197:523.e1-6 pubmed
    ..There were no consistent responses to either dose of Beta-PO4. Beta-PO4 alone is ineffective with the dosing schedule used; Beta-Ac can induce lung maturation. However, the best responses result from the mixture of Beta-PO4 + Beta-Ac. ..
  29. Kunitake R, Kuwano K, Yoshida K, Maeyama T, Kawasaki M, Hagimoto N, et al. KL-6, surfactant protein A and D in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis. Respiration. 2001;68:488-95 pubmed
    ..Since these markers are specifically derived from epithelial cells, it is considered that KL-6 and SP-D levels are reflecting damage or release of these markers from epithelial cells due to the inflammatory response. ..
  30. Floros J. Human surfactant protein A (SP-A) variants: why so many, why such a complexity?. Swiss Med Wkly. 2001;131:87-90 pubmed
    ..Moreover, understanding of such a complexity may be useful in the study of disease pathogenesis and the development of disease diagnostics and/or therapeutics. ..
  31. Gonzales L, Angampalli S, Guttentag S, Beers M, Feinstein S, Matlapudi A, et al. Maintenance of differentiated function of the surfactant system in human fetal lung type II epithelial cells cultured on plastic. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 2001;20:387-412 pubmed
  32. McCormack F, Festa A, Andrews R, Linke M, Walzer P. The carbohydrate recognition domain of surfactant protein A mediates binding to the major surface glycoprotein of Pneumocystis carinii. Biochemistry. 1997;36:8092-9 pubmed
    ..Deletion of the N-linked oligosaccharides from SP-A by mutagenesis of the consensus sequences for glycosylation had no effect on binding. We conclude that the CRD mediates the binding of SP-A to oligosaccharides attached to MSG. ..
  33. Wang G, Umstead T, Phelps D, Al Mondhiry H, Floros J. The effect of ozone exposure on the ability of human surfactant protein a variants to stimulate cytokine production. Environ Health Perspect. 2002;110:79-84 pubmed
  34. Casals C. Role of surfactant protein A (SP-A)/lipid interactions for SP-A functions in the lung. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 2001;20:249-68 pubmed
    ..In addition, the interaction of SP-A with membranes might enhance the affinity of SP-A for terminal carbohydrates of glycolipids or glycoproteins on the surface of invading microorganisms. ..
  35. Erpenbeck V, Krug N, Hohlfeld J. Therapeutic use of surfactant components in allergic asthma. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009;379:217-24 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes the current knowledge on the possibilities to treat allergic asthma with surfactant components. ..
  36. TenHave Opbroek A, Shi X, Gumerlock P. 3-Methylcholanthrene triggers the differentiation of alveolar tumor cells from canine bronchial basal cells and an altered p53 gene promotes their clonal expansion. Carcinogenesis. 2000;21:1477-84 pubmed
    ..This in vivo study is the first to show that p53 is involved in a specific pathway leading to bronchogenic carcinoma. ..
  37. Zhu S, Ware L, Geiser T, Matthay M, Matalon S. Increased levels of nitrate and surfactant protein a nitration in the pulmonary edema fluid of patients with acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;163:166-72 pubmed
    ..Previously, we have shown that nitration of SP-A impairs its host- defense properties. In aggregate, the results of this study indicate that reactive oxygen-nitrogen species may play a role in the pathogenesis of human ALI. ..
  38. Janssen D, Zimmermann L, Cogo P, Hamvas A, Bohlin K, Luijendijk I, et al. Decreased surfactant phosphatidylcholine synthesis in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Intensive Care Med. 2009;35:1754-60 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that CDH patients who require ECMO have a decreased surfactant PC synthesis, which may be part of the pathogenesis of severe pulmonary insufficiency and has a negative impact on weaning from ECMO. ..
  39. Danzer E, Robinson L, Davey M, Schwarz U, Volpe M, Adzick N, et al. Tracheal occlusion in fetal rats alters expression of mesenchymal nuclear transcription factors without affecting surfactant protein expression. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:774-80 pubmed
    ..Thyroid transcription factor 1 and Hoxb5 are down-regulated by TO, suggesting that duration and timing of occlusion are important in balancing the effects of TO on lung growth vs lung maturation. ..
  40. McCormack F. Structure, processing and properties of surfactant protein A. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1408:109-31 pubmed
    ..Recently developed genetically manipulated animal models are beginning to clarify the critical physiological roles for SP-A in the normal lung, and in the pathophysiology of pulmonary disease. ..
  41. Orgeig S, Hiemstra P, Veldhuizen E, Casals C, Clark H, Haczku A, et al. Recent advances in alveolar biology: evolution and function of alveolar proteins. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2010;173 Suppl:S43-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally we discuss the use of animal models of lung disease including knockouts to develop an understanding of the role of these proteins in initiating and/or perpetuating disease with the aim of developing new therapeutic strategies. ..
  42. Postle A, Gonzales L, Bernhard W, Clark G, Godinez M, Godinez R, et al. Lipidomics of cellular and secreted phospholipids from differentiated human fetal type II alveolar epithelial cells. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:1322-31 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hormonally differentiated human fetal type II cells do not select the molecular composition of surfactant phospholipid on the basis of saturation but, more likely, on the basis of acyl chain length. ..
  43. Sohma H, Matsushima N, Watanabe T, Hattori A, Kuroki Y, Akino T. Ca(2+)-dependent binding of annexin IV to surfactant protein A and lamellar bodies in alveolar type II cells. Biochem J. 1995;312 ( Pt 1):175-81 pubmed
    ..All these findings suggest that the interaction between SP-A and annexin IV may have some role in alveolar type II cells. ..
  44. Harada T, Koyama I, Shimoi A, Alpers D, Komoda T. Identification of pulmonary surfactant that bears intestinal-type and tissue-nonspecific-type alkaline phosphatase in endotoxin-induced rat bronchoalveolar fluid. Cell Tissue Res. 2002;307:69-77 pubmed
    ..The present study thus demonstrated that, in rats, type II cells produce both IAP and TNAP and that these surfactants bearing AP isozymes are secreted into the alveolar space following induction by intratracheal instillation of LPS. ..
  45. Marzan Y, Mora R, Butler A, Butler M, Ingenito E. Effects of simultaneous exposure of surfactant to serum proteins and free radicals. Exp Lung Res. 2002;28:99-121 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that addition of serum proteins to surfactant at 2 mg/mL protects against, rather than promotes, FR-mediated chemical changes in surfactant lipid and protein constituents. ..
  46. Yang Z. [Advancement in study of inhalation injury]. Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi. 2008;24:372-4 pubmed
    ..These basic science investigations had led to the advances in protective strategies for the complications of inhalation injury. Now the morbidity and mortality of inhalation injury have decreased markedly in China. ..
  47. Perez Gil J. Structure of pulmonary surfactant membranes and films: the role of proteins and lipid-protein interactions. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:1676-95 pubmed publisher
  48. Baritussio A, Marzini S, Agostini M, Alberti A, Cimenti C, Bruttomesso D, et al. Amiodarone inhibits lung degradation of SP-A and perturbs the distribution of lysosomal enzymes. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;281:L1189-99 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the acute exposure to amiodarone perturbs the endocytic pathway acting after the early endosomes, alters the traffic of lysosomal enzymes, and interferes with the turnover of SP-A...
  49. Hinata N, Takemura T, Ikushima S, Yanagawa T, Ando T, Okada J, et al. Phenotype of regenerative epithelium in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. J Med Dent Sci. 2003;50:213-24 pubmed
    ..The different origin of regenerative epithelium may reflect the severity and extent of the injury and the degree of consequent fibrosis in UIP and NSIP. ..
  50. Wang G, Phelps D, Umstead T, Floros J. Human SP-A protein variants derived from one or both genes stimulate TNF-alpha production in the THP-1 cell line. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L946-54 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the SP-A-induced increases in TNF-alpha levels differ among SP-A variants and appear to be affected by SP-A genotype and whether SP-A is derived from one or both genes...
  51. Quintero O, Korfhagen T, Wright J. Surfactant protein A regulates surfactant phospholipid clearance after LPS-induced injury in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2002;283:L76-85 pubmed
  52. Braidotti P, Cigala C, Graziani D, Del Curto B, Dessy E, Coggi G, et al. Surfactant protein A expression in human normal and neoplastic breast epithelium. Am J Clin Pathol. 2001;116:721-8 pubmed
    ..The significance of Sp-A expression in breast epithelium requires further study; possibly it has a role in native host defense or epithelial differentiation. ..
  53. Floros J, Steinbrink R, Jacobs K, Phelps D, Kriz R, Recny M, et al. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones for the 35-kDa pulmonary surfactant-associated protein. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:9029-33 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that co-translational modifications of two primary translation products account for many of the isoforms observed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis in the precursors of 35,000-dalton sialoglycoproteins. ..
  54. Curley A, Halliday H. The present status of exogenous surfactant for the newborn. Early Hum Dev. 2001;61:67-83 pubmed
  55. Tenner A, Robinson S, Borchelt J, Wright J. Human pulmonary surfactant protein (SP-A), a protein structurally homologous to C1q, can enhance FcR- and CR1-mediated phagocytosis. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:13923-8 pubmed
    ..However, SP-A could substitute for C1q in stimulating a function previously shown to be mediated by the collagen-like domains of the C1q molecule. ..
  56. Liu W, Volpe M, Zscheppang K, Nielsen H, Dammann C. ErbB4 regulates surfactant synthesis and proliferation in adult rat pulmonary epithelial cells. Exp Lung Res. 2009;35:29-47 pubmed publisher
    ..NRG1beta- and FCM-induced cell proliferation was not affected. The authors conclude that ErbB4 participates in maintaining adult lung alveolar epithelial cell surfactant synthesis and proliferation with development-specific functions. ..
  57. Brasch F, Schimanski S, Mühlfeld C, Barlage S, Langmann T, Aslanidis C, et al. Alteration of the pulmonary surfactant system in full-term infants with hereditary ABCA3 deficiency. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;174:571-80 pubmed
    ..To identify infants with hereditary ABCA3 deficiency, we suggest a combined diagnostic approach including immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and mutation analysis. ..
  58. McCormack F, Stewart J, Voelker D, Damodarasamy M. Alanine mutagenesis of surfactant protein A reveals that lipid binding and pH-dependent liposome aggregation are mediated by the carbohydrate recognition domain. Biochemistry. 1997;36:13963-71 pubmed
  59. Watford W, Wright J, Hester C, Jiang H, Frank M. Surfactant protein A regulates complement activation. J Immunol. 2001;167:6593-600 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that SP-A may serve a protective role in the lung by preventing C1q-mediated complement activation and inflammation along the delicate alveolar epithelium. ..
  60. Golioto A, Wright J. Effects of surfactant lipids and surfactant protein a on host defense functions of rat alveolar macrophages. Pediatr Res. 2002;51:220-7 pubmed
    ..These data show that Survanta and surfactant-like lipids suppress host defense functions of AM in the presence and absence of SP-A in vitro, although SP-A continues to enhance host defense functions overall. ..
  61. Bersten A, Hunt T, Nicholas T, Doyle I. Elevated plasma surfactant protein-B predicts development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with acute respiratory failure. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;164:648-52 pubmed
    ..87 [0.72 to 1.02]), with a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI: 55 to 98%) and specificity of 78% (40 to 97%) at a cutoff of 4,994 ng/ml. ..
  62. Cole T, Solomon N, Van Driel R, Monk J, Bird D, Richardson S, et al. Altered epithelial cell proportions in the fetal lung of glucocorticoid receptor null mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:613-9 pubmed
    ..This demonstrates that during murine embryonic development, receptor-mediated glucocorticoid signaling facilitates the differentiation of epithelial cells into type I cells, but is not obligatory for type II cell differentiation. ..
  63. Gunther A, Balser M, Schmidt R, Markart P, Olk A, Borgermann J, et al. Surfactant abnormalities after single lung transplantation in dogs: impact of bronchoscopic surfactant administration. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2004;127:344-54 pubmed
    ..Bronchoscopic surfactant administration provides protection against these abnormalities and may be a therapeutic strategy in lung transplantation. ..
  64. Gurel O, Ikegami M, Chroneos Z, Jobe A. Macrophage and type II cell catabolism of SP-A and saturated phosphatidylcholine in mouse lungs. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2001;280:L1266-72 pubmed
    ..Eighty percent of the macrophage-associated radiolabel was recovered from lung digest macrophages. We conclude that macrophages and type II cells contribute equally to saturated phosphatidylcholine and SP-A catabolism in mice...
  65. McCormack F, Damodarasamy M, Elhalwagi B. Deletion mapping of N-terminal domains of surfactant protein A. The N-terminal segment is required for phospholipid aggregation and specific inhibition of surfactant secretion. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3173-81 pubmed
  66. Salez L, Balloy V, van Rooijen N, Lebastard M, Touqui L, McCormack F, et al. Surfactant protein A suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced IL-10 production by murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2001;166:6376-82 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this study highlights for the first time the inhibitory role of surfactant protein A in the anti-inflammatory activity of macrophages through inhibition of IL-10 production. ..
  67. Rau G, Vieten G, Haitsma J, Freihorst J, Poets C, Ure B, et al. Surfactant in newborn compared with adolescent pigs: adaptation to neonatal respiration. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2004;30:694-701 pubmed
  68. Ramet M, Haataja R, Marttila R, Floros J, Hallman M. Association between the surfactant protein A (SP-A) gene locus and respiratory-distress syndrome in the Finnish population. Am J Hum Genet. 2000;66:1569-79 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the SP-A gene locus is an important determinant for predisposition to RDS in premature infants. ..
  69. Flores C, Ma S, Maresso K, Ahmed O, Garcia J. Genomics of acute lung injury. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;27:389-95 pubmed
    ..The detailing of specific associated polymorphisms will continue to provide new insights in the understanding of disease pathogenesis, and promise to reveal novel molecular targets and personalized treatments to prevent the disease. ..
  70. Precioso A, Sakae P, Mascaretti R, Kubrusly F, Gebara V, Iourtov D, et al. Analysis of the immunogenicity and stability of a porcine pulmonary surfactant preparation administered in rabbits. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2006;61:153-60 pubmed
    ..The results of our study demonstrate that Butantan surfactant may be a suitable alternative for surfactant replacement therapy. ..
  71. McCormack F. Functional mapping of surfactant protein A. Pediatr Pathol Mol Med. 2001;20:293-318 pubmed
    ..My review focuses on the putative biological functions of SP-A that are supported by experiments in mammals and on the structural basis of SP-A function. ..
  72. McCormack F, Whitsett J. The pulmonary collectins, SP-A and SP-D, orchestrate innate immunity in the lung. J Clin Invest. 2002;109:707-12 pubmed
  73. Devendra G, Spragg R. Lung surfactant in subacute pulmonary disease. Respir Res. 2002;3:19 pubmed
    ..Understanding of the mechanisms that disturb the lung surfactant system may lead to novel rational therapies for these diseases. ..
  74. Kevill K, Bhandari V, Kettunen M, Leng L, Fan J, Mizue Y, et al. A role for macrophage migration inhibitory factor in the neonatal respiratory distress syndrome. J Immunol. 2008;180:601-8 pubmed
    ..03). This study demonstrates for the first time a role for MIF in lung maturation, and supports a protective role for MIF in newborn lung disease. ..
  75. Palaniyar N, Zhang L, Kuzmenko A, Ikegami M, Wan S, Wu H, et al. The role of pulmonary collectin N-terminal domains in surfactant structure, function, and homeostasis in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:26971-9 pubmed
  76. Hallman M, Haataja R. Genetic basis of respiratory distress syndrome. Front Biosci. 2007;12:2670-82 pubmed
    ..As we learn more about the molecular consequences of allelic variation, new therapies based on a new generation of surfactant diagnostics and individualized therapies may follow...
  77. Ikegami M, Whitsett J, Chroneos Z, Ross G, Reed J, Bachurski C, et al. IL-4 increases surfactant and regulates metabolism in vivo. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2000;278:L75-80 pubmed
  78. Sukoh N, Yamamoto H, Kikuchi E, Suzuki T, Kamimura A, Watanabe N, et al. [A case of severe Legionella pneumonia monitored with serum SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;39:126-30 pubmed
    ..He gradually recovered from the pneumonia by means of chemotherapy using EM, RFP, Mino, gammaglobulins and steroids. The serum SP-A, SP-D, and KL-6 peaked on July 23rd, July 30th, and August 12th, respectively. ..
  79. Stokes R, Thorson L, Speert D. Nonopsonic and opsonic association of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with resident alveolar macrophages is inefficient. J Immunol. 1998;160:5514-21 pubmed
    ..The receptor mediating nonopsonic binding of M. tuberculosis to differentiated alveolar Mphi was not unequivocally identified in this study, but could also be CR3. ..
  80. Mulrooney N, Jobe A, Ikegami M. Lung inflammatory responses to intratracheal interleukin-1alpha in ventilated preterm lambs. Pediatr Res. 2004;55:682-7 pubmed
    ..The i.v. IL-1alpha caused no lung inflammation or injury but did result in severe neutropenia and hypotension leading to early death. IT IL-1alpha can cause intense lung inflammation and systemic shock in ventilated preterm lungs. ..
  81. Matsubayashi J, Ishida T, Ozawa T, Aoki T, Koyanagi Y, Mukai K. Subphrenic bronchopulmonary foregut malformation with pulmonary-sequestration-like features. Pathol Int. 2003;53:313-6 pubmed
    ..This case is important in understanding the pathogenesis of foregut anomalies (i.e. bronchopulmonary foregut malformations), which range from pulmonary sequestrations to bronchogenic cysts and foregut duplication cysts...
  82. Goldmann T, Wiedorn K, Kuhl H, Olert J, Branscheid D, Pechkovsky D, et al. Assessment of transcriptional gene activity in situ by application of HOPE-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. Pathol Res Pract. 2002;198:91-5 pubmed
    ..To sum up, these initial results, obtained with the novel HOPE-fixative, are promising as regards the enhancement of the capabilities of in situ hybridization in the future. ..
  83. Stuart R, Ovadia B, Suzara V, Ross P, Thelitz S, Fineman J, et al. Inhaled nitric oxide increases surfactant protein gene expression in the intact lamb. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003;285:L628-33 pubmed
    ..DNA content was unchanged. The mechanisms and physiological effects of these findings warrant further investigation. ..
  84. Bailey T, Da Silva K, Lewis J, Rodriguez Capote K, Possmayer F, Veldhuizen R. Physiological and inflammatory response to instillation of an oxidized surfactant in a rat model of surfactant deficiency. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2004;96:1674-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that instillation of an in vitro oxidized surfactant causes an inferior physiological response in a surfactant-deficient rat. ..