protein subunits


Summary: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.

Top Publications

  1. Xia D, Esser L, Tang W, Zhou F, Zhou Y, Yu L, et al. Structural analysis of cytochrome bc1 complexes: implications to the mechanism of function. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1827:1278-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex III and related bc complexes. ..
  2. Zhou M, Dagan S, Wysocki V. Impact of charge state on gas-phase behaviors of noncovalent protein complexes in collision induced dissociation and surface induced dissociation. Analyst. 2013;138:1353-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented here suggest that charge manipulation can be used to "tune" the dissociation behavior of noncovalent protein complexes in order to obtain the most useful information desired for structural analysis. ..
  3. Wan L, Mao D, Neculai D, Strecker J, Chiovitti D, Kurinov I, et al. Reconstitution and characterization of eukaryotic N6-threonylcarbamoylation of tRNA using a minimal enzyme system. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:6332-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The partial complementation of telomere maintenance by Qri7 hints that KEOPS has evolved novel functions in higher organisms. ..
  4. Herring B, Shi Y, Suh Y, Zheng C, Blankenship S, Roche K, et al. Cornichon proteins determine the subunit composition of synaptic AMPA receptors. Neuron. 2013;77:1083-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These results point to a sophisticated interplay between CNIHs and ?-8 that dictates subunit-specific AMPAR trafficking and the strength and kinetics of synaptic AMPAR-mediated transmission. ..
  5. Ojemalm K, Watson H, Roboti P, Cross B, Warwicker J, von Heijne G, et al. Positional editing of transmembrane domains during ion channel assembly. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:464-72 pubmed publisher
  6. Bleier L, Dröse S. Superoxide generation by complex III: from mechanistic rationales to functional consequences. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1827:1320-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex III and related bc complexes. ..
  7. Lorek J, Griebel T, Jones A, Kuhn H, Panstruga R. The role of Arabidopsis heterotrimeric G-protein subunits in MLO2 function and MAMP-triggered immunity. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2013;26:991-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, G? mutants were found to be hypersusceptible to spray inoculation with the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. ..
  8. Nagamatsu Y, Takeda K, Kuranaga T, Numoto N, Miki K. Origin of asymmetry at the intersubunit interfaces of V1-ATPase from Thermus thermophilus. J Mol Biol. 2013;425:2699-708 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our result plausibly implies that the essential motion for the torque generation is not the large interdomain movement of the catalytic subunits but the rigid-body rearrangement of subunits. ..
  9. Shao Y, Cocozaki A, Ramia N, Terns R, Terns M, Li H. Structure of the Cmr2-Cmr3 subcomplex of the Cmr RNA silencing complex. Structure. 2013;21:376-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Further mutational analysis of the two conserved (but non-Cmr2-binding) glycine-rich loops of Cmr3 identified a region that is likely involved in assembly or the RNA cleavage function of the Cmr complex...

More Information


  1. Baradaran R, Berrisford J, Minhas G, Sazanov L. Crystal structure of the entire respiratory complex I. Nature. 2013;494:443-8 pubmed publisher
  2. Whorton M, MacKinnon R. X-ray structure of the mammalian GIRK2-?? G-protein complex. Nature. 2013;498:190-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we present the 3.5?Å resolution crystal structure of the mammalian GIRK2 channel in complex with ?? G-protein subunits, the central signalling complex that links G-protein-coupled receptor stimulation to K(+) channel activity...
  3. JAVENS J, Wan Z, Hardy G, Brun Y. Bypassing the need for subcellular localization of a polysaccharide export-anchor complex by overexpressing its protein subunits. Mol Microbiol. 2013;89:350-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight the fact that multiple facets of subcellular localization can be coupled to improve the phenotypic outcome of a protein assembly. ..
  4. Bai N, Hayashi H, Aida T, Namekata K, Harada T, Mishina M, et al. Dock3 interaction with a glutamate-receptor NR2D subunit protects neurons from excitotoxicity. Mol Brain. 2013;6:22 pubmed publisher
  5. Shao Y, Li H. Recognition and cleavage of a nonstructured CRISPR RNA by its processing endoribonuclease Cas6. Structure. 2013;21:385-93 pubmed
    ..The distinct RNA binding and cleavage mechanisms underline the diversity in CRISPR RNA processing. ..
  6. van Nuland R, Smits A, Pallaki P, Jansen P, Vermeulen M, Timmers H. Quantitative dissection and stoichiometry determination of the human SET1/MLL histone methyltransferase complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:2067-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a molecular framework for understanding the diversity and abundance of the different SET1/MLL complexes, which together establish the H3K4 methylation landscape in human cells. ..
  7. Hastie P, Ulbrich M, Wang H, Arant R, Lau A, Zhang Z, et al. AMPA receptor/TARP stoichiometry visualized by single-molecule subunit counting. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5163-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This unexpected AMPA-R/TARP stoichiometry difference has important implications for the assembly and function of TARP/AMPA-R complexes. ..
  8. Makiuchi T, Mi ichi F, Nakada Tsukui K, Nozaki T. Novel TPR-containing subunit of TOM complex functions as cytosolic receptor for Entamoeba mitosomal transport. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1129 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that Entamoeba has invented a novel lineage-specific shuttle receptor of the TOM complex as a consequence of adaptation to an anaerobic environment. ..
  9. Arai S, Saijo S, Suzuki K, Mizutani K, Kakinuma Y, Ishizuka Katsura Y, et al. Rotation mechanism of Enterococcus hirae V1-ATPase based on asymmetric crystal structures. Nature. 2013;493:703-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, these asymmetric structures represent the first high-resolution view of the rotational mechanism of V(1)-ATPase...
  10. Wu R, Liu G, Zakharov S, Chudasama N, Motoike H, Karlin A, et al. Positions of ?2 and ?3 subunits in the large-conductance calcium- and voltage-activated BK potassium channel. J Gen Physiol. 2013;141:105-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In no case was N-type inactivation by the N-terminal tail of m?3 perturbed. Although the m?3 loop can move, its position with Cys152 near ?K296, in which it blocks IbTX binding, is likely favored. ..
  11. Wydeven N, Young D, Mirkovic K, Wickman K. Structural elements in the Girk1 subunit that potentiate G protein-gated potassium channel activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:21492-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, discontinuous and sometime opposing elements in Girk1 underlie the Girk1-dependent potentiation of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent heteromeric channel activity. ..
  12. Meunier B, Fisher N, Ransac S, Mazat J, Brasseur G. Respiratory complex III dysfunction in humans and the use of yeast as a model organism to study mitochondrial myopathy and associated diseases. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1827:1346-61 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex III and related bc complexes. ..
  13. Backhaus S, Zakrzewicz A, Richter K, Damm J, Wilker S, Fuchs Moll G, et al. Surfactant inhibits ATP-induced release of interleukin-1? via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. J Lipid Res. 2017;58:1055-1066 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, the surfactant constituent, DPPC, efficiently inhibits ATP-induced inflammasome activation and maturation of IL-1? in human monocytes by a mechanism involving nAChRs. ..
  14. Huang J, Bley C, Rand D, Chen J, Lei M. In Vitro Preparation and Crystallization of Vertebrate Telomerase Subunits. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1587:161-169 pubmed publisher
    ..The methods of our study are also applicable to large-scale preparations of other ribonucleoprotein complexes for structural studies. ..
  15. Alemasov N, Ivanisenko N, Ramachandran S, Ivanisenko V. Molecular mechanisms underlying the impact of mutations in SOD1 on its conformational properties associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as revealed with molecular modelling. BMC Struct Biol. 2018;18:1 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, residues disposed between copper binding sites of both protein subunits were found from the models to form a stiff core, which can be involved in mechanical impulse transduction ..
  16. Zehr E, Szyk A, Piszczek G, Szczęsna E, Zuo X, Roll Mecak A. Katanin spiral and ring structures shed light on power stroke for microtubule severing. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2017;24:717-725 pubmed publisher
    ..Cycling of the hexamer between these conformations would provide the power stroke for microtubule severing. ..
  17. Aksyuk A, Newcomb W, Cheng N, Winkler D, Fontana J, Heymann J, et al. Subassemblies and asymmetry in assembly of herpes simplex virus procapsid. MBio. 2015;6:e01525-15 pubmed publisher
    ..It initially assembles as a procapsid with ~4,000 protein subunits of 11 different kinds...
  18. Nitz R, Lokau J, Aparicio Siegmund S, Scheller J, Garbers C. Modular organization of Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-11 α-receptors. Biochimie. 2015;119:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a modular organization of the IL-6R and IL-11R, and a similar signal transduction complex of the two cytokines. ..
  19. Eprintsev A, Fedorin D, Cherkasskikh M, Igamberdiev A. Expression of succinate dehydrogenase and fumarase genes in maize leaves is mediated by cryptochrome. J Plant Physiol. 2018;221:81-84 pubmed publisher
    ..decrease of transcripts of genes Sdh1-2 and Sdh2-3 encoding correspondingly the flavoprotein and iron-sulfur protein subunits of succinate dehydrogenase, and of Fum1 encoding the mitochondrial form of fumarase...
  20. Lu Y, Wu J, Dong Y, Chen S, Sun S, Ma Y, et al. Conformational Landscape of the p28-Bound Human Proteasome Regulatory Particle. Mol Cell. 2017;67:322-333.e6 pubmed publisher
  21. Monti M, Margarucci L, Riccio R, Bonfili L, Mozzicafreddo M, Eleuteri A, et al. Mechanistic insights on petrosaspongiolide M inhibitory effects on immunoproteasome and autophagy. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2014;1844:713-21 pubmed publisher
    ..On this basis, petrosaspongiolide M could represent an interesting molecule for its propensity to modulate intracellular proteolysis through a dual inhibition of the immunoproteasome and autophagy. ..
  22. Gong Q, Yang Z, Wang X, Butt H, Chen E, He S, et al. Salicylic acid-related cotton (Gossypium arboreum) ribosomal protein GaRPL18 contributes to resistance to Verticillium dahliae. BMC Plant Biol. 2017;17:59 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide new insights into the role of GaRPL18, indicating that it plays a crucial role in resistance to cotton "cancer", also known as Verticillium wilt, mainly regulated by an SA-related signaling pathway mechanism. ..
  23. Martin Diaconescu V, Joseph C, Boer J, Mulrooney S, Hausinger R, Maroney M. Non-thiolate ligation of nickel by nucleotide-free UreG of Klebsiella aerogenes. J Biol Inorg Chem. 2017;22:497-503 pubmed publisher
    ..aerogenes UreG is distinct from that of nucleotide-free H. pylori UreG and does not involve the Cys-Pro-His motif. Further, we show the Strep-tag II can perturb metal coordination of this protein. ..
  24. Lin C, Chaban Y, Rees D, McCormack E, Ocloo L, Wigley D. Functional characterization and architecture of recombinant yeast SWR1 histone exchange complex. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:7249-7260 pubmed publisher
  25. Sun X, Dyson H, Wright P. Fluorotryptophan Incorporation Modulates the Structure and Stability of Transthyretin in a Site-Specific Manner. Biochemistry. 2017;56:5570-5581 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences in behavior that arise from the replacement of a fluorine at the 5-position of a tryptophan with one at the adjacent 6-position emphasize the delicate balance of stability in the TTR tetramer. ..
  26. Heinz S, Liauw P, Nickelsen J, Nowaczyk M. Analysis of photosystem II biogenesis in cyanobacteria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2016;1857:274-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Biogenesis of PSII requires coordinated assembly of at least 20 protein subunits, as well as incorporation of various organic and inorganic cofactors...
  27. Chan A, Lau W, Szeto A, Wang J, Wong Y. Differential Regulation of CXCL8 Production by Different G Protein Subunits with Synergistic Stimulation by Gi- and Gq-Regulated Pathways. J Mol Biol. 2016;428:3869-84 pubmed publisher
  28. Soty M, Chilloux J, Delalande F, Zitoun C, Bertile F, Mithieux G, et al. Post-Translational Regulation of the Glucose-6-Phosphatase Complex by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Is a Crucial Determinant of Endogenous Glucose Production and Is Controlled by the Glucose-6-Phosphate Transporter. J Proteome Res. 2016;15:1342-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate the existence of a post-translational mechanism that regulates G6Pase activity and reveal the key role of G6PT in the hormonal regulation of G6Pase activity and of EGP. ..
  29. Weissmann F, Petzold G, VanderLinden R, Huis In t Veld P, Brown N, Lampert F, et al. biGBac enables rapid gene assembly for the expression of large multisubunit protein complexes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E2564-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We have used this method to generate and characterize recombinant forms of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, cohesin, and kinetochore complexes. ..
  30. Drainas D. Antibiotics and RNase P. Antibiotics (Basel). 2016;5: pubmed publisher
    ..Most forms of RNase P are ribonucleoproteins, i.e., they consist of an essential RNA and protein subunits. The catalytic function of ribonucleoprotein RNase P enzymes resides entirely in the RNA subunit...
  31. Bonawitz N, Kim J, Tobimatsu Y, Ciesielski P, Anderson N, Ximenes E, et al. Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant. Nature. 2014;509:376-80 pubmed publisher
  32. Rak M, Rustin P. Supernumerary subunits NDUFA3, NDUFA5 and NDUFA12 are required for the formation of the extramembrane arm of human mitochondrial complex I. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:1832-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis of the assembly intermediates in mitochondria depleted for these subunits further suggested that they are required for assembly and/or stability of the electron transferring Q module in the peripheral arm of the CI. ..
  33. Sapam T, Velmurugan Ilavarasi A, Palaka B, Elumalai E, Kanika N, Ampasala D. Identifying novel small molecule antagonists for mLST8 protein using computational approaches. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2018;38:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study substantiates the prospect of targeting mLST8 protein using potent hits which could hinder tumor progression in colon and prostate cancers. ..
  34. Kwofie K, Tung N, Suzuki Ohashi M, Amoa Bosompem M, Adegle R, Sakyiamah M, et al. Antitrypanosomal Activities and Mechanisms of Action of Novel Tetracyclic Iridoids from Morinda lucida Benth. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60:3283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Novel tetracyclic iridoids may be promising lead compounds for the development of new chemotherapies for African trypanosomal infections in humans and animals. ..
  35. He B, Soderlund D. Effects of the β1 auxiliary subunit on modification of Rat Na(v)1.6 sodium channels expressed in HEK293 cells by the pyrethroid insecticides tefluthrin and deltamethrin. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2016;291:58-69 pubmed publisher
  36. Wong S, To J, Santos J, Allam V, Dalton J, Djordjevic S, et al. Proteomic Analysis of Extracellular HMGB1 Identifies Binding Partners and Exposes Its Potential Role in Airway Epithelial Cell Homeostasis. J Proteome Res. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide a new understanding of the extracellular functions of HMGB1 in cellular and immune homeostasis at the airway mucosal surface and could have implications for therapeutic targeting...
  37. Wang B, Powell S, Hessami N, Najar F, Thomas L, Karr E, et al. Crystal structures of two nitroreductases from hypervirulent Clostridium difficile and functionally related interactions with the antibiotic metronidazole. Nitric Oxide. 2016;60:32-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, these results represent the first isolation and characterization of NRs from the hypervirulent R20291 strain of relevance to organic RNO2 (e.g., Mtz) metabolism. ..
  38. Sheilabi M, Battacharyya D, Caetano L, Thom M, Reuber M, Duncan J, et al. Quantitative expression and localization of GABAB receptor protein subunits in hippocampi from patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuropharmacology. 2018;136:117-128 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of the "Special Issue Dedicated to Norman G. Bowery". ..
  39. Brand C, Sadana R, Malik S, Smrcka A, Dessauer C. Adenylyl Cyclase 5 Regulation by Gβγ Involves Isoform-Specific Use of Multiple Interaction Sites. Mol Pharmacol. 2015;88:758-67 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose Gβγ regulation of AC involves multiple binding events, and the role of the AC NT for mechanisms of regulation by heterotrimeric G protein subunits is isoform-specific.
  40. Ruisu K, Meier R, Kask K, Tõnissoo T, Velling T, Pooga M. RIC8A is essential for the organisation of actin cytoskeleton and cell-matrix interaction. Exp Cell Res. 2017;357:181-191 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple G protein subunits mediate various signalling events that regulate cell adhesion and migration and the involvement of RIC8A in ..
  41. Wu J, Xu Y, Jiang Y, Xu J, Hu Y, Zha X. ASIC subunit ratio and differential surface trafficking in the brain. Mol Brain. 2016;9:4 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding provides important insights into the relative contribution of various ASIC complexes to acid signaling in neurons. ..
  42. George A, Jones P. Perspectives on the structure-function of ABC transporters: the Switch and Constant Contact models. Prog Biophys Mol Biol. 2012;109:95-107 pubmed publisher
  43. Lindemeyer A, Shen Y, Yazdani F, Shao X, Spigelman I, Davies D, et al. ?2 Subunit-Containing GABAA Receptor Subtypes Are Upregulated and Contribute to Alcohol-Induced Functional Plasticity in the Rat Hippocampus. Mol Pharmacol. 2017;92:101-112 pubmed publisher
  44. Kressler D, Hurt E, Baßler J. A Puzzle of Life: Crafting Ribosomal Subunits. Trends Biochem Sci. 2017;42:640-654 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we integrate these first structural insights into an updated overview of the consecutive ribosome assembly steps. ..
  45. Niks D, Duvvuru J, Escalona M, Hille R. Spectroscopic and Kinetic Properties of the Molybdenum-containing, NAD+-dependent Formate Dehydrogenase from Ralstonia eutropha. J Biol Chem. 2016;291:1162-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In light of recent advances in our understanding of the structure of the molybdenum center, we propose a reaction mechanism involving direct hydride transfer from formate to a molybdenum-sulfur group of the molybdenum center. ..
  46. King N, Bale J, Sheffler W, McNamara D, Gonen S, Gonen T, et al. Accurate design of co-assembling multi-component protein nanomaterials. Nature. 2014;510:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The accuracy of the method and the number and variety of two-component materials that it makes accessible suggest a route to the construction of functional protein nanomaterials tailored to specific applications. ..
  47. Zhu S, Riou M, Yao C, Carvalho S, Rodriguez P, Bensaude O, et al. Genetically encoding a light switch in an ionotropic glutamate receptor reveals subunit-specific interfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:6081-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It also paves the way for engineering light-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels with subtype specificity through the genetic code expansion. ..
  48. Oku T, Ando Y, Ogura M, Tsuji T. Development of Splice Variant-Specific Monoclonal Antibodies Against Human α3 Integrin. Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother. 2016;35:12-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Each antibody exhibited specific reactivity towards the corresponding integrin α3 variant in Western blotting and immunoprecipitation experiments, suggesting it to be a useful tool for detection of the respective integrin variant. ..
  49. Setti A, Kumar M, Babu K, Rasagna A, Prasanna M, Devi T, et al. Potency and pharmacokinetics of broad spectrum and isoform-specific p110? and ? inhibitors in cancers. J Recept Signal Transduct Res. 2016;36:26-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to that pharmacokinetic properties are within recommended ranges. Finally, molecular phylogeny revealed that p110? and p110? are evolutionarily divergent; they probably need separate strategies for drug development. ..
  50. He H, Zhang S, Wang D, Hochwagen A, Li F. Condensin Promotes Position Effects within Tandem DNA Repeats via the RITS Complex. Cell Rep. 2016;14:1018-1024 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals variations in silencing within tandem DNA repeats and provides mechanistic insights into how DNA repeats at the individual level are regulated. ..
  51. Kumar M, Dillon G. Assessment of direct gating and allosteric modulatory effects of meprobamate in recombinant GABA(A) receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2016;775:149-58 pubmed publisher
    ..A re-assessment of previously synthesized meprobamate-related carbamate molecules for myorelaxant and other therapeutic indications is warranted. ..
  52. Atoji Y. Gene expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in the tectofugal pathway of the pigeon. Neuroscience. 2016;316:367-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The present findings demonstrate the expression of iGluRs in glutamatergic projection targets of the tectofugal pathway in birds and suggest a diversity of iGluRs in the transmission of visual information. ..
  53. Allen H, Daze K, Shimbo T, Lai A, Musselman C, Sims J, et al. Inhibition of histone binding by supramolecular hosts. Biochem J. 2014;459:505-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of the present study suggest that the aromatic macrocyclic hosts can be used as a powerful new tool for characterizing methylation-driven epigenetic mechanisms. ..
  54. McNeil M, Hampton H, Hards K, Watson B, Cook G, Fineran P. The succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor, SdhE, is required for the flavinylation and activation of fumarate reductase in bacteria. FEBS Lett. 2014;588:414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are of widespread relevance because SDH and FRD play an important role in cellular energetics and are required for virulence in many important bacterial pathogens...
  55. Lin Y, Koga N, Vorobiev S, Baker D. Cyclic oligomer design with de novo ??-proteins. Protein Sci. 2017;26:2187-2194 pubmed publisher
  56. Harris D, Tal O, Jallet D, Wilson A, Kirilovsky D, Adir N. Orange carotenoid protein burrows into the phycobilisome to provide photoprotection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E1655-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Penetration of the N-terminal domain can bring the OCP carotenoid to within 5-10 Ã… of core chromophores; however, alteration of the core structure may be the actual source of energy dissipation. ..
  57. Zhang N, Peng Z, Tong X, Lindemeyer A, Cetina Y, Huang C, et al. Decreased surface expression of the δ subunit of the GABAA receptor contributes to reduced tonic inhibition in dentate granule cells in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome. Exp Neurol. 2017;297:168-178 pubmed publisher
    ..Finding ways to increase surface expression of the δ subunit of the GABAAR could be a novel approach to treatment of hyperexcitability-related alterations in FXS. ..
  58. Hofmann F, Flockerzi V, Kahl S, Wegener J. L-type CaV1.2 calcium channels: from in vitro findings to in vivo function. Physiol Rev. 2014;94:303-26 pubmed publisher
    ..2?1 gene. This article summarizes recent findings on the in vivo relevance of well-established in vitro results. ..
  59. Pandey A, Dixit U, Kholodovych V, Comollo T, Pandey V. The ?1'-?2' Motif of the RNase H Domain of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Reverse Transcriptase Is Responsible for Conferring Open Conformation to the p66 Subunit by Displacing the Connection Domain from the Polymerase Cleft. Biochemistry. 2017;56:3434-3442 pubmed publisher
    ..The unstable elongated p66 molecule may then readily dimerize with p51 to assume a stable dimeric conformation. ..
  60. Liu W, Jiang R. Advances in the research of AMPK and its subunit genes. Pak J Biol Sci. 2013;16:1459-68 pubmed
  61. Oka H, Hosokawa H, Nakanishi Matsui M, Dunn S, Futai M, Iwamoto Kihara A. Elastic rotation of Escherichia coli F(O)F(1) having ? subunit fused with cytochrome b(562) or flavodoxin reductase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2014;446:889-93 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the enzymes with ?-Cyt or ?-FlavR showed a reduced proton transport. These results indicate that the intra-molecular rotation is elastic but proton transport requires more strict subunit/subunit interaction. ..
  62. Ito Y, Ikeguchi M. Molecular dynamics simulations of F1-ATPase. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;805:411-40 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these results provide insight into the rotational mechanism and deepen the understanding of this molecular motor. ..
  63. Lin H, Chen Y, Huang Q, Guo X, Liu P, Liu W, et al. Prokaryotic expression of the chicken xanthine oxidase (XOD) subunit and its localization in liver and kidney. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;87:341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that the XOD subunit protein polyclonal antibody prepared by this method could be used for the further researches of the biological function of the XOD in the chicken. ..
  64. Seemann F, Knigge T, Duflot A, Marie S, Olivier S, Minier C, et al. Sensitive periods for 17?-estradiol exposure during immune system development in sea bass head kidney. J Appl Toxicol. 2016;36:815-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, exogenous estrogens have the potential to modify the innate immune response in juvenile sea bass and to exert detrimental effects on head kidney development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. ..
  65. Qin X, Huang Q, Xiao H, Zhang Q, Ni C, Xu Y, et al. The rice DUF1620-containing and WD40-like repeat protein is required for the assembly of the restoration of fertility complex. New Phytol. 2016;210:934-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that RCF3 is indispensable as a scaffold protein for the assembly of the RFC complex. We unveil a new molecular player of the RFC in the Rf pathway in rice and propose the model of RFC based on these data. ..
  66. Subramaniam G, Trusov Y, Lopez Encina C, Hayashi S, Batley J, Botella J. Type B Heterotrimeric G Protein γ-Subunit Regulates Auxin and ABA Signaling in Tomato. Plant Physiol. 2016;170:1117-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcriptome analysis of the transgenic seeds revealed abnormal expression of genes involved in ABA sensing, signaling, and response. We conclude that the type B Gγ subunit SlGGB1 mediates auxin and ABA signaling in tomato. ..
  67. McManus J, Deng Y, Nagachar N, Kao T, Tien M. AcsA-AcsB: The core of the cellulose synthase complex from Gluconacetobacter hansenii ATCC23769. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2016;82:58-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, we have performed steady-state kinetic studies on the AcsA-AcsB complex. Finally through mutagenesis studies, we have explored the roles of the postulated CSC proteins AcsC, AcsD, and CcpAx. ..
  68. Han S, Tai C, Jones C, Scheuer T, Catterall W. Enhancement of inhibitory neurotransmission by GABAA receptors having ?2,3-subunits ameliorates behavioral deficits in a mouse model of autism. Neuron. 2014;81:1282-1289 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired GABAergic neurotransmission may contribute to ASD, and ?2,3-subunit-selective positive GABAA receptor modulation may be an effective treatment. ..
  69. Brown K, Cummings C, Vanacore R, Hudson B. Building collagen IV smart scaffolds on the outside of cells. Protein Sci. 2017;26:2151-2161 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we present key molecular mechanisms that drive the assembly of collagen IV smart scaffolds. ..
  70. Driggers C, Dayal P, Ellis H, Karplus P. Crystal structure of Escherichia coli SsuE: defining a general catalytic cycle for FMN reductases of the flavodoxin-like superfamily. Biochemistry. 2014;53:3509-19 pubmed publisher
  71. Winter W, Bazydlo L, Harris N. The molecular biology of human iron metabolism. Lab Med. 2014;45:92-102 pubmed
    ..Each ferritin molecule can contain as many as approximately 4500 ferric ions. Because the major role of iron is in hemoglobin synthesis, this review will focus on iron, iron transport, and hematopoiesis. ..
  72. Van Engelenburg S, Shtengel G, Sengupta P, Waki K, Jarnik M, Ablan S, et al. Distribution of ESCRT machinery at HIV assembly sites reveals virus scaffolding of ESCRT subunits. Science. 2014;343:653-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the driving force for HIV release may derive from initial scaffolding of ESCRT subunits within the viral bud interior followed by plasma membrane association and selective remodeling of ESCRT subunits. ..
  73. Krah A, Kato Yamada Y, Takada S. The structural basis of a high affinity ATP binding ? subunit from a bacterial ATP synthase. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177907 pubmed publisher
    ..The inferred structural basis of the high affinity mutant may help to design novel nucleotide sensors based on the ? subunit from bacterial ATP synthases. ..
  74. Denuc A, Núñez E, Calvo E, Loureiro M, Miro Casas E, Guarás A, et al. New protein-protein interactions of mitochondrial connexin 43 in mouse heart. J Cell Mol Med. 2016;20:794-803 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify new protein-protein interactions between AIF-Cx43, ETFB-Cx43 and AIF-ETFB as possible players in the regulation of the mitochondrial redox state. ..
  75. Orellana C, Marcellin E, Gray P, Nielsen L. Overexpression of the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase enhances monoclonal antibody production in CHO cells. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2017;114:1825-1836 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that GSH cannot be linked to higher productivity and that Gclm may be controlling other cellular processes involved in mAb production yet to be elucidated. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1825-1836. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
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    ..The catalytic mechanism is revised and a mononitrosyl-non-heme Fe complex (FeB(II)-NO) species is favoured as the first catalytic intermediate involved on the NO reduction. ..
  78. Patel S, Sharma M, Lata K, Singh U, Kumar V, Sangwan R, et al. Improved operational stability of d-psicose 3-epimerase by a novel protein engineering strategy, and d-psicose production from fruit and vegetable residues. Bioresour Technol. 2016;216:121-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The bioprocessing led to achievement of d-psicose production to the extent of 25-35% conversion (w/w) of d-fructose contained in the sample. ..
  79. González Bardeci N, Caramelo J, Blumenthal D, Rinaldi J, Rossi S, Moreno S. The PKA regulatory subunit from yeast forms a homotetramer: Low-resolution structure of the N-terminal oligomerization domain. J Struct Biol. 2016;193:141-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that the oligomerization states of PKA R subunits is more diverse than previously thought, and suggest that this might allow some forms of PKA to interact with a wide range of intracellular partners. ..
  80. Tong X, López Soto E, Li L, Liu H, Nedelcu D, Lipscombe D, et al. Retrograde Synaptic Inhibition Is Mediated by ?-Neurexin Binding to the ?2? Subunits of N-Type Calcium Channels. Neuron. 2017;95:326-340.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..2 reconstituted with ?2?-1 and ?2?-2. Collectively, these results suggest that ?-Neurexin binding to ?2? is a conserved mechanism for regulating synaptic transmission. ..
  81. Chowdhury S, Kumar A, Godinho J, De Macedo Silva S, Zuma A, Saha S, et al. Voacamine alters Leishmania ultrastructure and kills parasite by poisoning unusual bi-subunit topoisomerase IB. Biochem Pharmacol. 2017;138:19-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings cumulatively provide a strong evidence that voacamine can be a promising drug candidate against trypanosomatid infections. ..
  82. Sokolova M, Borukhov S, Lavysh D, Artamonova T, Khodorkovskii M, Severinov K. A non-canonical multisubunit RNA polymerase encoded by the AR9 phage recognizes the template strand of its uracil-containing promoters. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:5958-5967 pubmed publisher
    ..The AR9 nvRNAP lacking gp226 is catalytically active but unable to bind to promoter DNA. Thus, gp226 is required for promoter recognition by the AR9 nvRNAP and may represent a new group of transcription initiation factors. ..
  83. Chou Y, Hsiao Y, Hwang G, To K. Torque generation through the random movement of an asymmetric rotor: A potential rotational mechanism of the ? subunit of F(1)-ATPase. Phys Rev E. 2016;93:022408 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate the applicability of the mechanism to a macroscopic simulation system, which has the essential ingredients of the F(1)-ATPase structure, by reproducing the dynamic properties of the rotation. ..
  84. Hejnova L, Skrabalova J, Novotny J. Prolonged Morphine Treatment Alters Expression and Plasma Membrane Distribution of ?-Adrenergic Receptors and Some Other Components of Their Signaling System in Rat Cerebral Cortex. J Mol Neurosci. 2017;63:364-376 pubmed publisher
    ..ARs were characterized by radioligand binding assays and amounts of various G protein subunits, adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms, G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), and ?-arrestin were examined by ..
  85. Zhao C, Wang Y, Fu M, Yang K, Qiu L. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) from black tiger shrimps (Penaeus monodon). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;204:77-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study will advance our understanding about the molecular mechanisms of PmPP2A in Penaeus monodon. ..
  86. Lin J, Lin Z, Hwang J, Huang T. On the packing density of the unbound protein-protein interaction interface and its implications in dynamics. BMC Bioinformatics. 2015;16 Suppl 1:S7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we divided surface of an unbound subunit (free protein subunits before they are involved in forming the protein complexes) into several separate regions, and compared their ..
  87. Miyagawa K, Low R, Santosa V, Tsuji H, Moser B, Fujisawa S, et al. SUMOylation regulates telomere length by targeting the shelterin subunit Tpz1(Tpp1) to modulate shelterin-Stn1 interaction in fission yeast. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:5950-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide major mechanistic insights into how the SUMOylation pathway collaborates with shelterin and Stn1-Ten1 complexes to regulate telomere length. ..
  88. Vangala J, Dudem S, Jain N, Kalivendi S. Regulation of PSMB5 protein and ? subunits of mammalian proteasome by constitutively activated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3): potential role in bortezomib-mediated anticancer therapy. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:12612-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, we demonstrate that aberrant activation of STAT3 regulates the expression of ? subunits, in particular PSMB5, and the catalytic activity of the proteasome. ..