pregnancy specific beta 1 glycoproteins


Summary: Glycoproteins with the electrophoretic mobility of BETA-GLOBULINS, secreted by the placental TROPHOBLASTS into the maternal bloodstream during PREGNANCY. They can be detected 18 days after OVULATION and reach 200 mg/ml at the end of pregnancy. They are associated with fetal well-being.

Top Publications

  1. Fialova L, Kohoutova B, Pelísková Z, Malbohan I, Mikulikova L. [Serum levels of trophoblast-specific beta-1-globulin (SP1) and alpha-1-fetoprotein (AFP) in pregnant women with rheumatoid arthritis]. Cesk Gynekol. 1991;56:166-70 pubmed
    ..In all patients with elevated SP1 levels the disease improved, while in four of ten women with normal or reduced SP1 levels the disease deteriorated or developed during pregnancy. This relationship was not found in AFP. ..
  2. Plouzek C, Watanabe S, Chou J. Cloning and expression of a new pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein member. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1991;176:1532-8 pubmed
    ..Ribonuclease protection analyses show that PSG mRNAs that share sequence similarity with the PSG9 transcript are expressed in both human placenta and placental fibroblasts. ..
  3. Borjigin J, Tease L, Barnes W, Chan W. Expression of the pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein genes in human testis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;166:622-9 pubmed
    ..The other 2 groups consisted of cDNA of incompletely processed mRNAs. These 2 groups were present in high abundance. Sequence analysis suggested that the cDNAs were products of different genes. ..
  4. Rooney B, Horne C, Hardman N. Molecular cloning of a cDNA for human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein:homology with human carcinoembryonic antigen and related proteins. Gene. 1988;71:439-49 pubmed
    ..This may have implications for the genomic organization and evolution of the CEA gene family. ..
  5. Snyder S, Wessner D, Wessells J, Waterhouse R, Wahl L, Zimmermann W, et al. Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins function as immunomodulators by inducing secretion of IL-10, IL-6 and TGF-beta1 by human monocytes. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2001;45:205-16 pubmed
    ..Human and murine PSGs exhibit cross-species activity. Our results are consistent with a role for PSGs in modulation of the innate immune system. ..
  6. Chen H, Plouzek C, Liu J, Chen C, Chou J. Characterization of a major member of the rat pregnancy-specific glycoprotein family. DNA Cell Biol. 1992;11:139-48 pubmed
    ..Northern hybridization and ribonuclease protection assays also suggest that rnCGM6 may be the major PSG member in rat. ..
  7. Shupert W, Chan W. Pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein in human intestine. Mol Cell Biochem. 1993;120:159-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, PSG, NCA and BGP are co-expressed in normal human intestine. RNA and immunoblot analysis, along with polymerase chain reaction amplification further confirm the expression of PSG in human intestinal tissue. ..
  8. McLenachan P, Lockhart P, Faber H, Mansfield B. Evolutionary analysis of the multigene pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein family: separation of historical and nonhistorical signals. J Mol Evol. 1996;42:273-80 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal domains show a nonrandom pattern of amino acid substitutions clustered in the immunoglobulin complementarity-determining region (CDR)-like regions, which appear to be important in the function of the protein. ..
  9. Germain G, Mignot T, Bischof P, Mouren M, Cedard L. Plasma levels of SP1-like immunoreactive material (SP1) and progesterone throughout pregnancy and following RU 486-induced early abortion in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Hum Reprod. 1989;4:975-80 pubmed
    ..The assay of SP1-like material does not allow early diagnosis of pregnancy, however, it remains interesting as a follow-up parameter after 60 days. Also, antiprogestins appear to be useful tools to analyse the metabolism of SP1. ..

More Information

Publications102 found, 100 shown here

  1. Bersinger N, Leporrier N, Herrou M, Leymarie P. Maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) but not pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein (SP1) is a useful second-trimester marker for fetal trisomy 18. Prenat Diagn. 1999;19:537-41 pubmed
  2. Furusawa M, Taira T, Iguchi Ariga S, Ariga H. Molecular cloning of the mouse AMY-1 gene and identification of the synergistic activation of the AMY-1 promoter by GATA-1 and Sp1. Genomics. 2003;81:221-33 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it was found that GATA-1 stimulated AMY-1 expression synergistically with Sp1 in ectopically expressed insect cells and that both proteins were associated in K562 cells. ..
  3. Khan W, Hammarstrom S. Identification of a new carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family member in human fetal liver--cloning and sequence determination of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 7. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;168:214-25 pubmed
    ..The function of PSGs is probably linked to the N-domain and the CDR2- and CD3-like regions are most likely responsible for ligand binding. ..
  4. Chou J, Sartwell A, Wan Y, Watanabe S. Characterization of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein synthesized by human placental fibroblasts. Mol Endocrinol. 1989;3:89-96 pubmed
    ..Our finding that a variant PS beta G species is produced in placental fibroblasts raises the possibility that the authentic placental PS beta G species may have different functions. ..
  5. Bersinger N, Brandenberger A, Berger E, Baumann C, Birkhauser M. Serum pregnancy-specific beta1-glycoprotein before embryo transfer is related to endometrial thickness and to outcome prognosis in women undergoing in-vitro fertilization treatment. Hum Reprod. 1998;13:1962-7 pubmed
  6. Dimitriadou F, Phocas I, Mantzavinos T, Sarandakou A, Rizos D, Zourlas P. Discordant secretion of pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin by human pre-embryos cultured in vitro. Fertil Steril. 1992;57:631-6 pubmed
    ..Hormone secretion and morphological development are unique for each pre-embryo. Human chorionic gonadotropin and SP1 seem to have different biochemical and physiological regulation. ..
  7. Hinoda Y, Imai K. [Carcinoembryonic antigen gene family and its clinical application]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 1990;17:1274-80 pubmed
    ..It is of interest that CEA and NCA have been found to function as adhesion molecules. The structure and possible function of another CEA gene family, PS beta G, were also introduced in this short review. ..
  8. Phocas I, Sarandakou A, Kontoravdis A, Chryssicopoulos A. Clearance pattern of maternal serum pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein after treatment in active and regressed tubal pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1988;27:225-9 pubmed
    ..001), but they followed the same exponential regression pattern. The half-life of SP1 in active tubal pregnancies after salpingectomy was 36.2 h and in regressed tubal pregnancies after salpingostomy was 37.5 h. ..
  9. Zhang W, Teng H, Wang L, Yan G. Serum SP1, HPL levels and urinary estrogen/creatinine ratio in the detection of low birth weight. Chin Med J (Engl). 1993;106:437-40 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that multi-indexes measurement would improve the accuracy for predicting LBW. We conclude that SP1, HPL and E/C ratio measurement could be an useful index for predicting LBW. ..
  10. Saith R, Bersinger N, Barlow D, Sargent I. The role of pregnancy-specific beta-1 glycoprotein (SP1) in assessing the human blastocyst quality in vitro. Hum Reprod. 1996;11:1038-42 pubmed
    ..The inconsistent pattern of secretion suggests that at this early stage of development, SP1 secretion is probably not sufficiently defined to allow any differences in levels to be reflected by the morphological grading. ..
  11. Braunstein G, Mills J, Reed G, Jovanovic L, Holmes L, Aarons J, et al. Comparison of serum placental protein hormone levels in diabetic and normal pregnancy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989;68:3-8 pubmed
    ..These data are consistent with a defect in synthesis and/or secretion of hCG alpha by the cytotrophoblast during the first two trimesters of pregnancy in insulin-requiring diabetic women. ..
  12. Niemann S, Flake A, Bohn H, Bartels I. Pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, and species specificity of one member of the PS beta G family. Hum Genet. 1989;82:239-43 pubmed
    ..However, PS beta G-specific DNA sequencies with similar restriction patterns were found in primates. These results are compatible with the assumption of late evolutionary development of certain PS beta G sequences. ..
  13. Ayme S, Aurran Y, Chabal F, Gombert A, Loundou H, Montfort C, et al. [Evaluation of trisomy 21 risk by serial determination of chorionic gonadotrophin hormone and alpha-fetoprotein: results of a national pilot study]. Contracept Fertil Sex. 1993;21:133-43 pubmed
    ..This decrease is more spectacular for high levels of sensitivity. This pilot study confirms already published results. Maternal serum markers are the best tools, combined with maternal age to evaluate the risk of trisomy 21. ..
  14. Lei K, Gluzman Y, Pan C, Chou J. Immortalization of virus-free human placental cells that express tissue-specific functions. Mol Endocrinol. 1992;6:703-12 pubmed
    ..Sodium butyrate, which stimulates PSG expression, greatly increased CAT activity, indicating that butyrate-induced PSG expression is regulated primarily at the level of gene transcription. ..
  15. Chan W, Tease L, Borjigin J, Chan P, Rennert O, Srinivasan B, et al. Pregnancy-specific beta 1 glycoprotein mRNA is present in placental as well as non-placental tissues. Hum Reprod. 1988;3:677-85 pubmed
    ..Southern blot analysis of these clones showed strong hybridization with the SP1 cDNA probe under high stringency, indicating the presence of highly homologous mRNA species in these tissues. ..
  16. Gerhard I, Vollmar B, Runnebaum B, Klinga K, Haller U, Kubli F. Weight percentile at birth. II. Prediction by endocrinological and sonographic measurements. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1987;26:313-28 pubmed
    ..In the first two years of life a relationship between development and the HPL and estriol concentrations could be observed which was independent of the weight percentile at birth. ..
  17. Wu S, Bazar L, Cohn M, Cahill R, Chan W. Expression of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein genes in hematopoietic cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 1993;122:147-58 pubmed
    ..Tissue specificity in the expression or alternative splicing of some of the PSG family members was implicated. ..
  18. Poulakis N, Sarandakou A, Rizos D, Phocas I, Kontozoglou T, Polyzogopoulos D. Soluble interleukin-2 receptors and other markers in primary lung cancer. Cancer. 1991;68:1045-9 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that sIL-2R and CEA may be useful in monitoring the extent of disease and possibly indicate the histologic subtype, thus having a bearing on treatment and prognosis. ..
  19. Lacinova Z, Hajek Z, Srp B, Fialova L, Kulovany E, Melková J. [Biochemical monitoring of the fetoplacental unit in pregnant women with a hypotrophic fetus]. Cesk Gynekol. 1990;55:81-7 pubmed
    ..To confirm the diagnosis, several biochemical parameters should be assessed. ..
  20. Babischkin J, Pepe G, Albrecht E. Estrogen regulation of placental P-450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme messenger ribonucleic acid levels and activity during baboon pregnancy. Endocrinology. 1997;138:452-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, we propose that the P-450scc enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of substrate cholesterol to pregnenolone is regulated, for the most part, by estrogen in the primate placenta. ..
  21. Schlafke S, Lantz K, King B, Enders A. Ultrastructural localization of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein (SP1) and cathepsin B in villi of early placenta of the macaque. Placenta. 1992;13:417-28 pubmed
    ..The results are consistent with a secretory pathway including synthesis in the ER, processing by the Golgi complex, and exocytotic release into maternal blood in the intervillous space. ..
  22. Leslie K, Watanabe S, Lei K, Chou D, Plouzek C, Deng H, et al. Linkage of two human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein genes: one is associated with hydatidiform mole. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:5822-6 pubmed
    ..The coding region of PSG95 is identical to the previously reported cDNA clones PSG1d and FL-NCA, but PSG95 contains an additional 518 and 523 base pairs in the 3' end as compared with PSG1d and FL-NCA, respectively. ..
  23. Zhong Y, Liu D, Ahmed M, Li P, Zhou X, Xie Q, et al. Transcription and regulation of hepatitis B virus genes in host sperm cells. Asian J Androl. 2017;: pubmed publisher
    ..05). This study provides the first experimental evidence that transcription of HBV genes occurs in human sperm and is regulated by host genes...
  24. Brophy B, Macdonald R, McLenachan P, Mansfield B. cDNA sequence of the pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein-11s (PSG-11s). Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992;1131:119-21 pubmed
    ..Minor differences between the four clones sequenced included a restriction site polymorphic for ApaI that may differentiate between alleles of the PSG-11 gene. ..
  25. Sekiya S, Inaba N, Ishige H, Takamizawa H, Bohn H. In vitro and in vivo studies of the production of placental proteins (HCG, SP1, PPs) in human choriocarcinoma cell lines. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1987;241:111-20 pubmed
    ..These placental proteins showed positive staining in portions of choriocarcinoma cells. These results indicate that placental proteins are not equally produced in heterogeneous choriocarcinoma cells. ..
  26. Than G, Tatra G, Arnold L, Szabo D, Csaba I, Bohn H. Serum PP12, PP14, SP1 and hCG values in the 28 days after the LH-surge in patients who do and do not conceive after artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 1988;243:139-44 pubmed
    ..hCG and SP1 levels behaved similarly in pregnant subjects. PP12 levels did not change significantly in the 28-days after the LH-surge. ..
  27. Qin Q, Christiansen M, Nguyen T, Sørensen S, Larsen S, Nørgaard Pedersen B. Schwangerschaftsprotein 1 (SP1) as a maternal serum marker for Down syndrome in the first and second trimesters. Prenat Diagn. 1997;17:101-8 pubmed
    ..In parameterized ROC analysis, the detection rates were 38 and 18 percent for a false-positive rate of 5 per cent in weeks 5-9 and 14-20, respectively. ..
  28. Dizon Townson D, Lu J, Morgan T, Ward K. Genetic expression by fetal chorionic villi during the first trimester of human gestation. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2000;183:706-11 pubmed
    ..They also may be used to study obstetric and other human disease. ..
  29. Fujino H, Watabe H. [Establishment of cell lines of human germinal tumors]. Hokkaido Igaku Zasshi. 1991;66:639-46 pubmed
    ..Thirty-two cell lines were established in vitro, and AFP and SP1 produced in culture medium of those cell line were demonstrated immunochemically. ..
  30. Streydio C, Vassart G. Expression of human pregnancy specific beta 1 glycoprotein (PSG) genes during placental development. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;166:1265-73 pubmed
    ..PSG D, A, E transcripts seem equally abundant, while PSG B expression was much lower. Moreover, the proportion of the PSG C-D variants resulting from alternative splicing remained constant during gestation. ..
  31. Bersinger N, Brandenberger A, Birkhüser M. Endometrial and placental protein markers and ovarian steroids in serum during in-vitro fertilization cycles. Hum Reprod. 1995;10:2149-54 pubmed
    ..PAPP-A did not distinguish pregnancy from the other outcomes. The PP14/progesterone ratio was lower, later in the cycle, in CP than in the other groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  32. Blanchon L, Bocco J, Gallot D, Gachon A, Lemery D, Dechelotte P, et al. Co-localization of KLF6 and KLF4 with pregnancy-specific glycoproteins during human placenta development. Mech Dev. 2001;105:185-9 pubmed
    ..This experimental evidence further strengthens the potential cross talk of both transcription factors for PSG gene regulation in vivo. ..
  33. Klisch K, Boos A, Friedrich M, Herzog K, Feldmann M, Sousa N, et al. The glycosylation of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins and prolactin-related protein-I in bovine binucleate trophoblast giant cells changes before parturition. Reproduction. 2006;132:791-8 pubmed
    ..The differentiation of PAG glycoforms in maternal serum could be valuable for a further optimization of PAG-based pregnancy diagnosis in cattle. ..
  34. Rothe M, Werner D, Thielmann H. Enhanced expression of mitochondrial genes in xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblast strains from various complementation groups. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1993;119:675-84 pubmed
    ..The data can be interpreted in the light of mitochondrial changes that cause human neuromyopathies to occur. In analogy to these diseases the neurological symptoms in XP might be explained by abnormal mitochondria. ..
  35. Boockfor F. Sertoli cells in culture release a pregnancy specific beta1 glycoprotein-like substance. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1997;214:139-45 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this release appears to be controlled in an age-related and stage-dependent manner, suggesting that Sertoli cells may be central to PSG function in the testis. ..
  36. Phillips R, Tyson Capper Née Pollard A, Bailey J, Robson S, Europe Finner G. Regulation of expression of the chorionic gonadotropin/luteinizing hormone receptor gene in the human myometrium: involvement of specificity protein-1 (Sp1), Sp3, Sp4, Sp-like proteins, and histone deacetylases. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005;90:3479-90 pubmed
  37. Mantzavinos T, Phocas I, Chrelias H, Sarandakou A, Zourlas P. Serum levels of steroid and placental protein hormones in ectopic pregnancy. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1991;39:117-22 pubmed
  38. Gocze P, Than G, Szabo D, Csaba I, Bohn H. Elevated sera levels of SP-1 induced by chemotherapy in patients with metastatic gestational trophoblastic diseases. Oncology. 1990;47:406-9 pubmed
    ..In 1 patient with nonmetastatic choriocarcinoma SP-1 ELISA pseudoreaction was found. To recognize these pseudoreactions, a control plate with nonimmunized rabbit IgG was used, simultaneously with SP-1 determinations...
  39. Zhao C, Wang F, Wang P, Ding H, Huang X, Shi Z. Early second-trimester plasma protein profiling using multiplexed isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling predicts gestational diabetes mellitus. Acta Diabetol. 2015;52:1103-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first comprehensive study that integrates multiple state-of-the-art proteomic technologies to discover the earlier potential plasma biomarkers for GDM. ..
  40. Xiong Y, Zeng J, Tang Z. [Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin, human placental lactogen and pregnancy-specific 1-glycoprotein in malignant trophoblastic neoplasms]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 1994;29:610-3, 638 pubmed
    ..We believe that the detection of hCG, hPL and SP1, in malignant trophoblastic neoplasms was of value for establishing tumor diagnosis and typing and for judgement on prognosis...
  41. Kelly A, Wathen N, Rice A, Iles R, Ind T, Chard T. Low levels of amniotic fluid pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein in Down's syndrome. Early Hum Dev. 1994;37:175-8 pubmed
    ..51 (P = 0.006). These data demonstrate that amniotic fluid levels of SP1 are low in Down's syndrome before 19 weeks of gestation. ..
  42. Plouzek C, Leslie K, Stephens J, Chou J. Differential gene expression in the amnion, chorion, and trophoblast of the human placenta. Placenta. 1993;14:277-85 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the amnion and chorion demonstrated differences in PSG species expression from each other and from trophoblastic tissue. Thus, human amnion, chorion and trophoblast selectively express several placental genes. ..
  43. Malbohan I, Fialova L, Mikulikova L, Hajek Z. Prenatal biochemical diagnostics of inborn developmental defects. Sb Lek. 1994;95:277-83 pubmed
    ..In our experience, the main contribution is a finding of abnormal values of one or more of the markers, which will advise gynecologist upon a possibility of a risk pregnancy. ..
  44. Wald N, Watt H, Norgaard Pedersen B, Christiansen M. SP1 in pregnancies with Down syndrome in the first trimester of pregnancy. International Prenatal Screening Research Group. Prenat Diagn. 1999;19:517-20 pubmed
    ..76 to 0.97). This difference, though statistically significant, was not large enough for SP1 to be a useful marker in screening, at least from 10 weeks onwards where most of our data lie. ..
  45. Bersinger N, Smarason A, Muttukrishna S, Groome N, Redman C. Women with preeclampsia have increased serum levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), inhibin A, activin A and soluble E-selectin. Hypertens Pregnancy. 2003;22:45-55 pubmed
    ..Raised levels of PAPP-A in preeclampsia confirm earlier reports. Activin A showed the highest increase over the controls and is thus likely to be a better serum marker for this pathology than the other markers that were tested. ..
  46. Bersinger N, Wunder D, Vanderlick F, Chanson A, Pescia G, Janecek P, et al. Maternal serum levels of placental proteins after in vitro fertilisation and their implications for prenatal screening. Prenat Diagn. 2004;24:471-7 pubmed
  47. McLellan A, Zimmermann W, Moore T. Conservation of pregnancy-specific glycoprotein (PSG) N domains following independent expansions of the gene families in rodents and primates. BMC Evol Biol. 2005;5:39 pubmed
    ..Partial conservation of RGD and RGD-like tri-peptides in primate and rodent N and N1 domains, respectively, supports a role for these motifs in PSG function. ..
  48. Morita H, Maruo T. [Pregnancy specific beta1 glycoprotein (SP-1)]. Nihon Rinsho. 2005;63 Suppl 8:733-5 pubmed
  49. Pala A, Di Ruzza A, Rossetto G, Moro M, Strom R, Padula F, et al. Distribution of SP1, immunoreactivity among different plasma proteins: real molecular heterogeneity or adsorption of SP1-beta to other plasma proteins?. Clin Chim Acta. 1992;207:87-97 pubmed
  50. Braunstein G. Placental proteins as tumor markers. Immunol Ser. 1990;53:673-701 pubmed
  51. Zoubir F, Khan W, Hammarstrom S. Carcinoembryonic antigen gene family members in submandibular salivary gland: demonstration of pregnancy-specific glycoproteins by cDNA cloning. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990;169:203-16 pubmed
    ..The 3' untranslated regions of the different members of the PSG subgroup contain highly homologous segments, suggesting a common evolutionary origin. ..
  52. Takayama M, Isaka K, Funayama H, Suzuki Y, Akiya K, Bohn H. Comparative study of placental protein 19, human chorionic gonadotrophin and pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein as immunohistochemical markers for extravillous trophoblast in pregnancy and trophoblastic disease. Histochemistry. 1989;93:167-73 pubmed
    ..XST and ICT in the endosalpinx of tubal pregnancy stained for all three proteins.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  53. Niemann S, Schonk D, van Dijk P, Wieringa B, Grzeschik K, Bartels I. Regional localization of the gene encoding pregnancy specific beta-1-glycoprotein 1 (PSBG1) to human chromosome 19q13.1. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1989;52:95-7 pubmed
    ..Further analysis using hybrids with subchromosomal segments of 19q revealed that the gene maps to the distal segment of region 19q13.1. ..
  54. Kato Y, Braunstein G. Discordant secretion of placental protein hormones in differentiating trophoblasts in vitro. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1989;68:814-20 pubmed
  55. Jauniaux E, Bersinger N, Gulbis B, Meuris S. The contribution of maternal serum markers in the early prenatal diagnosis of molar pregnancies. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:842-6 pubmed
  56. Nores R, Blanchon L, López Díaz F, Bocco J, Patrito L, Sapin V, et al. Transcriptional control of the human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 5 gene is dependent on two GT-boxes recognized by the ubiquitous specificity protein 1 (Sp1) transcription factor. Placenta. 2004;25:9-19 pubmed
    ..In addition, we show that Sp1 is indeed co-expressed with PSG genes in the syncytiotrophoblast cells, stressing its potential role in the in vivo regulation of PSG expression. ..
  57. Breed M, Guard C, White M, Smith M, Warnick L. Comparison of pregnancy diagnosis in dairy cattle by use of a commercial ELISA and palpation per rectum. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2009;235:292-8 pubmed publisher
    ..81 for phases 1 and 2, respectively. Good agreement existed between the 2 tests, especially at longer intervals after insemination. Discrepant results appeared to be attributable to a nonviable fetus, embryonic loss, or fetal loss. ..
  58. Pulay T, Csömör S, Meszaros K, Szarka G, Csabay L, Szinnyai A. Significance of CEA, AFP, SP1 and HCG as tumor markers in ovarian carcinoma. Neoplasma. 1987;34:595-600 pubmed
    ..3%. The determination of AFP and HCG is useful only in cases of tumors with specific histological structures and in problems of differential diagnostics. The testing of SP1 is of no value in clinical practice. ..
  59. Szekeres Bartho J, Szabo J, Kovacs L. Alteration of lymphocyte reactivity in pregnant women treated with the progesterone receptor inhibitor ZK 98734. Am J Reprod Immunol. 1989;21:46-9 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a difference in sensitivity to the progesterone receptor blocker explains the selective block at trophoblastic binding sites only and the inability to block those in the lymphocytes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  60. Gustafson R, Anderson G, BonDurant R, Sasser G. Failure of sheep-goat hybrid conceptuses to develop to term in sheep-goat chimaeras. J Reprod Fertil. 1993;99:267-73 pubmed
    ..Time of fetal death could not be predicted from PSPB concentrations. Chimaeras appeared to carry hybrid pregnancies longer than ewes and does usually carry hybrid pregnancies, but none was carried to term. ..
  61. Boucher L, Yoneda K. The expression of trophoblastic cell markers by lung carcinomas. Hum Pathol. 1995;26:1201-6 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that these trophoblastic cell markers are expressed in various types of lung carcinomas and that they are not associated with certain histological types or with tumor giant cells. ..
  62. Kamarli Z, Bogdanov A, Ankudinova L, Makimbetov E. [Use of immunoglobulin E and pregnancy-specific beta-1-glycoprotein in differential diagnosis of bone malignancies]. Vopr Onkol. 2004;50:316-9 pubmed
    ..It was found that significant increase in blood-serum PSG in conjunction with lowered IgE is a marker of bone malignancy while decreased PSG and high IgE is that of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis. ..
  63. Yasuda M, Miyachi Y, Ishikawa O, Takahashi K. Spatial expressions of fibronectin and integrins by human and rodent dermal fibroblasts. Br J Dermatol. 2006;155:522-31 pubmed
    ..The paucity of FN in palmoplantar skin and oral mucosa might explain the characteristics of these skin phenotypes. ..
  64. Okazaki S, Sekizawa A, Purwosunu Y, Farina A, Wibowo N, Okai T. Placenta-derived, cellular messenger RNA expression in the maternal blood of preeclamptic women. Obstet Gynecol. 2007;110:1130-6 pubmed
    ..ii. ..
  65. Phocas I, Sarandakou A, Rizos D, Dimitriadou F, Mantzavinos T, Zourlas P. Secretion of alpha-immunoreactive inhibin by human pre-embryos cultured in vitro. Hum Reprod. 1992;7:545-9 pubmed
    ..This secretion increases significantly with time when development is continued, while disintegration is followed by a net decline in the rate of inhibin release. ..
  66. Witt B, Wolf G, Wainwright C, Johnston P, Thorneycroft I. Relaxin, CA-125, progesterone, estradiol, Schwangerschaft protein, and human chorionic gonadotropin as predictors of outcome in threatened and nonthreatened pregnancies. Fertil Steril. 1990;53:1029-36 pubmed
    ..Stepwise logistic regression of the six markers in group II provided an equation of possible clinical utility in differentiating abortion versus ectopic pregnancy in threatened gestations based on CA-125 and E2 levels. ..
  67. McLenachan T, Mansfield B. Expression of CEA-related genes in the first trimester human placenta. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1989;162:1486-93 pubmed
  68. Chan W, Qiu W. Human pregnancy-specific beta 1 glycoprotein is encoded by multiple genes localized on two chromosomes. Am J Hum Genet. 1988;43:152-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, human SP1 is apparently coded for by more than one gene residing on the X and 6 chromosomes. ..
  69. Heikinheimo M, Jalanko H, Renlund M, Rapola J, Wahlstrom T. Studies on the elevated amniotic fluid SP1 in Meckel's syndrome: modified glycosylation of SP1. Placenta. 1987;8:427-32 pubmed
    ..An especially low percentage of SP1 not bound to Con A was found in Meckel's syndrome, suggesting an altered carbohydrate structure of SP1 in these amniotic fluids. ..
  70. Gardner M, Goldenberg R, Cliver S, Boots L, Hoffman H. Maternal serum concentrations of human placental lactogen, estradiol and pregnancy specific beta 1-glycoprotein and fetal growth retardation. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand Suppl. 1997;165:56-8 pubmed
    ..This finding indicates that high levels of these hormones are related to a lower risk of FGR, but that low levels do not predict FGR. ..
  71. Wu S, Arnold L, Rone J, Trivadi M, Chan W. Effect of pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein on the development of preimplantation embryo. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1999;220:169-77 pubmed
    ..001. These results suggest that PSG1 and PSG3 exhibit embryotropic activity at different stages of development in the mouse model. ..
  72. Camolotto S, Racca A, Rena V, Nores R, Patrito L, Genti Raimondi S, et al. Expression and transcriptional regulation of individual pregnancy-specific glycoprotein genes in differentiating trophoblast cells. Placenta. 2010;31:312-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Present findings provide novel data for understanding the control of PSG gene expression and demonstrate that their proteins and transcripts represent early markers of trophoblast differentiation. ..
  73. Brock D, Barron L, Holloway S, Liston W, Hillier S, Seppala M. First-trimester maternal serum biochemical indicators in Down syndrome. Prenat Diagn. 1990;10:245-51 pubmed
    ..67, hCG 1.43, SP1 0.79, and PALP 0.92. Although the differences between the medians for affected and unaffected pregnancies were not significant, the trends for AFP, uE3, and hCG confirm earlier findings on first-trimester samples. ..
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    ..It is, however, essential to assess them dynamically as, a single examination does not provide sufficient information. ..
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    ..Placental fibroblasts provide a unique model for the study of the mechanisms responsible for the differential expression of the PS beta G gene. ..
  76. Watanabe S, Chou J. Isolation and characterization of complementary DNAs encoding human pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:2049-54 pubmed
    ..Primer extension and S1 nuclease mapping experiments demonstrated that PS beta G mRNAs have heterogeneous 5' termini. ..
  77. Bersinger N, Brizot M, Johnson A, Snijders R, Abbott J, Schneider H, et al. First trimester maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and pregnancy-specific beta 1-glycoprotein in fetal trisomies. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1994;101:970-4 pubmed
    ..Maternal serum PAPP-A concentration in the first trimester of pregnancy may prove to be useful in the prediction of risk for fetal trisomies. ..
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    ..From the results ensues that ACA could interfere with transduction signalizing processes in the cell and thus influence the synthesis of some proteins. ..
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    ..We have previously reported activator sequences within nucleotides -83 to -34 in PSG12. We now show that a 50-kDa protein binds to this region of PSG12, and the resultant complex can be supershifted by a monoclonal antibody to PEA3. ..
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    ..Consequently the vascular system constituted a major pathway of invasion, although the arterioles were the only component substantially invaded beyond the trophoblastic-shell/endometrial border. ..
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    ..These results suggest that there is cell-specificity in the expression of PSGs in the rat testis and that the rat testis is a good model for studying the biological activities of the PSGs. ..
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    ..We provide new evidence that indicates that human sperm deliver transcripts that may have a role in early embryo development and decreased levels of these transcripts may be associated with infertility. ..
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    ..However, these amnion cells expressed selectively a certain population of PSG transcripts. Our results show that this amnion cell line provides a suitable model for studies of PSG gene expression and regulation. ..
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    ..The trophoblast cells separated by Ficoll-Hypaque, however, showed fewer contaminant cells than those separated by the Percoll gradients. ..
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    ..49% of women with euploid fetal karyotype, 8 of 10 pregnancies with Down's syndrome, and 3 pregnancies with sex chromosomal anomalies were identified as being at an increased risk (> 1:380). ..
  86. Jurisicova A, Antenos M, Kapasi K, Meriano J, Casper R. Variability in the expression of trophectodermal markers beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin, human leukocyte antigen-G and pregnancy specific beta-1 glycoprotein by the human blastocyst. Hum Reprod. 1999;14:1852-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that SP-1 may be used to select blastocysts with higher cell number, possibly resulting in higher pregnancy rates. ..
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    ..Infection accelerated this process. Measurements of trophoblastic beta1-glycoprotein every 2 weeks help to diagnose fetoplacental disorders, predict the course of pregnancy, and evaluate the efficiency of drug therapy. ..
  88. Cheng Y, Handwerger S. A placenta-specific enhancer of the human syncytin gene. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:500-9 pubmed
    ..Binding of SP1 and GATA family members to this enhancer is critical for cell-specific expression of the syncytin gene. ..
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  90. Kaplan M, Barnea E, Bersinger N. Patterns of spontaneous pulsatile secretion of human chorionic gonadotropin and pregnancy specific beta 1 glycoprotein by superfused placental explants in first and last trimester. Lack of episodic human placental lactogen secretion. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1991;124:331-7 pubmed
    ..The dynamic superfusion model also enables identification of thus far not reported gestational age-dependent differences in the secretion pattern of hCG and pregnancy specific beta 1 glycoprotein. ..
  91. Motrán C, Diaz F, Gruppi A, Slavin D, Chatton B, Bocco J. Human pregnancy-specific glycoprotein 1a (PSG1a) induces alternative activation in human and mouse monocytes and suppresses the accessory cell-dependent T cell proliferation. J Leukoc Biol. 2002;72:512-21 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that PSG1a function contributes to the immunomodulation during pregnancy, having opposite effects on maternal innate and adaptative systems. ..
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