placenta growth factor


Summary: An angiogenic protein belonging to the Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor family of growth factors originally isolated and cloned from human placental cDNA library. There are four isoforms of PLGF 1-4 which result from alternative splicing. Placenta Growth Factor is secreted as a glycosylated homodimer which acts as a mitogen for endothelial cells, and its expression is markedly upregulated during hypoxia and in tissue inflammation and cancer.

Top Publications

  1. Staff A, Benton S, von Dadelszen P, Roberts J, Taylor R, Powers R, et al. Redefining preeclampsia using placenta-derived biomarkers. Hypertension. 2013;61:932-42 pubmed publisher
  2. Schoofs K, Grittner U, Engels T, Pape J, Denk B, Henrich W, et al. The importance of repeated measurements of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio for the prediction of preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. J Perinat Med. 2014;42:61-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Repeated measurements are necessary to assess the dynamics in serum values. The time-dependent slope of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is predictive for future pregnancy outcome and risk of developing preeclampsia. ..
  3. Sliwa K, Mebazaa A. Possible joint pathways of early pre-eclampsia and congenital heart defects via angiogenic imbalance and potential evidence for cardio-placental syndrome. Eur Heart J. 2014;35:680-2 pubmed publisher
  4. Forest J, Thériault S, Massé J, Bujold E, Giguère Y. Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 to placental growth factor ratio in mid-pregnancy as a predictor of preterm preeclampsia in asymptomatic pregnant women. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2014;52:1169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..However, care must be paid to the prevalence of early-onset preeclampsia in the population since low prevalence reduces PPV and may hamper clinical utility. ..
  5. Litwińska E, Litwinska M, Oszukowski P, Szaflik K, Kaczmarek P. Combined screening for early and late pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction by maternal history, uterine artery Doppler, mean arterial pressure and biochemical markers. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2017;26:439-448 pubmed publisher
  6. Erez O, Romero R, Maymon E, Chaemsaithong P, Done B, Pacora P, et al. The prediction of late-onset preeclampsia: Results from a longitudinal proteomics study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181468 pubmed publisher
  7. Xu X, Zhao C, Peng Q, Xie P, Liu Q. Kaempferol inhibited VEGF and PGF expression and in vitro angiogenesis of HRECs under diabetic-like environment. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2017;50:e5396 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and placenta growth factor (PGF) and the concentrations of secreted VEGF and PGF were measured by qTR-PCR and ELISA assay, ..
  8. Saleh L, Vergouwe Y, van den Meiracker A, Verdonk K, Russcher H, Bremer H, et al. Angiogenic Markers Predict Pregnancy Complications and Prolongation in Preeclampsia: Continuous Versus Cutoff Values. Hypertension. 2017;70:1025-1033 pubmed publisher
  9. Santalahti K, Havulinna A, Maksimow M, Zeller T, Blankenberg S, Vehtari A, et al. Plasma levels of hepatocyte growth factor and placental growth factor predict mortality in a general population: a prospective cohort study. J Intern Med. 2017;282:340-352 pubmed publisher
    ..10-0.18 in the Discovery cohort and meta-analyses (P < 0.05 for all tests). Blood levels of HGF and PlGF may serve as new biomarkers for predicting increased risk of death in the general population. ..

More Information


  1. Espósito E, Aldrees S, Mastromonaco C, Zoroquiain P, Vila N, Logan P, et al. Evaluation of nicotinamide as an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic agent in uveal melanoma cell lines. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2017;80:74-77 pubmed publisher
    ..1 cells; basic fibroblast growth factor in the OCM-1 cells; and placenta growth factor in both cell lines...
  2. Lecuyer M, Laquerrière A, Bekri S, Lesueur C, Ramdani Y, Jégou S, et al. PLGF, a placental marker of fetal brain defects after in utero alcohol exposure. Acta Neuropathol Commun. 2017;5:44 pubmed publisher
    ..Placental PGF disruption impairs brain angiogenesis and likely predicts brain disabilities after in utero alcohol exposure. PLGF assay at birth could contribute to the early diagnosis of FASD. ..
  3. Zhang W, Zhang T, Lou Y, Yan B, Cui S, Jiang L, et al. Placental growth factor promotes metastases of non-small cell lung cancer through MMP9. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;37:1210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PLGF-stimulated cancer invasion may be mediated through its effects on MMP9 activation in NSCLC cells. ..
  4. Álvarez Fernández I, Prieto B, Rodriguez V, Ruano Y, Escudero A, Alvarez F. Role of vitamin D and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in the development of early- and late-onset preeclampsia. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2015;53:1033-40 pubmed publisher
    ..0-27), respectively]. No association was found between 25(OH)D levels and sFlt-1/PlGF ratio. Low vitamin D status in women with suspected late-onset PE increases the risk of imminent development of the disease. ..
  5. Gutaj P, Wender Ozegowska E, Iciek R, Zawiejska A, Pietryga M, Brazert J. Maternal serum placental growth factor and fetal SGA in pregnancy complicated by type 1 diabetes mellitus. J Perinat Med. 2014;42:629-33 pubmed publisher
    ..82) vs. 68.23 (11.59-150.03); P=0.03). Decreased PlGF serum concentration in mid-pregnancy, as well as a lack of physiological increase in PlGF levels between early and mid-gestation, may precede development of SGA in women with T1DM. ..
  6. Verlohren S, Perschel F, Thilaganathan B, Dröge L, Henrich W, Busjahn A, et al. Angiogenic Markers and Cardiovascular Indices in the Prediction of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. Hypertension. 2017;69:1192-1197 pubmed publisher
    ..This offers a more precise insight into the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as offering a window for intervention, possibly decreasing cardiovascular mortality in these women. ..
  7. Soh M, Nelson Piercy C. Biomarkers for Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes in Rheumatic Diseases. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2017;43:201-214 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that these changes persist, and additional "insults" from ongoing inflammation, medications, and disease damage contribute to the development of accelerated cardiovascular disease seen in young women with rheumatic disease. ..
  8. Song N, Liu H, Ma X, Zhang S. Placental growth factor promotes metastases of ovarian cancer through MiR-543-regulated MMP7. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2015;37:1104-12 pubmed publisher
    ..MiR-543 inhibits translation of MMP7 through binding to the 3'-UTR of MMP7 mRNA in OC. PLGF suppresses miR-543, which activates MMP7-mediated cancer invasion. ..
  9. Hanefeld M, Engelmann K, Appelt D, Sandner D, Weigmann I, Ganz X, et al. Intra-individual variability and circadian rhythm of vascular endothelial growth factors in subjects with normal glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184234 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, a single morning measurement of systemic VEGF levels after 7:30 am appears to be a reliable parameter for the individual risk associated with abnormal VEGF concentrations in blood...