Genomes and Genes
env gene products
Summary: Retroviral proteins, often glycosylated, coded by the envelope (env) gene. They are usually synthesized as protein precursors (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into the final viral envelope glycoproteins by a viral protease.
- Caporale M, Cousens C, Centorame P, Pinoni C, de las Heras M, Palmarini M. Expression of the jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus envelope glycoprotein is sufficient to induce lung tumors in sheep. J Virol. 2006;80:8030-7 pubmed publisher..These data strongly suggest that the JSRV Env functions as a dominant oncoprotein in the natural immunocompetent host and that JSRV can induce OPA in the absence of viral spread...
- Rolland A, Jouvin Marche E, Viret C, Faure M, Perron H, Marche P. The envelope protein of a human endogenous retrovirus-W family activates innate immunity through CD14/TLR4 and promotes Th1-like responses. J Immunol. 2006;176:7636-44 pubmed..Finally, ENV-SU endowed dendritic cells with the capacity to support a Th1-like type of Th cell differentiation. The data are discussed in the context of immune responses and chronic proinflammatory disorders. ..
- Büscher K, Hahn S, Hofmann M, Trefzer U, Ozel M, Sterry W, et al. Expression of the human endogenous retrovirus-K transmembrane envelope, Rec and Np9 proteins in melanomas and melanoma cell lines. Melanoma Res. 2006;16:223-34 pubmed..Additional experiments are needed to determine their involvement, if any, in cell proliferation and tumor progression. ..
- Li B, Decker J, Johnson R, Bibollet Ruche F, Wei X, Mulenga J, et al. Evidence for potent autologous neutralizing antibody titers and compact envelopes in early infection with subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Virol. 2006;80:5211-8 pubmed
- Drewlo S, Leyting S, Kokozidou M, Mallet F, Pötgens A. C-Terminal truncations of syncytin-1 (ERVWE1 envelope) that increase its fusogenicity. Biol Chem. 2006;387:1113-20 pubmed..Our results contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationship of syncytin-1, and might have implications for the use of this molecule in gene therapy. ..
- Grigorov B, Arcanger F, Roingeard P, Darlix J, Muriaux D. Assembly of infectious HIV-1 in human epithelial and T-lymphoblastic cell lines. J Mol Biol. 2006;359:848-62 pubmed
- Sjöberg M, Lindqvist B, Garoff H. Stabilization of TM trimer interactions during activation of moloney murine leukemia virus Env. J Virol. 2008;82:2358-66 pubmed..5 times more resistant than the IAS oligomer. Thus, this demonstrates that a structural conversion of TM takes place during activation, which results in the formation of a stable TM trimer...
- Maeda N, Fan H, Yoshikai Y. Oncogenesis by retroviruses: old and new paradigms. Rev Med Virol. 2008;18:387-405 pubmed publisher..In this review, we will summarise research on retrovirus oncogenic transformation over the past 100 years since the first published report of an oncogenic virus with particular attention to Env-induced transformation...
- Bailey J, Lassen K, Yang H, Quinn T, Ray S, Blankson J, et al. Neutralizing antibodies do not mediate suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in elite suppressors or selection of plasma virus variants in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Virol. 2006;80:4758-70 pubmed..Both drug-mediated and natural suppression of HIV-1 replication to levels below 50 copies/ml may limit the stimulation and maintenance of effective NAb responses. ..
- McBurney S, Young K, Ross T. Membrane embedded HIV-1 envelope on the surface of a virus-like particle elicits broader immune responses than soluble envelopes. Virology. 2007;358:334-46 pubmed..These lentiviral VLPs are effective mucosal immunogens that elicit broader immunity against Env determinants in both the systemic and mucosal immune compartments than soluble forms of Env. ..
- Leal E, Janini M, Diaz R. Selective pressures of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) during pediatric infection. Infect Genet Evol. 2007;7:694-707 pubmed..The second region, restricted to amino acids 334-368 of Gp160, contains sites that might increase viral fitness during interhost transmission at the population level. ..
- Duh F, Dirks C, Lerman M, Miller A. Amino acid residues that are important for Hyal2 function as a receptor for jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Retrovirology. 2005;2:59 pubmed..In particular, no one amino acid change blocks infection. However, the most important amino acids map to a small patch on a predicted 3-dimensional Hyal2 structure, which may represent the binding site for Env. ..
- Joos B, Trkola A, Fischer M, Kuster H, Rusert P, Leemann C, et al. Low human immunodeficiency virus envelope diversity correlates with low in vitro replication capacity and predicts spontaneous control of plasma viremia after treatment interruptions. J Virol. 2005;79:9026-37 pubmed
- Nethe M, Berkhout B, van der Kuyl A. Retroviral superinfection resistance. Retrovirology. 2005;2:52 pubmed..As primate models of SIV infection closely resemble HIV infection, a better knowledge of SIR-induced mechanisms could contribute to the development of an HIV vaccine or other antiviral strategies. ..
- Antony J, Izad M, Bar Or A, Warren K, Vodjgani M, Mallet F, et al. Quantitative analysis of human endogenous retrovirus-W env in neuroinflammatory diseases. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:1253-9 pubmed..033 log10/ml versus MS: 2.9 log10/ml). These observations emphasize the selective induction of syncytin-1 in brain tissue of MS patients but also illustrate the complex dynamics of this retroelement in neuroinflammatory processes. ..
- Bjerregaard B, Holck S, Christensen I, Larsson L. Syncytin is involved in breast cancer-endothelial cell fusions. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2006;63:1906-11 pubmed..Moreover, a syncytin inhibitory peptide also inhibits fusions between cancer and endothelial cells. These results are the first to show that syncytin is expressed by human cancer cells and is involved in cancer-endothelial cell fusions. ..
- Draenert R, Allen T, Liu Y, Wrin T, Chappey C, Verrill C, et al. Constraints on HIV-1 evolution and immunodominance revealed in monozygotic adult twins infected with the same virus. J Exp Med. 2006;203:529-39 pubmed..These results reveal considerable concordance of adaptive cellular and humoral immune responses and HIV evolution in the same genetic environment, suggesting constraints on mutational pathways to HIV immune escape. ..
- Chen C, Wang K, Chen C, Yu C, Chuang H, Chen H. Altered placental syncytin and its receptor ASCT2 expression in placental development and pre-eclampsia. BJOG. 2006;113:152-8 pubmed..Correspondingly, hypoxia decreases syncytin but not ASCT2 gene expression in cultured cytotrophoblasts. ..
- Edwards C, Holmes E, Pybus O, Wilson D, Viscidi R, Abrams E, et al. Evolution of the human immunodeficiency virus envelope gene is dominated by purifying selection. Genetics. 2006;174:1441-53 pubmed..This suggests the presence of deleterious mutations. We therefore conclude that intrahost HIV-1 evolution in envelope is dominated by purifying selection against low-frequency deleterious mutations that do not reach fixation. ..
- Matouskova M, Blazkova J, Pajer P, Pavlicek A, Hejnar J. CpG methylation suppresses transcriptional activity of human syncytin-1 in non-placental tissues. Exp Cell Res. 2006;312:1011-20 pubmed
- Maeda N, Fan H. Signal transduction pathways utilized by enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV-1) envelope protein in transformation of rat epithelial cells resemble those used by jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus. Virus Genes. 2008;36:147-55 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that the signaling pathways for ENTV and JSRV transformation are quite similar, consistent with the notion that these proteins do not determine the tissue-specificity of the tumors for these viruses...
- Nellåker C, Yao Y, Jones Brando L, Mallet F, Yolken R, Karlsson H. Transactivation of elements in the human endogenous retrovirus W family by viral infection. Retrovirology. 2006;3:44 pubmed..This brings into light that mechanisms behind the regulation of expression of HERV-W elements are more complex than previously assumed and suggests biological functions of these transcripts. ..
- Zhang H, Hoffmann F, He J, He X, Kankasa C, West J, et al. Characterization of HIV-1 subtype C envelope glycoproteins from perinatally infected children with different courses of disease. Retrovirology. 2006;3:73 pubmed
- Wang Johanning F, Liu J, Rycaj K, Huang M, Tsai K, Rosen D, et al. Expression of multiple human endogenous retrovirus surface envelope proteins in ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2007;120:81-90 pubmed..HERV env proteins, and especially those expressed on the cell surface, may serve as novel tumor targets for detection, diagnosis and immunotherapy of ovarian cancer. ..
- Malassine A, Blaise S, Handschuh K, Lalucque H, Dupressoir A, Evain Brion D, et al. Expression of the fusogenic HERV-FRD Env glycoprotein (syncytin 2) in human placenta is restricted to villous cytotrophoblastic cells. Placenta. 2007;28:185-91 pubmed..In vitro detection of HERV-FRD transcripts was restricted to villous trophoblastic cells and decreased significantly with time in culture. These results suggest that syncytin 2 might play a role in human trophoblastic cell fusion. ..
- Wootton S, Halbert C, Miller A. Envelope proteins of Jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus and enzootic nasal tumor virus induce similar bronchioalveolar tumors in lungs of mice. J Virol. 2006;80:9322-5 pubmed
- Dolei A. MSRV/HERV-W/syncytin and its linkage to multiple sclerosis: the usability and the hazard of a human endogenous retrovirus. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:232-5 pubmed
- Larsson L, Holck S, Christensen I. Prognostic role of syncytin expression in breast cancer. Hum Pathol. 2007;38:726-31 pubmed..Thus, syncytin expression constitutes a positive prognostic factor in breast cancer--a phenomenon that may be related to the involvement of syncytin in mediating fusions between breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. ..
- Takeda A, Matano T. Inhibition of infectious murine leukemia virus production by Fv-4 env gene products exerting dominant negative effect on viral envelope glycoprotein. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1590-6 pubmed
- Strick R, Ackermann S, Langbein M, Swiatek J, Schubert S, Hashemolhosseini S, et al. Proliferation and cell-cell fusion of endometrial carcinoma are induced by the human endogenous retroviral Syncytin-1 and regulated by TGF-beta. J Mol Med (Berl). 2007;85:23-38 pubmed..Interactions between Syncytin-1 and TGF-beta may contribute to the etiology of EnCa progression and also help to clarify the regulation of cell-cell fusions occurring in development and in other syncytial cell tumors. ..
- Thomas E, Dunfee R, Stanton J, Bogdan D, Taylor J, Kunstman K, et al. Macrophage entry mediated by HIV Envs from brain and lymphoid tissues is determined by the capacity to use low CD4 levels and overall efficiency of fusion. Virology. 2007;360:105-19 pubmed
- Chan W, Lin H, Chen S. Wild-type-like viral replication potential of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope mutants lacking palmitoylation signals. J Virol. 2005;79:8374-87 pubmed..Our results together support the notion that palmitoylation of the cytoplasmic tail of the HIV-1 Env is not essential for the HIV-1 virus life cycle. ..
- Frost S, Wrin T, Smith D, Kosakovsky Pond S, Liu Y, Paxinos E, et al. Neutralizing antibody responses drive the evolution of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope during recent HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18514-9 pubmed..Our results suggest that autologous neutralizing antibody responses may play a pivotal role in the diversification of HIV-1 envelope during the early stages of infection. ..
- Malassine A, Handschuh K, Tsatsaris V, Gerbaud P, Cheynet V, Oriol G, et al. Expression of HERV-W Env glycoprotein (syncytin) in the extravillous trophoblast of first trimester human placenta. Placenta. 2005;26:556-62 pubmed..HERV-W Env glycoprotein expressed in villous and extravillous trophoblast can be considered as a specific marker of the human trophoblast. ..
- Reuter S, Kaumanns P, Buschhorn S, Dittmar M. Role of HIV-2 envelope in Lv2-mediated restriction. Virology. 2005;332:347-58 pubmed..A remaining restriction to infection (19-fold) is preserved when endosomal acidification is prevented. This restriction to infection is also dependent on the presence of the point mutation at position 74 (G74E). ..
- Perron H, Lazarini F, Ruprecht K, Péchoux Longin C, Seilhean D, Sazdovitch V, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-W ENV and GAG proteins: physiological expression in human brain and pathophysiological modulation in multiple sclerosis lesions. J Neurovirol. 2005;11:23-33 pubmed..This is compatible with a pathophysiological role in MS, but also illustrates the ambivalence of such HERV antigens, which can be expressed in cell-specific patterns, under physiological or pathological conditions. ..
- Antony J, van Marle G, Opii W, Butterfield D, Mallet F, Yong V, et al. Human endogenous retrovirus glycoprotein-mediated induction of redox reactants causes oligodendrocyte death and demyelination. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:1088-95 pubmed..Thus, syncytin's proinflammatory properties in the nervous system demonstrate a novel role for an endogenous retrovirus protein, which may be a target for therapeutic intervention. ..
- Merten C, Stitz J, Braun G, Poeschla E, Cichutek K, Buchholz C. Directed evolution of retrovirus envelope protein cytoplasmic tails guided by functional incorporation into lentivirus particles. J Virol. 2005;79:834-40 pubmed..Interestingly, in some of the selected variants, the R-peptide cleavage site had shifted closer to the C terminus. These data demonstrate a valuable approach for the engineering of chimeric viruses and vector particles...
- Van Hoeven N, Miller A. Improved enzootic nasal tumor virus pseudotype packaging cell lines reveal virus entry requirements in addition to the primary receptor Hyal2. J Virol. 2005;79:87-94 pubmed..These results indicate the possibility of a coreceptor requirement for these viruses. ..
- Bartosch B, Stefanidis D, Myers R, Weiss R, Patience C, Takeuchi Y. Evidence and consequence of porcine endogenous retrovirus recombination. J Virol. 2004;78:13880-90 pubmed..In this context, pigs lacking non-human-tropic PERV-C would be more suitable as donor animals for clinical xenotransplantation. ..
- Blaise S, de Parseval N, Heidmann T. Functional characterization of two newly identified Human Endogenous Retrovirus coding envelope genes. Retrovirology. 2005;2:19 pubmed..Altogether, these results suggest that at least one of these env genes may play a role in placentation, but most probably through a process different from that of the two previously identified syncytins. ..
- Wallin M, Ekström M, Garoff H. The fusion-controlling disulfide bond isomerase in retrovirus Env is triggered by protein destabilization. J Virol. 2005;79:1678-85 pubmed..This finding indicates that destabilization of interactions in the SU oligomer induces the disulfide bond isomerase and the subsequent activation of the fusion function in TM. ..
- Rolland A, Jouvin Marche E, Saresella M, Ferrante P, Cavaretta R, Creange A, et al. Correlation between disease severity and in vitro cytokine production mediated by MSRV (multiple sclerosis associated retroviral element) envelope protein in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Neuroimmunol. 2005;160:195-203 pubmed..Altogether our data suggest that MSRV envelope protein may induce an abnormal cytokine secretion, thus contributing to the inflammatory process in MS. ..
- Garson J, Creange A, Dolei A, Ferrante P, Jouvin Marche E, Marche P, et al. MSRV, Syncytin and the role of endogenous retroviral proteins in demyelination. Mult Scler. 2005;11:249-50 pubmed
- Wootton S, Halbert C, Miller A. Sheep retrovirus structural protein induces lung tumours. Nature. 2005;434:904-7 pubmed
- Gong R, Peng X, Kang S, Feng H, Huang J, Zhang W, et al. Structural characterization of the fusion core in syncytin, envelope protein of human endogenous retrovirus family W. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;331:1193-200 pubmed..The fusion core structure of syncytin was first demonstrated in endogenous retrovirus. These results support the explanation how syncytin mediates cytotrophoblast cell fusion involved in placental morphogenesis. ..
- Walter B, Wehrly K, Swanstrom R, Platt E, Kabat D, Chesebro B. Role of low CD4 levels in the influence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope V1 and V2 regions on entry and spread in macrophages. J Virol. 2005;79:4828-37 pubmed..Thus, the limited expression of CD4 on macrophages or other cell types could serve as a selective factor for V1 and V2 envelope sequences, and this selection could in turn influence many aspects of AIDS pathogenesis in vivo. ..
- Cheynet V, Ruggieri A, Oriol G, Blond J, Boson B, Vachot L, et al. Synthesis, assembly, and processing of the Env ERVWE1/syncytin human endogenous retroviral envelope. J Virol. 2005;79:5585-93 pubmed..These SU and TM subunits are found associated as homotrimers. The intracytoplasmic tail is critical to the fusogenic phenotype, although its cleavage requirements seem to have diverged from those of classical retroviral maturation. ..
- Okahara G, Matsubara S, Oda T, Sugimoto J, Jinno Y, Kanaya F. Expression analyses of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs): tissue-specific and developmental stage-dependent expression of HERVs. Genomics. 2004;84:982-90 pubmed..Term placentas in general showed larger interindividual differences in HERV expression levels. Our results suggest that HERVs might have more diverse effects than currently thought. ..
- Beer C, Pedersen L, Wirth M. Amphotropic murine leukaemia virus envelope protein is associated with cholesterol-rich microdomains. Virol J. 2005;2:36 pubmed..g., measles virus and human immunodeficiency virus. For these viruses association of newly synthesized viral proteins with lipid rafts has been shown...
- Villesen P, Aagaard L, Wiuf C, Pedersen F. Identification of endogenous retroviral reading frames in the human genome. Retrovirology. 2004;1:32 pubmed..All data are publicly available through a database at http://www.retrosearch.dk. ..