Summary: Proteins which are synthesized as a single polymer and then cleaved into several distinct proteins.

Top Publications

  1. He Y, Yan W, Coito C, Li Y, Gale M, Katze M. The regulation of hepatitis C virus (HCV) internal ribosome-entry site-mediated translation by HCV replicons and nonstructural proteins. J Gen Virol. 2003;84:535-43 pubmed
    ..All these results suggest, for the first time, that HCV nonstructural proteins preferentially stimulate the viral cap-independent, IRES-mediated translation. ..
  2. Merits A, Rajamäki M, Lindholm P, Runeberg Roos P, Kekarainen T, Puustinen P, et al. Proteolytic processing of potyviral proteins and polyprotein processing intermediates in insect and plant cells. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:1211-21 pubmed
    ..Both 6K peptides are indispensable for virus replication, and proteolytic separation of the 6K2 protein from the adjacent proteins by NIaPro is important for the rate of virus replication and movement. ..
  3. Nair S, Savithri H. Natively unfolded nucleic acid binding P8 domain of SeMV polyprotein 2a affects the novel ATPase activity of the preceding P10 domain. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:571-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of P8, the ATPase activity of the protein of size 10kDa (P10) domain was reduced suggesting that the natively unfolded P8 domain influenced the P10 ATPase...
  4. Martire G, Viola A, Iodice L, Lotti L, Gradini R, Bonatti S. Hepatitis C virus structural proteins reside in the endoplasmic reticulum as well as in the intermediate compartment/cis-Golgi complex region of stably transfected cells. Virology. 2001;280:176-82 pubmed
    ..By analogy with other viral systems, this finding raises the possibility that the intermediate compartment and cis-Golgi complex play a role in the assembly and budding of hepatitis C virus. ..
  5. Rounsevell R, Steward A, Clarke J. Biophysical investigations of engineered polyproteins: implications for force data. Biophys J. 2005;88:2022-9 pubmed
    ..What is poorly addressed are the physical properties of these constructed polyproteins. Are the properties of the individual domains in the construct independent of one another or attenuated by ..
  6. Kumari S, Samant M, Misra P, Khare P, Sisodia B, Shasany A, et al. Th1-stimulatory polyproteins of soluble Leishmania donovani promastigotes ranging from 89.9 to 97.1 kDa offers long-lasting protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Vaccine. 2008;26:5700-11 pubmed publisher
  7. de Felipe P, Luke G, Brown J, Ryan M. Inhibition of 2A-mediated 'cleavage' of certain artificial polyproteins bearing N-terminal signal sequences. Biotechnol J. 2010;5:213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In the case of polyproteins bearing N-terminal signal sequences we observed, however, that the protein downstream of 2A (no signal) was ..
  8. Vijayachandran L, Viola C, Garzoni F, Trowitzsch S, Bieniossek C, Chaillet M, et al. Robots, pipelines, polyproteins: enabling multiprotein expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. J Struct Biol. 2011;175:198-208 pubmed publisher
    ..A polyprotein strategy has been developed to overcome this bottleneck and has been successfully implemented in our MultiBac baculovirus expression system for producing multiprotein complexes. ..
  9. Tezuka H, Imai S, Hidano S, Tsukidate S, Fujita K. Various types of Dirofilaria immitis polyproteins selectively induce a Th2-Type immune response. Infect Immun. 2003;71:3802-11 pubmed
    Dirofilaria immitis polyproteins (DiAgs) are found as 15-kDa monomeric and 30-kDa dimeric forms in excretory-secretory products of the adult worm...

More Information


  1. Lamarre D, Anderson P, Bailey M, Beaulieu P, Bolger G, Bonneau P, et al. An NS3 protease inhibitor with antiviral effects in humans infected with hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2003;426:186-9 pubmed
    ..Our results further illustrate the potential of the viral-enzyme-targeted drug discovery approach for the development of new HCV therapeutics. ..
  2. de Felipe P, Luke G, Hughes L, Gani D, Halpin C, Ryan M. E unum pluribus: multiple proteins from a self-processing polyprotein. Trends Biotechnol. 2006;24:68-75 pubmed
  3. Chung B, Miller W, Atkins J, Firth A. An overlapping essential gene in the Potyviridae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:5897-902 pubmed publisher
  4. Dasgupta B. Botulinum neurotoxins: perspective on their existence and as polyproteins harboring viral proteases. J Gen Appl Microbiol. 2006;52:1-8 pubmed
  5. Satheshkumar P, Lokesh G, Savithri H. Polyprotein processing: cis and trans proteolytic activities of Sesbania mosaic virus serine protease. Virology. 2004;318:429-38 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the serine protease domain is responsible for the processing of SeMV polyprotein both in cis and in trans...
  6. Wang W, Lahser F, Yi M, Wright Minogue J, Xia E, Weber P, et al. Conserved C-terminal threonine of hepatitis C virus NS3 regulates autoproteolysis and prevents product inhibition. J Virol. 2004;78:700-9 pubmed
  7. Gao F, Ou H, Chen L, Zheng W, Zhang C. Prediction of proteinase cleavage sites in polyproteins of coronaviruses and its applications in analyzing SARS-CoV genomes. FEBS Lett. 2003;553:451-6 pubmed
    ..this paper, the system is further improved by taking the prediction of cleavage sites of viral proteinases in polyproteins into account. The cleavage sites of the 3C-like proteinase and papain-like proteinase are highly conserved...
  8. Samalova M, Fricker M, Moore I. Ratiometric fluorescence-imaging assays of plant membrane traffic using polyproteins. Traffic. 2006;7:1701-23 pubmed
    ..Here the 20 residue self-cleaving 2A peptide from Foot and Mouth Disease Virus was used to construct polyproteins that expressed a trafficked marker in fixed stoichiometry with a reference protein in a different cellular ..
  9. Andres G, Alejo A, Salas J, Salas M. African swine fever virus polyproteins pp220 and pp62 assemble into the core shell. J Virol. 2002;76:12473-82 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, when p72 expression is blocked, unprocessed pp220 and pp62 polyproteins assemble into aberrant zipper-like elements consisting of an elongated membrane-bound protein structure ..
  10. Feng X, Xiu B, Chen K, Yang X, Zhang H, Yue J, et al. Enhanced serodiagnostic utility of novel Mycobacterium tuberculosis polyproteins. J Infect. 2013;66:366-75 pubmed publisher
    ..4, MPT64, TB16.3 and Mtb8) were evaluated serodiagnostically. Two novel M. tuberculosis polyproteins, 38kD-ESAT6-CFP10 (38F) and Mtb8.4-MPT64-TB16...
  11. Nair S, Gayathri P, Murthy M, Savithri H. Stacking interactions of W271 and H275 of SeMV serine protease with W43 of natively unfolded VPg confer catalytic activity to protease. Virology. 2008;382:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, we conclude that W271 and H275 of the protease domain mediate aromatic stacking interactions with W43 of VPg thereby rendering the protease active. ..
  12. Nie Y, Bellón Echeverría I, Trowitzsch S, Bieniossek C, Berger I. Multiprotein complex production in insect cells by using polyproteins. Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1091:131-41 pubmed publisher
    A powerful approach utilizing polyproteins for balancing stoichiometry of recombinant multiprotein complexes overproduced in baculovirus expression vector systems (BEVS) is described...
  13. Kim M, Kwon Y, Joh S, Lindberg A, Kwon J, Kim J, et al. Molecular analysis of duck hepatitis virus type 1 reveals a novel lineage close to the genus Parechovirus in the family Picornaviridae. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:3307-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the two DHV-1 strains form a monophyletic group, clearly distinct from members of the genus Parechovirus...
  14. Donnelly M, Luke G, Mehrotra A, Li X, Hughes L, Gani D, et al. Analysis of the aphthovirus 2A/2B polyprotein 'cleavage' mechanism indicates not a proteolytic reaction, but a novel translational effect: a putative ribosomal 'skip'. J Gen Virol. 2001;82:1013-25 pubmed
    ..FMDV 2A activity was studied in artificial polyproteins in which sequences encoding reporter proteins flanked the 2A sequence such that a single, long, open reading ..
  15. Luke G, de Felipe P, Lukashev A, Kallioinen S, Bruno E, Ryan M. Occurrence, function and evolutionary origins of '2A-like' sequences in virus genomes. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:1036-42 pubmed publisher
    2A is an oligopeptide sequence mediating a ribosome 'skipping' effect, producing an apparent 'cleavage' of polyproteins. First identified and characterized in picornaviruses, '2A-like' sequences are found in other mammalian viruses and a ..
  16. Fujiyuki T, Takeuchi H, Ono M, Ohka S, Sasaki T, Nomoto A, et al. Novel insect picorna-like virus identified in the brains of aggressive worker honeybees. J Virol. 2004;78:1093-100 pubmed
    ..amino acid residues that shares structural features and sequence similarities with various picorna-like virus polyproteins, especially those from sacbrood virus, which infects honeybees...
  17. Spetz C, Moe R, Blystad D. Symptomless infectious cDNA clone of a Norwegian isolate of Poinsettia mosaic virus. Arch Virol. 2008;153:1347-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Serial propagation of this cDNA clone in N. benthamiana plants restored symptom induction in this host but did not re-establish infectivity in poinsettia...
  18. Li L, Fang W, Li J, Huang Y, Yu L. Oral DNA vaccination with the polyprotein gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) delivered by the attenuated Salmonella elicits protective immune responses in chickens. Vaccine. 2006;24:5919-27 pubmed
    ..Our results have implications in the development of DNA vaccines against avian viral diseases by bacteria-vectored oral delivery system...
  19. Skeiky Y, Alderson M, Ovendale P, Guderian J, Brandt L, Dillon D, et al. Differential immune responses and protective efficacy induced by components of a tuberculosis polyprotein vaccine, Mtb72F, delivered as naked DNA or recombinant protein. J Immunol. 2004;172:7618-28 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis comparable to bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunization. Mtb72F in AS02A formulation is currently in phase I clinical trial, making it the first recombinant tuberculosis vaccine to be tested in humans. ..
  20. Suzuki R, DE Borba L, Duarte dos Santos C, Mason P. Construction of an infectious cDNA clone for a Brazilian prototype strain of dengue virus type 1: characterization of a temperature-sensitive mutation in NS1. Virology. 2007;362:374-83 pubmed
  21. Thole V, Hull R. Characterization of a protein from Rice tungro spherical virus with serine proteinase-like activity. J Gen Virol. 2002;83:3179-86 pubmed
  22. Bermúdez Aguirre A, Padilla Noriega L, Zenteno E, Reyes Leyva J. Identification of amino acid variants in the hepatitis C virus non-structural protein 4A. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2009;218:165-75 pubmed
    ..The replication of HCV involves translation and proteolytic processing of polyproteins. The HCV single-stranded RNA encodes a single polyprotein of C/E1/E2/p7/NS2/NS3/NS4A/NS4B/NS5A/NS5B...
  23. Nikolakakis K, Ohtaki A, Newton K, Chworos A, Sagermann M. Preliminary structural investigations of the Eut-L shell protein of the ethanolamine ammonia-lyase metabolosome of Escherichia coli. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2009;65:128-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 A using synchrotron radiation but proved to be radiation-sensitive. Preparations of heavy-atom-derivatized crystals for use in determining the three-dimensional structure are under way. ..
  24. Piccone M, Pacheco J, Pauszek S, Kramer E, Rieder E, Borca M, et al. The region between the two polyprotein initiation codons of foot-and-mouth disease virus is critical for virulence in cattle. Virology. 2010;396:152-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this study identified inter-AUG as an FMDV viral virulence determinant in cattle infected by aerosol route. ..
  25. Krenn B, Gaudernak E, Holzer B, Lanke K, van Kuppeveld F, Seipelt J. Antiviral activity of the zinc ionophores pyrithione and hinokitiol against picornavirus infections. J Virol. 2009;83:58-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, an increase in intracellular zinc levels provides the basis for a new antipicornavirus mechanism. ..
  26. Ratner G, Hodel A, Powers M. Molecular determinants of binding between Gly-Leu-Phe-Gly nucleoporins and the nuclear pore complex. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:33968-76 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that Nup116 and Nup100 likely use means of incorporation into the nuclear pore complex that are distinct from those used by Nup145N. ..
  27. Klymiuk N, Muller M, Brem G, Aigner B. Phylogeny, recombination and expression of porcine endogenous retrovirus gamma2 nucleotide sequences. J Gen Virol. 2006;87:977-86 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the two published gamma2 env gene sequences observed the partial lack of the receptor-binding domain. Overall, this study indicated the low infectious potential for PERV gamma2. ..
  28. Zhang B, Rapolu M, Huang L, Su W. Coordinate expression of multiple proteins in plant cells by exploiting endogenous kex2p-like protease activity. Plant Biotechnol J. 2011;9:970-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate the utility of native kex2p-like protease activity for the expression of multiple secretory proteins in plant cells using cleavable polyprotein precursors containing kex2p linker(s). ..
  29. Lanke K, Krenn B, Melchers W, Seipelt J, van Kuppeveld F. PDTC inhibits picornavirus polyprotein processing and RNA replication by transporting zinc ions into cells. J Gen Virol. 2007;88:1206-17 pubmed
    ..Finally, it is shown that PDTC interferes with proteolytic processing of the polyproteins of both CVB3 and mengovirus, but that the underlying mechanism between these two viruses differs...
  30. Sasková K, Kozísek M, Rezacova P, Brynda J, Yashina T, Kagan R, et al. Molecular characterization of clinical isolates of human immunodeficiency virus resistant to the protease inhibitor darunavir. J Virol. 2009;83:8810-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant virus phenotypic characterization, enzyme kinetics, and X-ray structural analysis thus help to explain darunavir resistance development in HIV-positive patients. ..
  31. Loughran G, Firth A, Atkins J. Ribosomal frameshifting into an overlapping gene in the 2B-encoding region of the cardiovirus genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:E1111-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Unlike previous cases of programmed -1 frameshifting, here frameshifting is modulated by virus infection, thus suggesting a novel regulatory role for frameshifting in these viruses. ..
  32. Bakonyi T, Gould E, Kolodziejek J, Weissenb ck H, Nowotny N. Complete genome analysis and molecular characterization of Usutu virus that emerged in Austria in 2001: comparison with the South African strain SAAR-1776 and other flaviviruses. Virology. 2004;328:301-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The factors that determine the severe clinical symptoms caused by the Austrian USUV strain in Eurasian blackbirds are discussed. We also offer a possible explanation for the origins and dispersal of USUV, JEV, and MVEV out of Africa...
  33. Govind K, Mäkinen K, Savithri H. Sesbania mosaic virus (SeMV) infectious clone: possible mechanism of 3' and 5' end repair and role of polyprotein processing in viral replication. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31190 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutation of the cleavage sites in the polyproteins encoded by ORF 2 resulted in complete loss of infection by the icDNA, suggesting the importance of correct ..
  34. Horwitz J, Dorner M, Friling T, Donovan B, Vogt A, Loureiro J, et al. Expression of heterologous proteins flanked by NS3-4A cleavage sites within the hepatitis C virus polyprotein. Virology. 2013;439:23-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression of heterologous proteins within the HCV genome offers new opportunities to analyze HCV infection in experimental systems without perturbing functions of individual viral proteins...
  35. Wylie S, Jones M. The complete genome sequence of a Passion fruit woodiness virus isolate from Australia determined using deep sequencing, and its relationship to other potyviruses. Arch Virol. 2011;156:479-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Accuracy of the genome sequence information was provided by 42-1691-fold sequence coverage, and viral RNA accounted for 7.38% of total polyadenylated RNA from the host plant...
  36. Knierim D, Menzel W, Winter S. Analysis of the complete genome sequence of euphorbia ringspot virus, an atypical member of the genus Potyvirus. Arch Virol. 2017;162:291-293 pubmed publisher
  37. Oka T, Yamamoto M, Miyashita K, Ogawa S, Katayama K, Wakita T, et al. Self-assembly of sapovirus recombinant virus-like particles from polyprotein in mammalian cells. Microbiol Immunol. 2009;53:49-52 pubmed publisher
  38. Le Gall O, Christian P, Fauquet C, King A, Knowles N, Nakashima N, et al. Picornavirales, a proposed order of positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses with a pseudo-T = 3 virion architecture. Arch Virol. 2008;153:715-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Newly described viruses, not yet assigned to an existing taxon by ICTV, may belong to the proposed order. ..
  39. Kroese M, Zevenhoven Dobbe J, Bos de Ruijter J, Peeters B, Meulenberg J, Cornelissen L, et al. The nsp1alpha and nsp1 papain-like autoproteinases are essential for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus RNA synthesis. J Gen Virol. 2008;89:494-9 pubmed publisher
    The two N-terminal cleavage products, nsp1alpha and nsp1beta, of the replicase polyproteins of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) each contain a papain-like autoproteinase domain, which have been named PCPalpha ..
  40. Bukh J, Engle R, Govindarajan S, Purcell R. Immunity against the GBV-B hepatitis virus in tamarins can prevent productive infection following rechallenge and is long-lived. J Med Virol. 2008;80:87-94 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrated that the immunity was long-lived: 1 year after the fourth challenge, the animal with sterilizing immunity had low titer viremia for only 1 week following an additional challenge...
  41. Armstrong R, Cox S, Aggarwal N, Mackay D, Davies P, Hamblin P, et al. Detection of antibody to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) non-structural polyprotein 3ABC in sheep by ELISA. J Virol Methods. 2005;125:153-63 pubmed
    ..Non-structural responses were also more frequent in animals from which multiple incidences of live FMD virus isolation (perhaps more indicative of true virus replication) were demonstrated. ..
  42. Vandermeeren A, Gómez C, Patiño C, Domingo Gil E, Guerra S, Gonzalez J, et al. Subcellular forms and biochemical events triggered in human cells by HCV polyprotein expression from a viral vector. Virol J. 2008;5:102 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate the uniqueness of the VT7-HCV7.9 system to characterize morphological and biochemical events related to HCV pathogenesis. ..
  43. Francois I, De Bolle M, Dwyer G, Goderis I, Woutors P, Verhaert P, et al. Transgenic expression in Arabidopsis of a polyprotein construct leading to production of two different antimicrobial proteins. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:1346-58 pubmed
  44. Hardy M, Crone T, Brower J, Ettayebi K. Substrate specificity of the Norwalk virus 3C-like proteinase. Virus Res. 2002;89:29-39 pubmed
    ..Finally, we defined the acidic residue of the 3CL(pro) catalytic site. ..
  45. Lu M, Li J, Wang Y, Jin Y, Yu L. [Expression of polyprotein of infectious bursal disease virus in Bombyx mori]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao. 2002;18:472-6 pubmed
    ..It appears that the recombinant polyprotein has the property of immunoreactivity and the expression in larvae reached the pick 5-day post infection. ..
  46. Zhang C, Suzuki S. Aquabirnaviruses isolated from marine organisms form a distinct genogroup from other aquabirnaviruses. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:633-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The MABV strains isolated from different host species and different geographical areas were very similar to each other, suggesting that the MABV are distinct from the other genogroups...
  47. Ainavarapu S, Brujic J, Huang H, Wiita A, Lu H, Li L, et al. Contour length and refolding rate of a small protein controlled by engineered disulfide bonds. Biophys J. 2007;92:225-33 pubmed
    ..We find that both a power law scaling tau(F) lambda n(lambda) with lambda = 4.4, and an exponential scaling with n(0.6) fit the data range, in support of different protein-folding scenarios. ..
  48. Bejerman N, Giolitti F, de Breuil S, Lenardon S. Sequencing of two sunflower chlorotic mottle virus isolates obtained from different natural hosts shed light on its evolutionary history. Virus Genes. 2013;46:105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence that mutation and recombination would have played important roles in the evolutionary history of SuCMoV. ..
  49. Donaldson E, Sims A, Graham R, Denison M, Baric R. Murine hepatitis virus replicase protein nsp10 is a critical regulator of viral RNA synthesis. J Virol. 2007;81:6356-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that nsp10 is a critical regulator of coronavirus RNA synthesis and may play an important role in polyprotein processing...
  50. Chen C, Chen T, Raja J, Chang C, Chen L, Lin S, et al. Effectiveness and stability of heterologous proteins expressed in plants by Turnip mosaic virus vector at five different insertion sites. Virus Res. 2007;130:210-27 pubmed
    ..var. chinensis and B. campestris L. var. ching-geeng than those in the plants of B. juncea L. and B. campestris L. var. pekinensis. ..
  51. Ghannad M, Zamani A. The full length hepatitis C virus polyprotein and interactions with the interferon-beta signalling pathways in vitro. Iran Biomed J. 2008;12:23-34 pubmed
    ..Whether HCV polyproteins modulate IFN signalling pathways or HCV proteins are responsible for such a property is the subject of interest...
  52. Kang J, Wu J, Bruenn J, Park C. The H1 double-stranded RNA genome of Ustilago maydis virus-H1 encodes a polyprotein that contains structural motifs for capsid polypeptide, papain-like protease, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Virus Res. 2001;76:183-9 pubmed
    ..The H2 dsRNA also encodes a distinct RDRP, suggesting that UmV is a complex virus system like the Saccharomyces cerevisiae viruses ScV-L1 and -La. ..