gliadin

Summary

Summary: Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.

Top Publications

  1. Heyman M, Menard S. Pathways of gliadin transport in celiac disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1165:274-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In patients with active CD, an abnormal retro-transport of IgA/gliadin immune complexes is observed...
  2. Sapone A, Lammers K, Mazzarella G, Mikhailenko I, Carteni M, Casolaro V, et al. Differential mucosal IL-17 expression in two gliadin-induced disorders: gluten sensitivity and the autoimmune enteropathy celiac disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152:75-80 pubmed publisher
    ..gluten sensitivity (GS) are two distinct clinical conditions that are both triggered by the ingestion of wheat gliadin. CD, but not GS, is associated with and possibly mediated by an autoimmune process...
  3. Vilasi S, Sirangelo I, Irace G, Caputo I, Barone M, Esposito C, et al. Interaction of 'toxic' and 'immunogenic' A-gliadin peptides with a membrane-mimetic environment. J Mol Recognit. 2010;23:322-8 pubmed publisher
    ..mechanisms responses to these different classes are based, but the 31-43 (P31-43) and the 56-68 (P56-68) A-gliadin fragments are usually adopted as sequence representatives of toxic and immunogenic peptides, respectively...
  4. Chen T, Hoffmann K, Ostman S, Sandberg A, Olsson O. Identification of gliadin-binding peptides by phage display. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Peptides originating from incomplete gliadin digestion activate the lamina propria infiltrating T cells to release proinflammatory cytokines, which in turn ..
  5. Rauhavirta T, Qiao S, Jiang Z, Myrsky E, Loponen J, Korponay Szabo I, et al. Epithelial transport and deamidation of gliadin peptides: a role for coeliac disease patient immunoglobulin A. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;164:127-36 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of coeliac patient IgA on the apical-to-basal passage of gluten-derived gliadin peptides p31-43 and p57-68 in intestinal epithelial cells...
  6. Parizade M, Shainberg B. Positive deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies and negative tissue transglutaminase IgA antibodies in a pediatric population: to biopsy or not to biopsy. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010;17:884-6 pubmed publisher
    ..show that 75% of children <2 years old tested for celiac serology who were found positive for deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP) antibodies had negative results for tissue transglutaminase IgA...
  7. de Kauwe A, Chen Z, Anderson R, Keech C, Price J, Wijburg O, et al. Resistance to celiac disease in humanized HLA-DR3-DQ2-transgenic mice expressing specific anti-gliadin CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2009;182:7440-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunization with the alpha-gliadin 17-mer that incorporates the overlapping DQ2-alpha-I and DQ2-alpha-II epitopes immunodominant in human celiac ..
  8. Visser J, Rozing J, Sapone A, Lammers K, Fasano A. Tight junctions, intestinal permeability, and autoimmunity: celiac disease and type 1 diabetes paradigms. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1165:195-205 pubmed publisher
    ..genetic association with HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 haplotypes and, more importantly, the environmental trigger (the gliadin fraction of gluten-containing grains wheat, barley, and rye) are known...
  9. Lewis N, Scott B. Meta-analysis: deamidated gliadin peptide antibody and tissue transglutaminase antibody compared as screening tests for coeliac disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;31:73-81 pubmed publisher
    Following the appreciation of the importance of gliadin deamidation in the immunopathogenesis of coeliac disease, diagnostic tests based on antibodies to deamidated gliadin peptides have been developed and shown to have high sensitivity ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Shor D, Barzilai O, Ram M, Izhaky D, Porat Katz B, Chapman J, et al. Gluten sensitivity in multiple sclerosis: experimental myth or clinical truth?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:343-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We found a highly significant increase in titers of immunoglobulin G antibodies against gliadin and tissue transglutaminase in the multiple sclerosis patients...
  2. Selimoglu M, Karabiber H. Celiac disease: prevention and treatment. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;44:4-8 pubmed publisher
    ..New therapeutic approaches include enzyme supplementation, correction of the intestinal barrier defect against gluten entry, blocking of gliadin presentation by human leukocyte antigen blockers and tissue transglutaminase inhibitors.
  3. Tortora R, Russo I, De Palma G, Luciani A, Rispo A, Zingone F, et al. In vitro gliadin challenge: diagnostic accuracy and utility for the difficult diagnosis of celiac disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2012;107:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro gliadin challenge...
  4. Kasperkiewicz M, Dähnrich C, Probst C, Komorowski L, Stocker W, Schlumberger W, et al. Novel assay for detecting celiac disease-associated autoantibodies in dermatitis herpetiformis using deamidated gliadin-analogous fusion peptides. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;66:583-8 pubmed publisher
    ..manifestation of celiac disease (CD), the latter being identified by circulating autoantibodies against native gliadin (nGli), tissue transglutaminase (tTG), endomysium, or a combination of these...
  5. Xie Z, Wang C, Wang K, Wang S, Li X, Zhang Z, et al. Molecular characterization of the celiac disease epitope domains in ?-gliadin genes in Aegilops tauschii and hexaploid wheats (Triticum aestivum L.). Theor Appl Genet. 2010;121:1239-51 pubmed publisher
    Nineteen novel full-ORF ?-gliadin genes and 32 pseudogenes containing at least one stop codon were cloned and sequenced from three Aegilops tauschii accessions (T15, T43 and T26) and two bread wheat cultivars (Gaocheng 8901 and Zhongyou ..
  6. Volta U, Granito A, Parisi C, Fabbri A, Fiorini E, Piscaglia M, et al. Deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies as a routine test for celiac disease: a prospective analysis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2010;44:186-90 pubmed publisher
    This study was designed to establish whether deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies (DGP-AGA) could improve the serologic workup for celiac disease (CD)...
  7. Caputo I, Secondo A, Lepretti M, Paolella G, Auricchio S, Barone M, et al. Gliadin peptides induce tissue transglutaminase activation and ER-stress through Ca2+ mobilization in Caco-2 cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45209 pubmed publisher
    ..inflammatory condition that develops in genetically susceptible individuals after exposure to dietary wheat gliadin. The role of post-translational modifications of gliadin catalyzed by tissue transglutaminase (tTG) seems to play ..
  8. Camarca A, Anderson R, Mamone G, Fierro O, Facchiano A, Costantini S, et al. Intestinal T cell responses to gluten peptides are largely heterogeneous: implications for a peptide-based therapy in celiac disease. J Immunol. 2009;182:4158-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Polyclonal, gliadin-reactive T cell lines were generated from jejunal mucosa and assayed for both proliferation and IFN-gamma ..
  9. Monzani A, Rapa A, Fonio P, Tognato E, Panigati L, Oderda G. Use of deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies to monitor diet compliance in childhood celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2011;53:55-60 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate performance of serum antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides (a-DGPs) in detecting compliance with gluten-free diet (GFD) in children with celiac disease (CD)...
  10. Lammers K, Khandelwal S, Chaudhry F, Kryszak D, Puppa E, Casolaro V, et al. Identification of a novel immunomodulatory gliadin peptide that causes interleukin-8 release in a chemokine receptor CXCR3-dependent manner only in patients with coeliac disease. Immunology. 2011;132:432-40 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that the chemokine receptor CXCR3 serves as a receptor for specific gliadin peptides that cause zonulin release and subsequent increase in intestinal permeability...
  11. Van Den Broeck H, de Jong H, Salentijn E, Dekking L, Bosch D, Hamer R, et al. Presence of celiac disease epitopes in modern and old hexaploid wheat varieties: wheat breeding may have contributed to increased prevalence of celiac disease. Theor Appl Genet. 2010;121:1527-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Such selected lines may serve as a start to breed wheat for the introduction of 'low CD toxic' as a new breeding trait. Large-scale culture and consumption of such varieties would considerably aid in decreasing the prevalence of CD. ..
  12. Olén O, Gudjónsdóttir A, Browaldh L, Hessami M, Elvin K, Liedberg A, et al. Antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides and tissue transglutaminase for diagnosis of pediatric celiac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;55:695-700 pubmed publisher
    ..to evaluate diagnostic performance and actual costs in clinical practice of immumoglobulin (Ig)G/IgA deamidated gliadin peptide antibodies (DGP) as a complement to IgA antibodies against tissue transglutaminase (tTG) for the ..
  13. Dickerson F, Stallings C, Vaughan C, Origoni A, Goga J, Khushalani S, et al. Artemisinin reduces the level of antibodies to gliadin in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2011;129:196-200 pubmed publisher
    ..Symptoms were assessed biweekly. Antibodies to toxoplasma and to gliadin, a food antigen, were assessed at the beginning and end of the trial...
  14. Zevallos V, Ellis H, Suligoj T, Herencia L, Ciclitira P. Variable activation of immune response by quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) prolamins in celiac disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:337-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Quinoa is a highly nutritive plant from the Andes, with low concentrations of prolamins, that has been recommended as part of a gluten-free diet; however, few experimental data support this recommendation...
  15. Prause C, Ritter M, Probst C, Daehnrich C, Schlumberger W, Komorowski L, et al. Antibodies against deamidated gliadin as new and accurate biomarkers of childhood coeliac disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2009;49:52-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Assays of antibodies against native gliadin (anti-nGli) lost importance due to low validity...
  16. Caputo I, Barone M, Lepretti M, Martucciello S, Nista I, Troncone R, et al. Celiac anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies interfere with the uptake of alpha gliadin peptide 31-43 but not of peptide 57-68 by epithelial cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1802:717-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that cell-surface tTG plays a hitherto unknown role in the regulation of gliadin peptide uptake and endocytosis.
  17. Lebreton C, Menard S, Abed J, Moura I, Coppo R, Dugave C, et al. Interactions among secretory immunoglobulin A, CD71, and transglutaminase-2 affect permeability of intestinal epithelial cells to gliadin peptides. Gastroenterology. 2012;143:698-707.e4 pubmed publisher
    ..samples from patients with active celiac disease and promotes retrotransport of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA)-gliadin complexes...
  18. Bucci C, Zingone F, Russo I, Morra I, Tortora R, Pogna N, et al. Gliadin does not induce mucosal inflammation or basophil activation in patients with nonceliac gluten sensitivity. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013;11:1294-1299.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..of duodenal mucosa samples and peripheral blood basophils, isolated from NCGS patients, after exposure to gliadin. Participants underwent a complete clinical evaluation to exclude celiac disease while on a gluten-containing ..
  19. Nanri K, Shibuya M, Taguchi T, Hasegawa A, Tanaka N. Selective loss of Purkinje cells in a patient with anti-gliadin-antibody-positive autoimmune cerebellar ataxia. Diagn Pathol. 2011;6:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Mild ataxia was observed in all limbs. Her deep tendon reflex and sense of position were normal. IgA anti-gliadin antibody, IgG anti-gliadin antibody, anti-SS-A/Ro antibody, anti-SS-B/La antibody and anti-TPO antibody were ..
  20. Gornowicz Porowska J, Bowszyc Dmochowska M, Seraszek Jaros A, Kaczmarek E, Dmochowski M. Association between levels of IgA antibodies to tissue transglutaminase and gliadin-related nonapeptides in dermatitis herpetiformis. ScientificWorldJournal. 2012;2012:363296 pubmed publisher
    ..Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and nonapeptides of gliadin (npG) are considered in its pathomechanism/diagnostics...
  21. Richter T, Bossuyt X, Vermeersch P, Uhlig H, Stern M, Hauer A, et al. Determination of IgG and IgA antibodies against native gliadin is not helpful for the diagnosis of coeliac disease in children up to 2 years old. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012;55:21-5 pubmed publisher
    Assays for antibodies against native gliadin (anti-nGli) are still often assumed to perform better in the diagnosis of coeliac disease in young children than tests for antibodies to deamidated gliadin (anti-dGli), tissue transglutaminase ..
  22. Barone M, Zanzi D, Maglio M, Nanayakkara M, Santagata S, Lania G, et al. Gliadin-mediated proliferation and innate immune activation in celiac disease are due to alterations in vesicular trafficking. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17039 pubmed publisher
    ..We have previously shown that gliadin peptide P31-43 induces proliferation of cell lines and celiac enterocytes by delaying degradation of the active ..
  23. Mazumdar K, Alvarez X, Borda J, Dufour J, Martin E, Bethune M, et al. Visualization of transepithelial passage of the immunogenic 33-residue peptide from alpha-2 gliadin in gluten-sensitive macaques. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10228 pubmed publisher
    ..and transepithelial transport of a proteolytically resistant, immunotoxic, 33-residue peptide from alpha(2)-gliadin in the distal duodenum of gluten-sensitive macaques...
  24. Salentijn E, Mitea D, Goryunova S, van der Meer I, Padioleau I, Gilissen L, et al. Celiac disease T-cell epitopes from gamma-gliadins: immunoreactivity depends on the genome of origin, transcript frequency, and flanking protein variation. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:277 pubmed publisher
    ..Next to the thoroughly characterized major T-cell epitopes derived from the ?-gliadin fraction of gluten, ?-gliadin peptides are also known to stimulate T-cells of celiac disease patients...
  25. Dahle C, Hagman A, Ignatova S, Strom M. Antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides identify adult coeliac disease patients negative for antibodies against endomysium and tissue transglutaminase. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2010;32:254-60 pubmed publisher
    This study was done to evaluate the diagnostic utility of antibodies against deamidated gliadin peptides compared to traditional markers for coeliac disease...
  26. Castellanos Rubio A, Santin I, Irastorza I, Castano L, Carlos Vitoria J, Ramon Bilbao J. TH17 (and TH1) signatures of intestinal biopsies of CD patients in response to gliadin. Autoimmunity. 2009;42:69-73 pubmed publisher
    Celiac disease (CD) is an immunological disorder caused by intolerance to ingested gliadin and other cereal prolamins that has been included in the T(H)1-dominated group of diseases, where IL-12 induced IFNgamma is the major ..
  27. Giordani L, Del Pinto T, Vincentini O, Felli C, Silano M, Viora M. Two wheat decapeptides prevent gliadin-dependent maturation of human dendritic cells. Exp Cell Res. 2014;321:248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to monitor the effect of peptic-tryptic digest of gliadin (PT-gliadin) on the maturation of human monocyte-derived DC and the impact of pDAV and pRPQ decapeptides in the ..
  28. Delcour J, Joye I, Pareyt B, Wilderjans E, Brijs K, Lagrain B. Wheat gluten functionality as a quality determinant in cereal-based food products. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2012;3:469-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it is speculated that the structure and texture of soft wheat products are also, at least to some degree, shaped by the heat-induced changes in the gluten protein fraction. ..
  29. Houghton C, Steels E, Fassett R, Coombes J. Effects of a gliadin-combined plant superoxide dismutase extract on self-perceived fatigue in women aged 50-65 years. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:521-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A thermolabile gliadin-combined plant superoxide dismutase (SOD) extract has shown potential in clinical trials as a therapeutic ..
  30. De Palma G, Kamanova J, Cinova J, Olivares M, Drasarova H, Tuckova L, et al. Modulation of phenotypic and functional maturation of dendritic cells by intestinal bacteria and gliadin: relevance for celiac disease. J Leukoc Biol. 2012;92:1043-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Enterobacteria also induced inflammatory cytokine production (IFN-?, TNF-?, and IL-12), partially resembling the gliadin-induced Th1-type cytokine profile. B. longum CECT 7347 and B...
  31. Gil Humanes J, Piston F, Giménez M, Martin A, Barro F. The introgression of RNAi silencing of ?-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45937 pubmed publisher
  32. Prause C, Richter T, Koletzko S, Uhlig H, Hauer A, Stern M, et al. New developments in serodiagnosis of childhood celiac disease: assay of antibodies against deamidated gliadin. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1173:28-35 pubmed publisher
    Antibodies to deamidated gliadin present a new tool in the diagnosis of celiac disease (CD)...
  33. Harris K, Fasano A, Mann D. Monocytes differentiated with IL-15 support Th17 and Th1 responses to wheat gliadin: implications for celiac disease. Clin Immunol. 2010;135:430-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is not clear how IL-15 affects APC that shape adaptive immune responses to the dietary antigen, gliadin. Using PBMC from healthy individuals, we show that monocytes differentiated with IL-15 (IL15-DC) produced IL-..
  34. Gil Humanes J, Piston F, Tollefsen S, Sollid L, Barro F. Effective shutdown in the expression of celiac disease-related wheat gliadin T-cell epitopes by RNA interference. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:17023-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, transgenic lines were also tested with two T-cell lines that are reactive with ?-gliadin epitopes...
  35. Sugai E, Moreno M, Hwang H, Cabanne A, Crivelli A, Nachman F, et al. Celiac disease serology in patients with different pretest probabilities: is biopsy avoidable?. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16:3144-52 pubmed
    ..enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) that detected antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (tTG) and deamidated gliadin peptide (DGP). CD prevalence was 39.1% in the high-risk population and 3.3% in the low-risk group...
  36. Stenman S, Lindfors K, Venäläinen J, Hautala A, Mannisto P, Garcia Horsman J, et al. Degradation of coeliac disease-inducing rye secalin by germinating cereal enzymes: diminishing toxic effects in intestinal epithelial cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2010;161:242-9 pubmed publisher
    ..rye secalin activates toxic reactions in vitro in intestinal epithelial cell models as extensively as wheat gliadin. Further, we investigated the efficacy of germinating cereal enzymes from oat, wheat and barley to hydrolyse ..
  37. Pinier M, Verdu E, Nasser Eddine M, David C, Vezina A, Rivard N, et al. Polymeric binders suppress gliadin-induced toxicity in the intestinal epithelium. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:288-98 pubmed publisher
    Celiac disease is a prevalent immune disorder caused by the ingestion of gliadin-containing grains...
  38. Banc A, Desbat B, Renard D, Popineau Y, Mangavel C, Navailles L. Exploring the interactions of gliadins with model membranes: effect of confined geometry and interfaces. Biopolymers. 2009;91:610-22 pubmed publisher
    ..in the difference of aminoacid sequence distribution: an alternate repeated - unrepeated domain within gamma-gliadin sequence, while one unique repeated domain was present within omega-gliadin sequence...
  39. Mitea C, Salentijn E, van Veelen P, Goryunova S, van der Meer I, Van Den Broeck H, et al. A universal approach to eliminate antigenic properties of alpha-gliadin peptides in celiac disease. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15637 pubmed publisher
    ..We have analyzed over 3,000 expressed ?-gliadin sequences from 11 bread wheat cultivars to determine whether they encode for peptides potentially involved in ..
  40. Silano M, Vincentini O, Luciani A, Felli C, Caserta S, Esposito S, et al. Early tissue transglutaminase-mediated response underlies K562(S)-cell gliadin-dependent agglutination. Pediatr Res. 2012;71:532-8 pubmed publisher
    ..K562(S) cells were incubated in vitro with the peptic-tryptic digest of wheat gliadin. The agglutination of K562(S) cells by wheat gliadin peptides is orchestrated by a cascade of very early events ..
  41. Helmerhorst E, Zamakhchari M, Schuppan D, Oppenheim F. Discovery of a novel and rich source of gluten-degrading microbial enzymes in the oral cavity. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13264 pubmed publisher
    ..The immunogenic gliadin epitopes, containing multiple glutamine and proline residues, are largely resistant to degradation by gastric and ..
  42. Lagrain B, Brijs K, Delcour J. Reaction kinetics of gliadin-glutenin cross-linking in model systems and in bread making. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:10660-6 pubmed publisher
    The gluten proteins gliadin and glutenin are important for wheat flour functionality in bread making, where, during baking, they polymerize through a heat-induced sulfhydryl-disulfide exchange mechanism...
  43. Barone M, Nanayakkara M, Paolella G, Maglio M, Vitale V, Troiano R, et al. Gliadin peptide P31-43 localises to endocytic vesicles and interferes with their maturation. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12246 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of innate immunity by gliadin peptides is an important component of the early events of the disease...
  44. Laparra J, Olivares M, Gallina O, Sanz Y. Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 modulates immune responses in a gliadin-induced enteropathy animal model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30744 pubmed publisher
    Coeliac disease (CD) is an autoimmune disorder triggered by gluten proteins (gliadin) that involves innate and adaptive immunity...
  45. Bodd M, Raki M, Tollefsen S, Fallang L, Bergseng E, Lundin K, et al. HLA-DQ2-restricted gluten-reactive T cells produce IL-21 but not IL-17 or IL-22. Mucosal Immunol. 2010;3:594-601 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining intracellular cytokine staining with DQ2-?-II gliadin peptide tetramer staining of intestinal polyclonal T-cell lines, we found that gluten-specific T cells produced ..
  46. Castellanos Rubio A, Santin I, Martin Pagola A, Irastorza I, Castano L, Vitoria J, et al. Long-term and acute effects of gliadin on small intestine of patients on potentially pathogenic networks in celiac disease. Autoimmunity. 2010;43:131-9 pubmed publisher
    Celiac disease (CD) is a complex, immune-mediated intolerance to gliadin that develops in genetically susceptible individuals...
  47. Ballabio C, Uberti F, Di Lorenzo C, Brandolini A, Peñas E, Restani P. Biochemical and immunochemical characterization of different varieties of amaranth (Amaranthus L. ssp.) as a safe ingredient for gluten-free products. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:12969-74 pubmed publisher
    ..All of the amaranth samples studied showed similar binding affinities for both specific anti-gliadin antibodies and human IgAs...
  48. Gianfrani C, Maglio M, Rotondi Aufiero V, Camarca A, Vocca I, Iaquinto G, et al. Immunogenicity of monococcum wheat in celiac patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012;96:1339-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Interferon-? production and the proliferation of intestinal gliadin-specific T cell lines and clones were measured as evidence of T cell activation by peptic and tryptic (PT) ..
  49. Gordon S, Stanley E, Wolf S, Toland A, Wu S, Hadidi D, et al. Computational design of an ?-gliadin peptidase. J Am Chem Soc. 2012;134:20513-20 pubmed publisher
  50. Zhuang Q, Zhang Z, Chen F, Xia G. Comparative and evolutionary analysis of new variants of ?-gliadin genes from three A-genome diploid wheats. J Appl Genet. 2012;53:125-31 pubmed publisher
    A genomic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) cloning strategy was applied to isolate ?-gliadin sequences from three A-genome diploid wheats (Triticum monococcum, T. boeoticum and T. urartu)...
  51. Nanayakkara M, Lania G, Maglio M, Discepolo V, Sarno M, Gaito A, et al. An undigested gliadin peptide activates innate immunity and proliferative signaling in enterocytes: the role in celiac disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2013;98:1123-35 pubmed publisher
    On ingestion of gliadin, the major protein component of wheat and other cereals, the celiac intestine is characterized by the proliferation of crypt enterocytes with an inversion of the differentiation/proliferation program...
  52. Comino I, Real A, Moreno M, Montes R, Cebolla A, Sousa C. Immunological determination of gliadin 33-mer equivalent peptides in beers as a specific and practical analytical method to assess safety for celiac patients. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93:933-43 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the presence of gluten peptides equivalent to the major immunotoxic protease-resistant gliadin 33-mer in 100 Belgium beers, using monoclonal antibodies (G12/A1)...
  53. Anderson O, Gu Y, Kong X, Lazo G, Wu J. The wheat omega-gliadin genes: structure and EST analysis. Funct Integr Genomics. 2009;9:397-410 pubmed publisher
    A survey and analysis is made of all available omega-gliadin DNA sequences including omega-gliadin genes within a large genomic clone, previously reported gene sequences, and ESTs identified from the large wheat EST collection...