phytochrome b

Summary

Summary: A plant photo regulatory protein that exists in two forms that are reversibly interconvertible by LIGHT. In response to light it moves to the CELL NUCLEUS and regulates transcription of target genes. Phytochrome B plays an important role in shade avoidance and mediates plant de-etiolation in red light.

Top Publications

  1. Adam E, Hussong A, Bindics J, Wüst F, Viczian A, Essing M, et al. Altered dark- and photoconversion of phytochrome B mediate extreme light sensitivity and loss of photoreversibility of the phyB-401 mutant. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27250 pubmed publisher
  2. Sellaro R, Crepy M, Trupkin S, Karayekov E, Buchovsky A, Rossi C, et al. Cryptochrome as a sensor of the blue/green ratio of natural radiation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of blue/green ratio on cryptochrome-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl growth was at least as large as that of irradiance. We conclude that cryptochrome is a sensor of blue irradiance and blue/green ratio. ..
  3. Boccalandro H, Rugnone M, Moreno J, Ploschuk E, Serna L, Yanovsky M, et al. Phytochrome B enhances photosynthesis at the expense of water-use efficiency in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1083-92 pubmed publisher
    ..High red to far-red ratios increase the proportion of phytochrome B (phyB) in its active form and the phyB mutant exhibited a constitutively low stomata density...
  4. Filiault D, Wessinger C, DINNENY J, Lutes J, Borevitz J, Weigel D, et al. Amino acid polymorphisms in Arabidopsis phytochrome B cause differential responses to light. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, phytochrome B (PHYB) is the dominant photoreceptor for red light and plays a major role in white light...
  5. Fairchild C, Schumaker M, Quail P. HFR1 encodes an atypical bHLH protein that acts in phytochrome A signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2377-91 pubmed
    ..HFR1 mRNA is 30-fold more abundant in FRc than in continuous red light, suggesting a potential mechanistic basis for the specificity of HFR1 to phyA signaling. ..
  6. Al Sady B, Ni W, Kircher S, Schafer E, Quail P. Photoactivated phytochrome induces rapid PIF3 phosphorylation prior to proteasome-mediated degradation. Mol Cell. 2006;23:439-46 pubmed
  7. Christians M, Gingerich D, Hua Z, Lauer T, Vierstra R. The light-response BTB1 and BTB2 proteins assemble nuclear ubiquitin ligases that modify phytochrome B and D signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:118-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This red light hypersensitivity can be overcome by eliminating phytochrome B (phyB) and phyD, indicating that LRB1/2 act downstream of these two photoreceptor isoforms...
  8. Rausenberger J, Hussong A, Kircher S, Kirchenbauer D, Timmer J, Nagy F, et al. An integrative model for phytochrome B mediated photomorphogenesis: from protein dynamics to physiology. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10721 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed an integrative mathematical model that describes how phytochrome B (phyB), an essential receptor in Arabidopsis thaliana, controls growth...
  9. Leivar P, Monte E, Al Sady B, Carle C, Storer A, Alonso J, et al. The Arabidopsis phytochrome-interacting factor PIF7, together with PIF3 and PIF4, regulates responses to prolonged red light by modulating phyB levels. Plant Cell. 2008;20:337-52 pubmed publisher
  10. Lorrain S, Allen T, Duek P, Whitelam G, Fankhauser C. Phytochrome-mediated inhibition of shade avoidance involves degradation of growth-promoting bHLH transcription factors. Plant J. 2008;53:312-23 pubmed
    ..PIFs contain an active phytochrome binding (APB) domain that mediates their interaction with light-activated phytochrome B (phyB)...

Detail Information

Publications62

  1. Adam E, Hussong A, Bindics J, Wüst F, Viczian A, Essing M, et al. Altered dark- and photoconversion of phytochrome B mediate extreme light sensitivity and loss of photoreversibility of the phyB-401 mutant. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27250 pubmed publisher
  2. Sellaro R, Crepy M, Trupkin S, Karayekov E, Buchovsky A, Rossi C, et al. Cryptochrome as a sensor of the blue/green ratio of natural radiation in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:401-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of blue/green ratio on cryptochrome-mediated inhibition of hypocotyl growth was at least as large as that of irradiance. We conclude that cryptochrome is a sensor of blue irradiance and blue/green ratio. ..
  3. Boccalandro H, Rugnone M, Moreno J, Ploschuk E, Serna L, Yanovsky M, et al. Phytochrome B enhances photosynthesis at the expense of water-use efficiency in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1083-92 pubmed publisher
    ..High red to far-red ratios increase the proportion of phytochrome B (phyB) in its active form and the phyB mutant exhibited a constitutively low stomata density...
  4. Filiault D, Wessinger C, DINNENY J, Lutes J, Borevitz J, Weigel D, et al. Amino acid polymorphisms in Arabidopsis phytochrome B cause differential responses to light. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:3157-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis thaliana, phytochrome B (PHYB) is the dominant photoreceptor for red light and plays a major role in white light...
  5. Fairchild C, Schumaker M, Quail P. HFR1 encodes an atypical bHLH protein that acts in phytochrome A signal transduction. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2377-91 pubmed
    ..HFR1 mRNA is 30-fold more abundant in FRc than in continuous red light, suggesting a potential mechanistic basis for the specificity of HFR1 to phyA signaling. ..
  6. Al Sady B, Ni W, Kircher S, Schafer E, Quail P. Photoactivated phytochrome induces rapid PIF3 phosphorylation prior to proteasome-mediated degradation. Mol Cell. 2006;23:439-46 pubmed
  7. Christians M, Gingerich D, Hua Z, Lauer T, Vierstra R. The light-response BTB1 and BTB2 proteins assemble nuclear ubiquitin ligases that modify phytochrome B and D signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2012;160:118-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This red light hypersensitivity can be overcome by eliminating phytochrome B (phyB) and phyD, indicating that LRB1/2 act downstream of these two photoreceptor isoforms...
  8. Rausenberger J, Hussong A, Kircher S, Kirchenbauer D, Timmer J, Nagy F, et al. An integrative model for phytochrome B mediated photomorphogenesis: from protein dynamics to physiology. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10721 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed an integrative mathematical model that describes how phytochrome B (phyB), an essential receptor in Arabidopsis thaliana, controls growth...
  9. Leivar P, Monte E, Al Sady B, Carle C, Storer A, Alonso J, et al. The Arabidopsis phytochrome-interacting factor PIF7, together with PIF3 and PIF4, regulates responses to prolonged red light by modulating phyB levels. Plant Cell. 2008;20:337-52 pubmed publisher
  10. Lorrain S, Allen T, Duek P, Whitelam G, Fankhauser C. Phytochrome-mediated inhibition of shade avoidance involves degradation of growth-promoting bHLH transcription factors. Plant J. 2008;53:312-23 pubmed
    ..PIFs contain an active phytochrome binding (APB) domain that mediates their interaction with light-activated phytochrome B (phyB)...
  11. Neff M, Nguyen S, Malancharuvil E, Fujioka S, Noguchi T, Seto H, et al. BAS1: A gene regulating brassinosteroid levels and light responsiveness in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:15316-23 pubmed
    ..The Arabidopsis bas1-D mutation suppresses the long hypocotyl phenotype caused by mutations in the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB)...
  12. Liu J, Zhang F, Zhou J, Chen F, Wang B, Xie X. Phytochrome B control of total leaf area and stomatal density affects drought tolerance in rice. Plant Mol Biol. 2012;78:289-300 pubmed publisher
    We report that phytochrome B (phyB) mutants exhibit improved drought tolerance compared to wild type (WT) rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare)...
  13. Chen M, Tao Y, Lim J, Shaw A, Chory J. Regulation of phytochrome B nuclear localization through light-dependent unmasking of nuclear-localization signals. Curr Biol. 2005;15:637-42 pubmed
  14. Pfeiffer A, Nagel M, Popp C, Wüst F, Bindics J, Viczian A, et al. Interaction with plant transcription factors can mediate nuclear import of phytochrome B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:5892-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Under prolonged irradiations additional factors might be responsible for phyB nuclear transport in the plant...
  15. Khanna R, Kikis E, Quail P. EARLY FLOWERING 4 functions in phytochrome B-regulated seedling de-etiolation. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1530-8 pubmed
  16. Halliday K, Salter M, Thingnaes E, Whitelam G. Phytochrome control of flowering is temperature sensitive and correlates with expression of the floral integrator FT. Plant J. 2003;33:875-85 pubmed
    ..This suggests that discrete pathways control flowering and petiole elongation, components of the shade-avoidance response. This work provides an insight into the phytochrome and temperature interactions that maintain flowering control. ..
  17. Chen M, Schwab R, Chory J. Characterization of the requirements for localization of phytochrome B to nuclear bodies. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:14493-8 pubmed
    ..Here, we describe the steady-state dynamics of Arabidopsis phytochrome B (phyB) localization in response to different light conditions and define four phyB subnuclear localization ..
  18. Wagner D, Hoecker U, Quail P. RED1 is necessary for phytochrome B-mediated red light-specific signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1997;9:731-43 pubmed
    Seedlings of a transgenic Arabidopsis line (ABO) that overexpresses phytochrome B (phyB) display enhanced deetiolation specifically in red light...
  19. Huq E, Al Sady B, Quail P. Nuclear translocation of the photoreceptor phytochrome B is necessary for its biological function in seedling photomorphogenesis. Plant J. 2003;35:660-4 pubmed
  20. Matsushita T, Mochizuki N, Nagatani A. Dimers of the N-terminal domain of phytochrome B are functional in the nucleus. Nature. 2003;424:571-4 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the C-terminal domain of Arabidopsis phytochrome B (phyB), which is known as the most important member of the phytochrome family, is not directly involved in ..
  21. Sharrock R, Clack T. Patterns of expression and normalized levels of the five Arabidopsis phytochromes. Plant Physiol. 2002;130:442-56 pubmed
    ..These studies indicate that, with the exception of phytochrome A, the family of phytochrome photoreceptors in Arabidopsis constitutes a quite stable and very broadly distributed array of sensory molecules. ..
  22. Chen M, Galvão R, Li M, Burger B, Bugea J, Bolado J, et al. Arabidopsis HEMERA/pTAC12 initiates photomorphogenesis by phytochromes. Cell. 2010;141:1230-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results implicate phytochrome nuclear bodies as sites of proteolysis. ..
  23. González C, Ibarra S, Piccoli P, Botto J, Boccalandro H. Phytochrome B increases drought tolerance by enhancing ABA sensitivity in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell Environ. 2012;35:1958-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Phytochrome B (phyB) can adjust morphological and physiological responses according to changes in the red:far-red (R:FR) ratio...
  24. Hu W, Su Y, Lagarias J. A light-independent allele of phytochrome B faithfully recapitulates photomorphogenic transcriptional networks. Mol Plant. 2009;2:166-82 pubmed publisher
    Dominant gain-of-function alleles of Arabidopsis phytochrome B were recently shown to confer light-independent, constitutive photomorphogenic (cop) phenotypes to transgenic plants (Su and Lagarias, 2007)...
  25. Luesse D, DeBlasio S, Hangarter R. Integration of Phot1, Phot2, and PhyB signalling in light-induced chloroplast movements. J Exp Bot. 2010;61:4387-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Mutations in phytochrome B (phyB) caused an enhanced avoidance response at intermediate and high light intensities...
  26. Ni M, Tepperman J, Quail P. PIF3, a phytochrome-interacting factor necessary for normal photoinduced signal transduction, is a novel basic helix-loop-helix protein. Cell. 1998;95:657-67 pubmed
    ..Together, the data suggest that phytochrome signaling to photoregulated genes includes a direct pathway involving physical interaction between the photoreceptor and a transcriptional regulator. ..
  27. Oka Y, Matsushita T, Mochizuki N, Quail P, Nagatani A. Mutant screen distinguishes between residues necessary for light-signal perception and signal transfer by phytochrome B. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000158 pubmed publisher
    ..Alignment with the recently described three-dimensional structure of the PAS-GAF domain of a bacterial phytochrome suggests that these four mutations reside in the vicinity of the phytochrome light-sensing knot. ..
  28. Kebrom T, Brutnell T, Finlayson S. Suppression of sorghum axillary bud outgrowth by shade, phyB and defoliation signalling pathways. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:48-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) has revealed a role for phytochrome B (phyB) in the control of axillary bud outgrowth through the regulation of Teosinte Branched1 (TB1) gene...
  29. Oh E, Kim J, Park E, Kim J, Kang C, Choi G. PIL5, a phytochrome-interacting basic helix-loop-helix protein, is a key negative regulator of seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2004;16:3045-58 pubmed
    ..PIL5 preferentially interacts with the Pfr forms of Phytochrome A (PhyA) and Phytochrome B (PhyB)...
  30. Bauer D, Viczian A, Kircher S, Nobis T, Nitschke R, Kunkel T, et al. Constitutive photomorphogenesis 1 and multiple photoreceptors control degradation of phytochrome interacting factor 3, a transcription factor required for light signaling in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1433-45 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that PIF3 acts transiently, and its major function is to mediate phytochrome-induced signaling during the developmental switch from skotomorphogenesis to photomorphogenesis and/or dark to light transitions. ..
  31. Leivar P, Monte E, Cohn M, Quail P. Phytochrome signaling in green Arabidopsis seedlings: impact assessment of a mutually negative phyB-PIF feedback loop. Mol Plant. 2012;5:734-49 pubmed publisher
  32. Sweere U, Eichenberg K, Lohrmann J, Mira Rodado V, Bäurle I, Kudla J, et al. Interaction of the response regulator ARR4 with phytochrome B in modulating red light signaling. Science. 2001;294:1108-11 pubmed
    The Arabidopsis thaliana response regulator 4, expressed in response to phytochrome B action, specifically interacts with the extreme amino-terminus of the photoreceptor...
  33. Tepperman J, Hudson M, Khanna R, Zhu T, Chang S, Wang X, et al. Expression profiling of phyB mutant demonstrates substantial contribution of other phytochromes to red-light-regulated gene expression during seedling de-etiolation. Plant J. 2004;38:725-39 pubmed
  34. Franklin K, Davis S, Stoddart W, Vierstra R, Whitelam G. Mutant analyses define multiple roles for phytochrome C in Arabidopsis photomorphogenesis. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1981-9 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that phyC has multiple functions throughout plant development that may include working as a coactivator with other phytochromes and the cryptochrome blue light receptors. ..
  35. Su Y, Lagarias J. Light-independent phytochrome signaling mediated by dominant GAF domain tyrosine mutants of Arabidopsis phytochromes in transgenic plants. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2124-39 pubmed
    ..Through expression of profluorescent, photoinsensitive Tyr-to-His mutant alleles of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome B (PHYB(Y276H)) and Arabidopsis phytochrome A (PHYA(Y242H)) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, we demonstrate ..
  36. Kim H, Kim Y, Park J, Kim J. Light signalling mediated by phytochrome plays an important role in cold-induced gene expression through the C-repeat/dehydration responsive element (C/DRE) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J. 2002;29:693-704 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, GUS expression analysis in phyA or phyB or phyAphyB mutant backgrounds showed that phytochrome B is a primary photoreceptor responsible for the activation of cold-stress signalling in response to light...
  37. Genoud T, Buchala A, Chua N, Metraux J. Phytochrome signalling modulates the SA-perceptive pathway in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2002;31:87-95 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that the light-induced signalling pathway interacts with the pathogen/SA-mediated signal transduction route. These results are summarized in a formalism that allows qualitative computer simulation. ..
  38. Luccioni L, Oliverio K, Yanovsky M, Boccalandro H, Casal J. Brassinosteroid mutants uncover fine tuning of phytochrome signaling. Plant Physiol. 2002;128:173-81 pubmed
    ..We propose that the opposite regulation of VLFR versus LFR and HIR could be part of a context-dependent mechanism of adjustment of sensitivity to light signals. ..
  39. Short T. Overexpression of Arabidopsis phytochrome B inhibits phytochrome A function in the presence of sucrose. Plant Physiol. 1999;119:1497-506 pubmed
    Overexpression of phytochrome B (phyB) in Arabidopsis has previously been demonstrated to result in dominant negative interference of phytochrome A (phyA)-mediated hypocotyl growth inhibition in far-red (FR) light...
  40. Tessadori F, van Zanten M, Pavlova P, Clifton R, Pontvianne F, Snoek L, et al. Phytochrome B and histone deacetylase 6 control light-induced chromatin compaction in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000638 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that chromatin plasticity is associated with acclimation of Arabidopsis to its environment. The polymorphic alleles such as PHYB and HDA6 control this process. ..
  41. Jang I, Henriques R, Seo H, Nagatani A, Chua N. Arabidopsis PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR proteins promote phytochrome B polyubiquitination by COP1 E3 ligase in the nucleus. Plant Cell. 2010;22:2370-83 pubmed publisher
    Many plant photoresponses from germination to shade avoidance are mediated by phytochrome B (phyB)...
  42. Wu G, Cameron J, Ljung K, Spalding E. A role for ABCB19-mediated polar auxin transport in seedling photomorphogenesis mediated by cryptochrome 1 and phytochrome B. Plant J. 2010;62:179-91 pubmed publisher
    ..seedling establishment, blue and red light suppress hypocotyl growth through the cryptochrome 1 (cry1) and phytochrome B (phyB) photosensory pathways, respectively...
  43. Li L, Ljung K, Breton G, Schmitz R, Pruneda Paz J, Cowing Zitron C, et al. Linking photoreceptor excitation to changes in plant architecture. Genes Dev. 2012;26:785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In Arabidopsis, phytochrome B (PHYB) is the major sensor of shade, but PHYB excitation has not been linked directly to a growth response...
  44. Smith H, Xu Y, Quail P. Antagonistic but complementary actions of phytochromes A and B allow seedling de-etiolation. Plant Physiol. 1997;114:637-41 pubmed
    ..The antagonistic and complementary actions of phyA and phyB, therefore, allow the optimum regulation of seedling growth after emergence from the soil. ..
  45. Zhu Y, Tepperman J, Fairchild C, Quail P. Phytochrome B binds with greater apparent affinity than phytochrome A to the basic helix-loop-helix factor PIF3 in a reaction requiring the PAS domain of PIF3. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:13419-24 pubmed
  46. Leung D, Otomo C, Chory J, Rosen M. Genetically encoded photoswitching of actin assembly through the Cdc42-WASP-Arp2/3 complex pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:12797-802 pubmed publisher
    ..We fused the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 in its GDP-bound form to the photosensory domain of phytochrome B (PhyB) and fused the Cdc42 effector, the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP), to the light-dependent PhyB-..
  47. Franklin K, Whitelam G. Light-quality regulation of freezing tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1410-3 pubmed
  48. Kretsch T, Poppe C, Schafer E. A new type of mutation in the plant photoreceptor phytochrome B causes loss of photoreversibility and an extremely enhanced light sensitivity. Plant J. 2000;22:177-86 pubmed
    ..by a subsequent far-red light pulse, is a property of photoresponses regulated by the plant photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB)...
  49. Sellaro R, Hoecker U, Yanovsky M, Chory J, Casal J. Synergism of red and blue light in the control of Arabidopsis gene expression and development. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1216-20 pubmed publisher
    ..blue light in the control of plant growth and development requires the coaction of the red light photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) and the blue light and UV-A receptor cryptochromes (cry)...
  50. Huq E, Quail P. PIF4, a phytochrome-interacting bHLH factor, functions as a negative regulator of phytochrome B signaling in Arabidopsis. EMBO J. 2002;21:2441-50 pubmed
    ..Consistent with this proposal, PIF4 localizes to the nucleus and can bind to a G-box DNA sequence motif found in various light-regulated promoters. ..
  51. Boccalandro H, Ploschuk E, Yanovsky M, Sanchez R, Gatz C, Casal J. Increased phytochrome B alleviates density effects on tuber yield of field potato crops. Plant Physiol. 2003;133:1539-46 pubmed
    ..Here, we report that ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis PHYB (phytochrome B) gene, a photoreceptor involved in detecting red to far-red light ratio associated with plant density, can ..
  52. Reed J, Elumalai R, Chory J. Suppressors of an Arabidopsis thaliana phyB mutation identify genes that control light signaling and hypocotyl elongation. Genetics. 1998;148:1295-310 pubmed
    Ambient light controls the development and physiology of plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana photoreceptor phytochrome B (PHYB) regulates developmental light responses at both seedling and adult stages...
  53. Pierik R, Djakovic Petrovic T, Keuskamp D, de Wit M, Voesenek L. Auxin and ethylene regulate elongation responses to neighbor proximity signals independent of gibberellin and della proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2009;149:1701-12 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this novel ethylene and auxin control of shade avoidance interacts with DELLA abundance but also controls independent targets to regulate adaptive growth responses to surrounding vegetation. ..
  54. Martínez García J, Huq E, Quail P. Direct targeting of light signals to a promoter element-bound transcription factor. Science. 2000;288:859-63 pubmed
    ..binds specifically to a G-box DNA-sequence motif present in various light-regulated gene promoters, and that phytochrome B binds reversibly to G-box-bound PIF3 specifically upon light-triggered conversion of the photoreceptor to its ..
  55. Foreman J, White J, Graham I, Halliday K, Josse E. Shedding light on flower development: phytochrome B regulates gynoecium formation in association with the transcription factor SPATULA. Plant Signal Behav. 2011;6:471-6 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that the spt phenotype is rescued by the removal of phytochrome B, and discuss how light signaling may control flower development.
  56. Shen H, Zhu L, Castillon A, Majee M, Downie B, Huq E. Light-induced phosphorylation and degradation of the negative regulator PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 from Arabidopsis depend upon its direct physical interactions with photoactivated phytochromes. Plant Cell. 2008;20:1586-602 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that removal of the negative regulators (e.g., PIFs) by light-induced proteolytic degradation might be sufficient to promote photomorphogenesis. ..
  57. Kang X, Chong J, Ni M. HYPERSENSITIVE TO RED AND BLUE 1, a ZZ-type zinc finger protein, regulates phytochrome B-mediated red and cryptochrome-mediated blue light responses. Plant Cell. 2005;17:822-35 pubmed
    ..Thus, the roles of HRB1 and PIF4 together in regulating both red and blue light responses may represent points where red light signaling and blue light signaling intersect. ..
  58. Mazzella M, Cerdán P, Staneloni R, Casal J. Hierarchical coupling of phytochromes and cryptochromes reconciles stability and light modulation of Arabidopsis development. Development. 2001;128:2291-9 pubmed
    ..but these effects were obvious only in the absence of cryptochrome 1 and in some cases phytochrome A and/or phytochrome B. Complementary, the cry2 mutation uncovered novel roles for cryptochrome 1 and phytochrome A...
  59. Clack T, Shokry A, Moffet M, Liu P, Faul M, Sharrock R. Obligate heterodimerization of Arabidopsis phytochromes C and E and interaction with the PIF3 basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. Plant Cell. 2009;21:786-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings link an unanticipated diversity of plant R/FR photoreceptor structures to established phytochrome signaling mechanisms. ..
  60. Ni M, Tepperman J, Quail P. Binding of phytochrome B to its nuclear signalling partner PIF3 is reversibly induced by light. Nature. 1999;400:781-4 pubmed
    ..Here we show that full-length photoactive phytochrome B binds PIF3 in vitro only upon light-induced conversion to its active form, and that photoconversion back to ..
  61. Reed J, Nagpal P, Bastow R, Solomon K, Dowson Day M, Elumalai R, et al. Independent action of ELF3 and phyB to control hypocotyl elongation and flowering time. Plant Physiol. 2000;122:1149-60 pubmed
    Light regulates various aspects of plant growth, and the photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) mediates many responses to red light...
  62. Palágyi A, Terecskei K, Adam E, Kevei E, Kircher S, Mérai Z, et al. Functional analysis of amino-terminal domains of the photoreceptor phytochrome B. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1834-45 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Phytochrome B (PHYB) is the major red/far-red light-absorbing phytochrome receptor in light-grown plants...