arabidopsis agamous protein


Summary: A plant homeotic protein involved in the development of stamens and carpels of Arabidopsis thaliana. It is a DNA-binding protein that contains the MADS-box domain. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.

Top Publications

  1. Cheng Y, Kato N, Wang W, Li J, Chen X. Two RNA binding proteins, HEN4 and HUA1, act in the processing of AGAMOUS pre-mRNA in Arabidopsis thaliana. Dev Cell. 2003;4:53-66 pubmed
    ..Our studies underscore the importance of RNA processing in modulating plant development. ..
  2. Gregis V, Sessa A, Colombo L, Kater M. AGL24, SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE, and APETALA1 redundantly control AGAMOUS during early stages of flower development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1373-82 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that MADS box proteins are involved in the recruitment of the SEU-LUG repressor complex for the regulation of AGAMOUS. ..
  3. Zhao L, Kim Y, Dinh T, Chen X. miR172 regulates stem cell fate and defines the inner boundary of APETALA3 and PISTILLATA expression domain in Arabidopsis floral meristems. Plant J. 2007;51:840-9 pubmed
    ..Given the antiquity of miR172 in land plants, our findings have implications for the recruitment of a microRNA in the building of a flower in evolution. ..
  4. Ito T, Ng K, Lim T, Yu H, Meyerowitz E. The homeotic protein AGAMOUS controls late stamen development by regulating a jasmonate biosynthetic gene in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:3516-29 pubmed
  5. Jack T, Sieburth L, Meyerowitz E. Targeted misexpression of AGAMOUS in whorl 2 of Arabidopsis flowers. Plant J. 1997;11:825-39 pubmed
  6. Bao X, Franks R, Levin J, Liu Z. Repression of AGAMOUS by BELLRINGER in floral and inflorescence meristems. Plant Cell. 2004;16:1478-89 pubmed
    ..The age-dependent and high temperature-enhanced derepression of AG in blr mutants led us to propose that AG expression might be regulated by a thermal time-dependent molecular mechanism. ..
  7. Ito T, Wellmer F, Yu H, Das P, Ito N, Alves Ferreira M, et al. The homeotic protein AGAMOUS controls microsporogenesis by regulation of SPOROCYTELESS. Nature. 2004;430:356-60 pubmed
  8. Krizek B, Lewis M, Fletcher J. RABBIT EARS is a second-whorl repressor of AGAMOUS that maintains spatial boundaries in Arabidopsis flowers. Plant J. 2006;45:369-83 pubmed
    ..RBE thus acts to maintain two different types of spatial boundaries in young flowers: boundaries between organ primordia within a whorl and boundaries of homeotic gene expression between whorls. ..
  9. Gómez Mena C, de Folter S, Costa M, Angenent G, Sablowski R. Transcriptional program controlled by the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS during early organogenesis. Development. 2005;132:429-38 pubmed

More Information


  1. Hong R, Hamaguchi L, Busch M, Weigel D. Regulatory elements of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS identified by phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing. Plant Cell. 2003;15:1296-309 pubmed
  2. Conner J, Liu Z. LEUNIG, a putative transcriptional corepressor that regulates AGAMOUS expression during flower development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:12902-7 pubmed
    ..Our finding suggests that both animals and plants use similar repressor proteins to regulate critical developmental processes. ..
  3. Singer S, Cox K, Liu Z. Both the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and tissue-specific AGAMOUS enhancers activate transcription autonomously in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Mol Biol. 2010;74:293-305 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we provide evidence that the 35S enhancer utilizes a mechanism resembling animal- and yeast-derived scanning or facilitated tracking models of long-distance enhancer action in its activation of a remote target promoter. ..
  4. Reeves P, Murtas G, Dash S, Coupland G. early in short days 4, a mutation in Arabidopsis that causes early flowering and reduces the mRNA abundance of the floral repressor FLC. Development. 2002;129:5349-61 pubmed
    ..The role of ESD4 in the regulation of flowering is discussed with reference to current models on the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. ..
  5. Li Q, Li X, Bai S, Lu W, Zhang X. Isolation of HAG1 and its regulation by plant hormones during in vitro floral organogenesis in Hyacinthus orientalis L. Planta. 2002;215:533-40 pubmed
    ..Our data support the hypothesis that hormone-regulated HAG1 activity is required for the induction of floral buds and the determination of floral organ types during the regeneration of floral buds. ..
  6. Boss P, Vivier M, Matsumoto S, Dry I, Thomas M. A cDNA from grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), which shows homology to AGAMOUS and SHATTERPROOF, is not only expressed in flowers but also throughout berry development. Plant Mol Biol. 2001;45:541-53 pubmed
    ..The results of this study suggest that Vvmads1 has a regulatory role in flower development before fertilisation and a role in fruit development after fertilisation...
  7. Heisler M, Atkinson A, Bylstra Y, Walsh R, Smyth D. SPATULA, a gene that controls development of carpel margin tissues in Arabidopsis, encodes a bHLH protein. Development. 2001;128:1089-98 pubmed
    ..ETTIN's role seems to be to negatively regulate SPATULA expression in abaxial regions of the developing gynoecium. SPATULA is the first basic-helix-loop-helix gene in plants known to play a role in floral organogenesis. ..
  8. Xing S, Rosso M, Zachgo S. ROXY1, a member of the plant glutaredoxin family, is required for petal development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development. 2005;132:1555-65 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that, unexpectedly, a plant glutaredoxin is involved in flower development, probably by mediating post-translational modifications of target proteins required for normal petal organ initiation and morphogenesis. ..
  9. Ng M, Yanofsky M. Three ways to learn the ABCs. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2000;3:47-52 pubmed
    ..Recently, LEAFY has been identified as an immediate upstream regulator of the floral homeotic genes, thus opening up an avenue to examine the transcriptional interactions that underlie floral patterning. ..
  10. Schubert D, Primavesi L, Bishopp A, Roberts G, Doonan J, Jenuwein T, et al. Silencing by plant Polycomb-group genes requires dispersed trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27. EMBO J. 2006;25:4638-49 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the spread of H3K27me3 contributes to the mitotic heritability of Pc-G silencing, and that the loss of silencing caused by transposon insertions at plant Pc-G targets reflects impaired spreading. ..
  11. Montiel G, Breton C, Thiersault M, Burlat V, Jay Allemand C, Gantet P. Transcription factor Agamous-like 12 from Arabidopsis promotes tissue-like organization and alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus suspension cells. Metab Eng. 2007;9:125-32 pubmed
  12. Ming F, Ma H. A terminator of floral stem cells. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1705-8 pubmed publisher
    ..1791-1804) in this issue of Genes & Development has identified a direct target of AG, KNUCKLES (KNU), which encodes a transcriptional repressor of WUS, providing a key missing link in floral meristem determinacy. ..
  13. Park S, Zheng Z, Oppenheimer D, Hauser B. The PRETTY FEW SEEDS2 gene encodes an Arabidopsis homeodomain protein that regulates ovule development. Development. 2005;132:841-9 pubmed
    ..PFS2 activity altered AGAMOUS expression, which accounts for some of the gain- and loss-of-function phenotypes. Based on analyses presented here, PFS2 affects either ovule patterning or differentiation. ..
  14. Rosso M, Li Y, Strizhov N, Reiss B, Dekker K, Weisshaar B. An Arabidopsis thaliana T-DNA mutagenized population (GABI-Kat) for flanking sequence tag-based reverse genetics. Plant Mol Biol. 2003;53:247-59 pubmed
    ..Finally, the functionality of the GABI-Kat population was demonstrated by exemplary confirmation of several new transparent testa alleles, as well as a number of other mutants, which were identified on the basis of the FST data. ..
  15. Krizek B. AINTEGUMENTA and AINTEGUMENTA-LIKE6 act redundantly to regulate Arabidopsis floral growth and patterning. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1916-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that ANT and AIL6 are important regulators of floral growth and patterning and that they may act downstream of auxin in these processes. ..
  16. Wollmann H, Mica E, Todesco M, Long J, Weigel D. On reconciling the interactions between APETALA2, miR172 and AGAMOUS with the ABC model of flower development. Development. 2010;137:3633-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a model in which the decision whether stamens or petals develop is based on the balance between AP2 and AG activities, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. ..
  17. Telfer A, Poethig R. HASTY: a gene that regulates the timing of shoot maturation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Development. 1998;125:1889-98 pubmed
    ..We suggest that HASTY promotes a juvenile pattern of vegetative development and inhibits flowering by reducing the competence of the shoot to respond to LEAFY and APETALA1. ..
  18. Riechmann J, Wang M, Meyerowitz E. DNA-binding properties of Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1, APETALA3, PISTILLATA and AGAMOUS. Nucleic Acids Res. 1996;24:3134-41 pubmed
    ..The similarity of the DNA-binding properties of AP1, AP3-PI and AG is discussed with regard to the biological specificity that these proteins exhibit. ..
  19. Lee H, Suh S, Park E, Cho E, Ahn J, Kim S, et al. The AGAMOUS-LIKE 20 MADS domain protein integrates floral inductive pathways in Arabidopsis. Genes Dev. 2000;14:2366-76 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that AGL20 is an important integrator of three pathways controlling flowering in Arabidopsis. ..
  20. Lee J, Baum S, Alvarez J, Patel A, Chitwood D, Bowman J. Activation of CRABS CLAW in the Nectaries and Carpels of Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2005;17:25-36 pubmed
    ..These MADS box proteins may provide general floral factors that must work in conjunction with specific factors in the activation of CRC in the nectaries and carpels. ..
  21. Brambilla V, Battaglia R, Colombo M, Masiero S, Bencivenga S, Kater M, et al. Genetic and molecular interactions between BELL1 and MADS box factors support ovule development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2544-56 pubmed
    ..We propose a model for ovule development that explains how the balance between carpel identity activity and ovule identity activity is established by a MADS box homeodomain protein complex. ..
  22. Saleh A, Al Abdallat A, Ndamukong I, Alvarez Venegas R, Avramova Z. The Arabidopsis homologs of trithorax (ATX1) and enhancer of zeste (CLF) establish 'bivalent chromatin marks' at the silent AGAMOUS locus. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:6290-6 pubmed
    ..We demonstrate that ATX1 and CLF physically interact linking mechanistically the observed effects. ..
  23. Portereiko M, Lloyd A, Steffen J, Punwani J, Otsuga D, Drews G. AGL80 is required for central cell and endosperm development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2006;18:1862-72 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that FEM111/AGL80 functions as a transcription factor within the central cell gene regulatory network and controls the expression of downstream genes required for central cell development and function. ..
  24. Kyozuka J, Shimamoto K. Ectopic expression of OsMADS3, a rice ortholog of AGAMOUS, caused a homeotic transformation of lodicules to stamens in transgenic rice plants. Plant Cell Physiol. 2002;43:130-5 pubmed
    ..Our results confirmed the prediction that the lodicule is an equivalent of a dicot petal and that the ABC model can be applied to rice at least for organ specification in lodicules and stamens. ..
  25. Urban M, Daniels S, Mott E, Hammond Kosack K. Arabidopsis is susceptible to the cereal ear blight fungal pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. Plant J. 2002;32:961-73 pubmed
    ..Deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin production was also detected in Fusarium-infected flowers at >1 ppm. This novel floral pathosystem for Arabidopsis appears to be highly representative of a serious cereal crop disease. ..
  26. Pfluger J, Zambryski P. The role of SEUSS in auxin response and floral organ patterning. Development. 2004;131:4697-707 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that SEU is a novel factor affecting auxin response. A model is proposed in which SEU functions jointly with ETT in auxin response to promote floral organ patterning and growth. ..
  27. Maier A, Stehling Sun S, Wollmann H, Demar M, Hong R, Haubeiss S, et al. Dual roles of the bZIP transcription factor PERIANTHIA in the control of floral architecture and homeotic gene expression. Development. 2009;136:1613-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that PAN expression persists in ag mutant flowers, suggesting that PAN and AG are engaged in a negative-feedback loop, which might be mediated by the stem-cell-inducing transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS). ..
  28. Causier B, Castillo R, Zhou J, Ingram R, Xue Y, Schwarz Sommer Z, et al. Evolution in action: following function in duplicated floral homeotic genes. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1508-12 pubmed
    ..The differential ability of the Antirrhinum genes to promote male or female development provides a striking example of subfunctionalization at the protein level...
  29. Reiser L, Modrusan Z, Margossian L, Samach A, Ohad N, Haughn G, et al. The BELL1 gene encodes a homeodomain protein involved in pattern formation in the Arabidopsis ovule primordium. Cell. 1995;83:735-42 pubmed
    ..A model for BEL1 function is evaluated with regard to new data showing the expression pattern of the floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS (AG) early in wild-type and BEL1 ovule development. ..
  30. Krizek B, Prost V, Macias A. AINTEGUMENTA promotes petal identity and acts as a negative regulator of AGAMOUS. Plant Cell. 2000;12:1357-66 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that ANT may function as a class A gene. ..
  31. Parcy F, Bomblies K, Weigel D. Interaction of LEAFY, AGAMOUS and TERMINAL FLOWER1 in maintaining floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Development. 2002;129:2519-27 pubmed
    ..These observations contrast with previous findings that LEAFY acts as a direct activator of floral homeotic genes, supporting the hypothesis that the transcriptional activity of LEAFY is dependent on specific co-regulators. ..
  32. Durfee T, Roe J, Sessions R, Inouye C, Serikawa K, Feldmann K, et al. The F-box-containing protein UFO and AGAMOUS participate in antagonistic pathways governing early petal development in Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8571-6 pubmed
    ..These results are combined into a genetic model explaining early second whorl initiation/proliferation, in which UFO functions to inhibit an AG-dependent activity. ..
  33. Kotake T, Takada S, Nakahigashi K, Ohto M, Goto K. Arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER 2 gene encodes a heterochromatin protein 1 homolog and represses both FLOWERING LOCUS T to regulate flowering time and several floral homeotic genes. Plant Cell Physiol. 2003;44:555-64 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that despite its homology to HP1, TFL2 is involved in the repression of specific euchromatin genes and not heterochromatin genes in Arabidopsis. ..
  34. Riechmann J, Krizek B, Meyerowitz E. Dimerization specificity of Arabidopsis MADS domain homeotic proteins APETALA1, APETALA3, PISTILLATA, and AGAMOUS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:4793-8 pubmed
    ..The implications of these results for the ABC genetic model of flower development are discussed. ..
  35. Yang Y, Jack T. Defining subdomains of the K domain important for protein-protein interactions of plant MADS proteins. Plant Mol Biol. 2004;55:45-59 pubmed
    ..Conserved hydrophobic positions are most important for the strength of both PI/AP3 and PI/SEP3 dimerization, though ionic and/or polar interactions appear to play a secondary role. ..
  36. Lenhard M, Bohnert A, Jurgens G, Laux T. Termination of stem cell maintenance in Arabidopsis floral meristems by interactions between WUSCHEL and AGAMOUS. Cell. 2001;105:805-14 pubmed
    ..Together, this suggests that floral determinacy depends on a negative autoregulatory mechanism involving WUS and AG, which terminates stem cell maintenance. ..
  37. Fan H, Hu Y, Tudor M, Ma H. Specific interactions between the K domains of AG and AGLs, members of the MADS domain family of DNA binding proteins. Plant J. 1997;12:999-1010 pubmed
    ..Based on these results and previous observations, it is proposed that the AG function requires interaction with at least one of these AGL proteins, and such interactions contribute to the functional specificity of the AG protein. ..
  38. Schmidt R, Veit B, Mandel M, Mena M, Hake S, Yanofsky M. Identification and molecular characterization of ZAG1, the maize homolog of the Arabidopsis floral homeotic gene AGAMOUS. Plant Cell. 1993;5:729-37 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that maize contains a homolog of the Arabidopsis floral identity gene AG and that this gene is conserved in sequence and function. ..
  39. Yang Y, Singer S, Liu Z. Two similar but distinct second intron fragments from tobacco AGAMOUS homologs confer identical floral organ-specific expression sufficient for generating complete sterility in plants. Planta. 2010;231:1159-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Further analyses demonstrated that the resulting trait is mitotically stable, which is critical for the long-term containment of seed-, pollen- and fruit-mediated gene flow in field conditions. ..
  40. Irish V. The flowering of Arabidopsis flower development. Plant J. 2010;61:1014-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This review will summarize recent advances in defining the genes, the regulatory pathways, and their interactions, that underpin how the Arabidopsis flower is formed. ..
  41. Chen X, Meyerowitz E. HUA1 and HUA2 are two members of the floral homeotic AGAMOUS pathway. Mol Cell. 1999;3:349-60 pubmed
    ..Molecular analyses suggest that HUA2 (and possibly HUA1) acts to facilitate AG action at the same hierarchical level as AG. ..
  42. Simpson G. The autonomous pathway: epigenetic and post-transcriptional gene regulation in the control of Arabidopsis flowering time. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2004;7:570-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the broadest lessons we learn from dissecting the function of the autonomous pathway may be in revealing how precision in regulated gene expression is delivered. ..
  43. Parcy F, Nilsson O, Busch M, Lee I, Weigel D. A genetic framework for floral patterning. Nature. 1998;395:561-6 pubmed
    ..On the basis of our observation that LEAFY activates different homeotic genes through distinct mechanisms, we propose a genetic framework for the control of floral patterning. ..
  44. Krallinger M, Rodriguez Penagos C, Tendulkar A, Valencia A. PLAN2L: a web tool for integrated text mining and literature-based bioentity relation extraction. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:W160-5 pubmed publisher
    ..PLAN2L does not require registration and is freely accessible at ..
  45. Lehti Shiu M, Adamczyk B, Fernandez D. Expression of MADS-box genes during the embryonic phase in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2005;58:89-107 pubmed
  46. Benedito V, Visser P, van Tuyl J, Angenent G, de Vries S, Krens F. Ectopic expression of LLAG1, an AGAMOUS homologue from lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) causes floral homeotic modifications in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2004;55:1391-9 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these data strongly indicated the functional homology between LLAG1 and AG. ..
  47. Pinyopich A, Ditta G, Savidge B, Liljegren S, Baumann E, Wisman E, et al. Assessing the redundancy of MADS-box genes during carpel and ovule development. Nature. 2003;424:85-8 pubmed
  48. Barrero J, González Bayón R, del Pozo J, Ponce M, Micol J. INCURVATA2 encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA Polymerase alpha and interacts with genes involved in chromatin-mediated cellular memory in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Cell. 2007;19:2822-38 pubmed
    ..Quantitative RT-PCR analyses indicated that a number of regulatory genes were derepressed in the icu2-1 mutant, including genes associated with flowering time, floral meristem, and floral organ identity. ..
  49. Rutledge R, Regan S, Nicolas O, Fobert P, Cote C, Bosnich W, et al. Characterization of an AGAMOUS homologue from the conifer black spruce (Picea mariana) that produces floral homeotic conversions when expressed in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 1998;15:625-34 pubmed
    ..This suggests that some of the genetic pathways controlling flower and cone development are homologous, and antedate the 300-million-year-old divergence of angiosperms and gymnosperms. ..
  50. Sakai H, Krizek B, Jacobsen S, Meyerowitz E. Regulation of SUP expression identifies multiple regulators involved in arabidopsis floral meristem development. Plant Cell. 2000;12:1607-18 pubmed
    ..SUP appears to act transiently, probably functioning to trigger a genetic circuit that creates the correct position of the whorl 3/whorl 4 boundary. ..
  51. Ikeda M, Mitsuda N, Ohme Takagi M. Arabidopsis WUSCHEL is a bifunctional transcription factor that acts as a repressor in stem cell regulation and as an activator in floral patterning. Plant Cell. 2009;21:3493-505 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that WUS acts mainly as a repressor and that its function changes from that of a repressor to that of an activator in the case of regulation of the expression of AG. ..
  52. Ng K, Yu H, Ito T. AGAMOUS controls GIANT KILLER, a multifunctional chromatin modifier in reproductive organ patterning and differentiation. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000251 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that GIK acts as a molecular node downstream of the homeotic protein AG, regulating patterning and differentiation of reproductive organs through chromatin organization. ..
  53. Lohmann J, Hong R, Hobe M, Busch M, Parcy F, Simon R, et al. A molecular link between stem cell regulation and floral patterning in Arabidopsis. Cell. 2001;105:793-803 pubmed
    ..We also show that AG represses WUS at later stages of floral development, thus creating a negative feedback loop that is required for the determinate growth of floral meristems. ..