polypyrimidine tract binding protein


Summary: A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.

Top Publications

  1. Zhang J, Bahi N, Llovera M, Comella J, Sanchis D. Polypyrimidine tract binding proteins (PTB) regulate the expression of apoptotic genes and susceptibility to caspase-dependent apoptosis in differentiating cardiomyocytes. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:1460-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that PTB contribute to apoptotic gene expression and modulate the susceptibility to caspase activation in differentiating rat cardiomyocytes. ..
  2. Fred R, Welsh N. The importance of RNA binding proteins in preproinsulin mRNA stability. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;297:28-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We will also discuss the putative co-operativity between PTB and other proteins in the control of preproinsulin mRNA stability, and review beta-cell signaling events that may control the mRNA stabilizing effect of PTB. ..
  3. Guest S, Pilipenko E, Sharma K, Chumakov K, Roos R. Molecular mechanisms of attenuation of the Sabin strain of poliovirus type 3. J Virol. 2004;78:11097-107 pubmed
    ..This study also demonstrates the use of the chicken embryo to easily investigate translation of RNA within a neuron in the CNS of an intact living organism. ..
  4. Wang C, Norton J, Ghosh S, Kim J, Fushimi K, Wu J, et al. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) differentially affects malignancy in a cell line-dependent manner. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:20277-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that PTB is not oncogenic and can either promote or antagonize a malignant trait dependent upon the specific intra-cellular environment. ..
  5. Zhao X, Oberg D, Rush M, Fay J, Lambkin H, Schwartz S. A 57-nucleotide upstream early polyadenylation element in human papillomavirus type 16 interacts with hFip1, CstF-64, hnRNP C1/C2, and polypyrimidine tract binding protein. J Virol. 2005;79:4270-88 pubmed
    ..This upstream element also interacted specifically with CstF-64, hnRNP C1/C2, and polypyrimidine tract binding protein, suggesting that these factors were either enhancing or regulating polyadenylation at the HPV-16 ..
  6. Reid D, Chang B, Gunderson S, Alpert L, Thompson W, Fairbrother W. Next-generation SELEX identifies sequence and structural determinants of splicing factor binding in human pre-mRNA sequence. RNA. 2009;15:2385-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Both U1snRNP and the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) avoid exonic binding, and the PTB binding map shows increased enrichment at the ..
  7. Zang W, Li B, Huang P, Lai M, Yen T. Role of polypyrimidine tract binding protein in the function of the hepatitis B virus posttranscriptional regulatory element. J Virol. 2001;75:10779-86 pubmed
    ..We have identified a cellular protein that binds to the PRE as the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), which shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and the cytoplasm...
  8. Pickering B, Mitchell S, Spriggs K, Stoneley M, Willis A. Bag-1 internal ribosome entry segment activity is promoted by structural changes mediated by poly(rC) binding protein 1 and recruitment of polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:5595-605 pubmed
    ..internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) directs the synthesis of the p36 isoform of Bag-1 and that polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTB-1) and poly(rC) binding protein 1 (PCBP1) stimulate IRES-mediated translation initiation in ..
  9. Venkatramana M, Ray P, Chadda A, Das S. A 25 kDa cleavage product of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) present in mouse tissues prevents PTB binding to the 5' untranslated region and inhibits translation of hepatitis A virus RNA. Virus Res. 2003;98:141-9 pubmed
    ..The presence of the 25kDa cleavage product of PTB may therefore play a role in the inhibition of HAV IRES-mediated translation in mouse tissues. ..

More Information


  1. Mitchell S, Spriggs K, Coldwell M, Jackson R, Willis A. The Apaf-1 internal ribosome entry segment attains the correct structural conformation for function via interactions with PTB and unr. Mol Cell. 2003;11:757-71 pubmed
    We have shown previously that polypyrimidine tract binding protein 1 (PTB) binds and activates the Apaf-1 internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) when the protein upstream of N-ras (unr) is prebound...
  2. Makeyev E, Zhang J, Carrasco M, Maniatis T. The MicroRNA miR-124 promotes neuronal differentiation by triggering brain-specific alternative pre-mRNA splicing. Mol Cell. 2007;27:435-48 pubmed
    ..Thus, miR-124 promotes NS development, at least in part by regulating an intricate network of NS-specific alternative splicing. ..
  3. Cho S, Kim J, Back S, Jang S. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein enhances the internal ribosomal entry site-dependent translation of p27Kip1 mRNA and modulates transition from G1 to S phase. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1283-97 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that PTB modulates cell cycle and differentiation, at least in part, by enhancing the IRES activity of p27(Kip1) mRNA. ..
  4. Wagner E, Garcia Blanco M. RNAi-mediated PTB depletion leads to enhanced exon definition. Mol Cell. 2002;10:943-9 pubmed
    ..Both silencers bind the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and PTB binding sites within these elements are required for efficient silencing of exon IIIb...
  5. Kolupaeva V, Hellen C, Shatsky I. Structural analysis of the interaction of the pyrimidine tract-binding protein with the internal ribosomal entry site of encephalomyocarditis virus and foot-and-mouth disease virus RNAs. RNA. 1996;2:1199-212 pubmed
    ..Their position, and the effects of mutation of them on IRES function are consistent with PTB's role in IRES-mediated initiation being to bind to multiple sites in the IRES, thereby stabilizing a specific active conformation. ..
  6. Paradis C, Cloutier P, Shkreta L, Toutant J, Klarskov K, Chabot B. hnRNP I/PTB can antagonize the splicing repressor activity of SRp30c. RNA. 2007;13:1287-300 pubmed
    ..Thus, PTB can function as an anti-repressor molecule to counteract the splicing inhibitory activity of SRp30c. ..
  7. Cosme R, Yamamura Y, Tang Q. Roles of polypyrimidine tract binding proteins in major immediate-early gene expression and viral replication of human cytomegalovirus. J Virol. 2009;83:2839-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that PTB inhibits HCMV replication by interfering with MIE gene splicing through competition with U2AF for binding to the polypyrimidine tract in MIE gene introns. ..
  8. Amir Ahmady B, Boutz P, Markovtsov V, Phillips M, Black D. Exon repression by polypyrimidine tract binding protein. RNA. 2005;11:699-716 pubmed
    b>Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is known to silence the splicing of many alternative exons. However, exons repressed by PTB are affected by other RNA regulatory elements and proteins...
  9. Tillmar L, Welsh N. Glucose-induced binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the 3'-untranslated region of the insulin mRNA (ins-PRS) is inhibited by rapamycin. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;260:85-90 pubmed
    ..Rapamycin also reduced glucose-induced insulin mRNA expression. Thus, our results suggest an involvement of mTOR in glucose-induced PTB/ins-PRS binding and insulin mRNA stability. ..
  10. Ham B, Brandom J, Xoconostle C zares B, Ringgold V, Lough T, Lucas W. A polypyrimidine tract binding protein, pumpkin RBP50, forms the basis of a phloem-mobile ribonucleoprotein complex. Plant Cell. 2009;21:197-215 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a model for RBP50-based RNP complexes within the pumpkin phloem translocation stream...
  11. Singh K, Laughlin J, Kosinski P, Covey L. Nucleolin is a second component of the CD154 mRNA stability complex that regulates mRNA turnover in activated T cells. J Immunol. 2004;173:976-85 pubmed
    ..These data strongly support a model whereby nucleolin and PTB are integral to the stability of CD154 mRNA and are components of the CD154 ribonucleoprotein particle associated with actively translating ribosomes. ..
  12. Lilleväli K, Kulla A, Ord T. Comparative expression analysis of the genes encoding polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and its neural homologue (brPTB) in prenatal and postnatal mouse brain. Mech Dev. 2001;101:217-20 pubmed
    The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) and its recently discovered homologue brain-enriched PTB (brPTB) are RNA binding proteins involved in the control of alternative splicing...
  13. Pickering B, Mitchell S, Evans J, Willis A. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein and poly r(C) binding protein 1 interact with the BAG-1 IRES and stimulate its activity in vitro and in vivo. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:639-46 pubmed
    ..Two proteins, poly r(C) binding protein 1 (PCBP1) and polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), were found to increase the activity of the Bag-1 IRES in vitro and in vivo...
  14. Resnick M, Segall A, G G, Lupowitz Z, Zisapel N. Alternative splicing of neurexins: a role for neuronal polypyrimidine tract binding protein. Neurosci Lett. 2008;439:235-40 pubmed publisher
    ..splicing at splice site 4 (SS#4); among them elements suspected as intronic binding sites of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), and its neuron specific analog nPTB...
  15. Liu H, Zhang W, Reed R, Liu W, Grabowski P. Mutations in RRM4 uncouple the splicing repression and RNA-binding activities of polypyrimidine tract binding protein. RNA. 2002;8:137-49 pubmed
    The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB, or hnRNP I) contains four RNA-binding domains of the ribonucleoprotein fold type (RRMs 1, 2, 3, and 4), and mediates the negative regulation of alternative splicing through sequence-specific ..
  16. Wollerton M, Gooding C, Wagner E, Garcia Blanco M, Smith C. Autoregulation of polypyrimidine tract binding protein by alternative splicing leading to nonsense-mediated decay. Mol Cell. 2004;13:91-100 pubmed
  17. Mitchell S, Spriggs K, Bushell M, Evans J, Stoneley M, Le Quesne J, et al. Identification of a motif that mediates polypyrimidine tract-binding protein-dependent internal ribosome entry. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1556-71 pubmed
    ..Given the number of putative cellular IRESs that could be dependent on PTB for function, these data strongly suggest that PTB-1 is a universal IRES-trans-acting factor. ..
  18. Spellman R, Rideau A, Matlin A, Gooding C, Robinson F, McGlincy N, et al. Regulation of alternative splicing by PTB and associated factors. Biochem Soc Trans. 2005;33:457-60 pubmed
    ..By the use of 'tethering' assays, we have identified discrete domains within both PTB and raver1 that mediate their repressive activities on this splicing event. ..
  19. Gil A, Sharp P, Jamison S, Garcia Blanco M. Characterization of cDNAs encoding the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein. Genes Dev. 1991;5:1224-36 pubmed
    ..Sequence comparisons indicate that pPTB is distantly related to the hnRNP L protein and that these two proteins should be considered as members of a novel family of RNA-binding proteins. ..
  20. Robinson F, Smith C. A splicing repressor domain in polypyrimidine tract-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:800-6 pubmed
    ..Our results highlight the fact that splicing repression by PTB can be uncoupled from the mode by which it binds to RNA. ..
  21. Song Y, Tzima E, Ochs K, Bassili G, Trusheim H, Linder M, et al. Evidence for an RNA chaperone function of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein in picornavirus translation. RNA. 2005;11:1809-24 pubmed
    ..Thus, PTB most likely acts as an RNA chaperone to stabilize IRES structure and, in that way, augment IRES activity. ..
  22. Matlin A, Southby J, Gooding C, Smith C. Repression of alpha-actinin SM exon splicing by assisted binding of PTB to the polypyrimidine tract. RNA. 2007;13:1214-23 pubmed
    b>Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) acts as a regulatory repressor of a large number of alternatively spliced exons, often requiring multiple binding sites in order to repress splicing...
  23. Sharma S, Kohlstaedt L, Damianov A, Rio D, Black D. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein controls the transition from exon definition to an intron defined spliceosome. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:183-91 pubmed publisher
    The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) binds pre-mRNAs to alter splice-site choice...
  24. Xue Y, Zhou Y, Wu T, Zhu T, Ji X, Kwon Y, et al. Genome-wide analysis of PTB-RNA interactions reveals a strategy used by the general splicing repressor to modulate exon inclusion or skipping. Mol Cell. 2009;36:996-1006 pubmed publisher
  25. Lamichhane R, Daubner G, Thomas Crusells J, Auweter S, Manatschal C, Austin K, et al. RNA looping by PTB: Evidence using FRET and NMR spectroscopy for a role in splicing repression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4105-10 pubmed publisher
    ..RRM3 and RRM4 bind the 5' and the 3' pyrimidine tracts, respectively, in a specific directionality and work synergistically for efficient splicing repression in vivo. ..
  26. Tillmar L, Welsh N. Hypoxia may increase rat insulin mRNA levels by promoting binding of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) to the pyrimidine-rich insulin mRNA 3'-untranslated region. Mol Med. 2002;8:263-72 pubmed
    ..Hydrogen peroxide abolishes the hypoxic effect indicating involvement of reactive oxygen species and/or the redox potential in the oxygen-signaling pathway. ..
  27. Chou M, Underwood J, Nikolic J, Luu M, Black D. Multisite RNA binding and release of polypyrimidine tract binding protein during the regulation of c-src neural-specific splicing. Mol Cell. 2000;5:949-57 pubmed
    We studied the role of polypyrimidine tract binding protein in repressing splicing of the c-src neuron-specific N1 exon. Immunodepletion/add-back experiments demonstrate that PTB is essential for splicing repression in HeLa extract...
  28. Tateiwa H, Gotoh N, Ichikawa M, Kikuchi T, Yoshimura N. Molecular cloning and characterization of human PTB-like protein: a possible retinal autoantigen of cancer-associated retinopathy. J Neuroimmunol. 2001;120:161-9 pubmed
    Human homologue of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), a possible autoantigen for cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR), was isolated from a human retinal cDNA library...
  29. Pilipenko E, Viktorova E, Guest S, Agol V, Roos R. Cell-specific proteins regulate viral RNA translation and virus-induced disease. EMBO J. 2001;20:6899-908 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the tissue-specific expression and differential RNA-binding properties of PTB and nPTB are important determinants of cell-specific translational control and viral neurovirulence. ..
  30. Back S, Kim Y, Kim W, Cho S, Oh H, Kim J, et al. Translation of polioviral mRNA is inhibited by cleavage of polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins executed by polioviral 3C(pro). J Virol. 2002;76:2529-42 pubmed
    ..We speculate that the proteolytic cleavage of PTBs may contribute to the molecular switching from translation to replication of polioviral RNA...
  31. Hahm B, Cho O, Kim J, Kim Y, Kim J, Oh Y, et al. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein interacts with HnRNP L. FEBS Lett. 1998;425:401-6 pubmed
    ..The N-terminal half of PTB (aa 1-329) and most of hnRNP L (aa 141-558) is required for the interaction between PTB and hnRNP L. ..
  32. Kaminski A, Jackson R. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) requirement for internal initiation of translation of cardiovirus RNAs is conditional rather than absolute. RNA. 1998;4:626-38 pubmed
    ..segment (IRES), and in some circumstances may require cellular trans-acting proteins, particularly polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB)...
  33. Singh R, Valcarcel J, Green M. Distinct binding specificities and functions of higher eukaryotic polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins. Science. 1995;268:1173-6 pubmed
    ..Here it is shown that PTB can regulate alternative splicing by selectively repressing 3' splice sites that contain a PTB-binding site. ..
  34. Hall M, Huang S, Black D. Differentiation-induced colocalization of the KH-type splicing regulatory protein with polypyrimidine tract binding protein and the c-src pre-mRNA. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:774-86 pubmed
    ..find that KSRP is primarily nuclear with a localization pattern that most closely resembles that of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB)...
  35. Polydorides A, Okano H, Yang Y, Stefani G, Darnell R. A brain-enriched polypyrimidine tract-binding protein antagonizes the ability of Nova to regulate neuron-specific alternative splicing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:6350-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that brPTB is a tissue-restricted RNA binding protein that interacts with and inhibits the ability of Nova to activate exon selection in neurons. ..
  36. Sawicka K, Bushell M, Spriggs K, Willis A. Polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein: a multifunctional RNA-binding protein. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:641-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present review, we discuss how PTB regulates these disparate processes. ..
  37. Wollerton M, Gooding C, Robinson F, Brown E, Jackson R, Smith C. Differential alternative splicing activity of isoforms of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB). RNA. 2001;7:819-32 pubmed
    b>Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is an RNA-binding protein that regulates splicing by repressing specific splicing events. It also has roles in 3'-end processing, internal initiation of translation, and RNA localization...
  38. Boutz P, Stoilov P, Li Q, Lin C, Chawla G, Ostrow K, et al. A post-transcriptional regulatory switch in polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins reprograms alternative splicing in developing neurons. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1636-52 pubmed
    ..These data show that the post-transcriptional switch from PTB to nPTB controls a widespread alternative splicing program during neuronal development. ..
  39. Pautz A, Linker K, Hubrich T, Korhonen R, Altenhöfer S, Kleinert H. The polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB) is involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of human inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:32294-302 pubmed
    ..The underlying mechanism is based on a modulation of iNOS mRNA stability. In summary, human iNOS is the first example of a human pro-inflammatory gene regulated by PTB on the level of mRNA stability. ..
  40. Bushell M, Stoneley M, Kong Y, Hamilton T, Spriggs K, Dobbyn H, et al. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein regulates IRES-mediated gene expression during apoptosis. Mol Cell. 2006;23:401-12 pubmed
    ..Finally, the data showed that polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB, a known IRES trans-acting factor or ITAF) is pivotal in regulating the apoptotic process by ..
  41. Raponi M, Buratti E, Llorian M, Stuani C, Smith C, Baralle D. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein regulates alternative splicing of an aberrant pseudoexon in NF1. FEBS J. 2008;275:6101-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our investigation shows that pseudoexon inclusion levels are strongly downregulated by polypyrimidine tract binding protein and its homologue neuronal polypyrimidine tract binding protein...
  42. Niepmann M. Porcine polypyrimidine tract-binding protein stimulates translation initiation at the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth-disease virus. FEBS Lett. 1996;388:39-42 pubmed
    ..Purified recombinant sPTB efficiently stimulates internal translation initiation directed by the FMDV IRES in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate translation system from which the internal PTB had been depleted. ..
  43. Yi M, Schultz D, Lemon S. Functional significance of the interaction of hepatitis A virus RNA with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH): opposing effects of GAPDH and polypyrimidine tract binding protein on internal ribosome entry site function. J Virol. 2000;74:6459-68 pubmed
    ..Both GAPDH and polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) bind to overlapping sites in stem-loop IIIa of the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of ..
  44. Somberg M, Zhao X, Fröhlich M, Evander M, Schwartz S. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein induces human papillomavirus type 16 late gene expression by interfering with splicing inhibitory elements at the major late 5' splice site, SD3632. J Virol. 2008;82:3665-78 pubmed publisher
    ..We report that the overexpression of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), also known as heterologous nuclear ribonucleoprotein I (hnRNP I), induces HPV-16 late gene ..
  45. Florez P, Sessions O, Wagner E, Gromeier M, Garcia Blanco M. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein is required for efficient picornavirus gene expression and propagation. J Virol. 2005;79:6172-9 pubmed
    ..Here we use RNA interference to deplete mammalian cells of one such factor, the polypyrimidine tract binding protein, and test its requirement in picornavirus gene expression and propagation...
  46. Davis M, Sun W, Standiford D. Lineage-specific expression of polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) in Drosophila embryos. Mech Dev. 2002;111:143-7 pubmed
    b>Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is a member of the hnRNP family of RNA binding proteins (Nucleic Acids Res...
  47. Kaminski A, Hunt S, Patton J, Jackson R. Direct evidence that polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is essential for internal initiation of translation of encephalomyocarditis virus RNA. RNA. 1995;1:924-38 pubmed
    The requirement of PTB, polypyrimidine tract binding protein, for internal initiation of translation has been tested using an RNA affinity column to deplete rabbit reticulocyte lysates of PTB...
  48. Babic I, Sharma S, Black D. A role for polypyrimidine tract binding protein in the establishment of focal adhesions. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5564-77 pubmed publisher
    b>Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is a widely expressed RNA binding protein. In the nucleus PTB regulates the splicing of alternative exons, while in the cytoplasm it can affect mRNA stability, translation, and localization...
  49. Gromak N, Matlin A, Cooper T, Smith C. Antagonistic regulation of alpha-actinin alternative splicing by CELF proteins and polypyrimidine tract binding protein. RNA. 2003;9:443-56 pubmed
    ..The smooth muscle (SM) exon is repressed in most cell types by polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB)...
  50. Dhar D, Venkataramana M, Ponnuswamy A, Das S. Role of polypyrimidine tract binding protein in mediating internal initiation of translation of interferon regulatory factor 2 RNA. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7049 pubmed publisher
    ..The IRES activity was found to be influenced by the interaction of trans-acting factor, polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB)...
  51. Knoch K, Bergert H, Borgonovo B, Saeger H, Altkr ger A, Verkade P, et al. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein promotes insulin secretory granule biogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2004;6:207-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may provide insight for the understanding and treatment of diabetes, in which insulin secretion is typically impaired...
  52. Gromak N, Rideau A, Southby J, Scadden A, Gooding C, Huttelmaier S, et al. The PTB interacting protein raver1 regulates alpha-tropomyosin alternative splicing. EMBO J. 2003;22:6356-64 pubmed
    ..This suggests a novel mechanism for PTB-mediated splicing repression involving recruitment of raver1 as a potent splicing co-repressor. ..
  53. Bian Y, Masuda A, Matsuura T, Ito M, Okushin K, Engel A, et al. Tannic acid facilitates expression of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein and alleviates deleterious inclusion of CHRNA1 exon P3A due to an hnRNP H-disrupting mutation in congenital myasthenic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1229-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we searched for another splicing trans-factor. We found that the polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) binds close to the 3' end of CHRNA1 intron 3, that PTB induces skipping of exon P3A and that ..
  54. Kafasla P, Morgner N, Pöyry T, Curry S, Robinson C, Jackson R. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein stabilizes the encephalomyocarditis virus IRES structure via binding multiple sites in a unique orientation. Mol Cell. 2009;34:556-68 pubmed publisher
  55. Fred R, Bang Berthelsen C, Mandrup Poulsen T, Grunnet L, Welsh N. High glucose suppresses human islet insulin biosynthesis by inducing miR-133a leading to decreased polypyrimidine tract binding protein-expression. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e10843 pubmed publisher
    ..The underlying mechanisms behind this effect of high glucose are, however, unknown. The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is required for stabilization of insulin mRNA and the PTB mRNA 3'-UTR contains binding sites ..
  56. Grover R, Ray P, Das S. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein regulates IRES-mediated translation of p53 isoforms. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:2189-98 pubmed
  57. Patton J, Porro E, Galceran J, Tempst P, Nadal Ginard B. Cloning and characterization of PSF, a novel pre-mRNA splicing factor. Genes Dev. 1993;7:393-406 pubmed
    ..Despite association with PSF, complementary experiments with antibodies against PTB do not suggest an essential role for PTB in pre-mRNA splicing. ..
  58. Lou H, Helfman D, Gagel R, Berget S. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein positively regulates inclusion of an alternative 3'-terminal exon. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:78-85 pubmed
  59. Spellman R, Smith C. Novel modes of splicing repression by PTB. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006;31:73-6 pubmed
    ..Structural analysis of PTB bound to RNA suggests how PTB monomers can induce loops, but two recent publications indicate that repression by PTB involves more than just binding to RNA. ..
  60. Simpson C, Jennings S, Clark G, Thow G, Brown J. Dual functionality of a plant U-rich intronic sequence element. Plant J. 2004;37:82-91 pubmed
  61. Xie J, Lee J, Kress T, Mowry K, Black D. Protein kinase A phosphorylation modulates transport of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:8776-81 pubmed
    ..Thus, direct PKA phosphorylation of PTB at Ser-16 modulates the nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of PTB. This phosphorylation likely plays a role in the cytoplasmic function of PTB. ..
  62. Zuccato E, Buratti E, Stuani C, Baralle F, Pagani F. An intronic polypyrimidine-rich element downstream of the donor site modulates cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator exon 9 alternative splicing. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16980-8 pubmed
    ..The TIA-1-mediated alternative usage of the 3'-splice sites, which depends on the composition of the unusual TGmTn element, represents a new mechanism of splicing regulation by TIA-1. ..
  63. Shen H, Kan J, Ghigna C, Biamonti G, Green M. A single polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) binding site mediates splicing inhibition at mouse IgM exons M1 and M2. RNA. 2004;10:787-94 pubmed
    ..Here we show that the inhibitor contains two binding sites for polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB)...
  64. Gooding C, Kemp P, Smith C. A novel polypyrimidine tract-binding protein paralog expressed in smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:15201-7 pubmed
    ..Recombinant smPTB localized to the nucleus, bound to RNA, and was able to regulate alternative splicing. We suggest that replacement of PTB by smPTB might be important in controlling some pre-mRNA alternative splicing events. ..
  65. Bladen C, Udayakumar D, Takeda Y, Dynan W. Identification of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein-associated splicing factor.p54(nrb) complex as a candidate DNA double-strand break rejoining factor. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:5205-10 pubmed
    ..Based on structural comparison with related proteins, we propose a model where the four RNA recognition motif domains in the heteromeric PSF.p54(nrb) complex cooperate to align separate DNA molecules. ..
  66. Xu M, Hecht N. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein 2 stabilizes phosphoglycerate kinase 2 mRNA in murine male germ cells by binding to its 3'UTR. Biol Reprod. 2007;76:1025-33 pubmed
    ..with the 3'-UTR of the Pgk2 mRNA, several proteins, including the RNA-binding protein, polypyrimidine tract binding protein 2 (PTBP2), were identified in mouse testis extracts...
  67. Conte M, Grune T, Ghuman J, Kelly G, Ladas A, Matthews S, et al. Structure of tandem RNA recognition motifs from polypyrimidine tract binding protein reveals novel features of the RRM fold. EMBO J. 2000;19:3132-41 pubmed
    b>Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), an RNA binding protein containing four RNA recognition motifs (RRMs), is involved in both pre-mRNA splicing and translation initiation directed by picornaviral internal ribosome entry sites...
  68. Coutinho Mansfield G, Xue Y, Zhang Y, Fu X. PTB/nPTB switch: a post-transcriptional mechanism for programming neuronal differentiation. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1573-7 pubmed
  69. Spellman R, Llorian M, Smith C. Crossregulation and functional redundancy between the splicing regulator PTB and its paralogs nPTB and ROD1. Mol Cell. 2007;27:420-34 pubmed
    Among the targets of the repressive splicing regulator, polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is its own pre-mRNA, where PTB-induced exon 11 skipping produces an RNA substrate for nonsense-mediated decay (NMD)...
  70. Cote C, Gautreau D, Denegre J, Kress T, Terry N, Mowry K. A Xenopus protein related to hnRNP I has a role in cytoplasmic RNA localization. Mol Cell. 1999;4:431-7 pubmed
    ..These results implicate a novel role in cytoplasmic RNA transport for this family of nuclear RNA-binding proteins. ..
  71. Cheung H, Corley L, Fuller G, McCutcheon I, Cote G. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein and Notch1 are independently re-expressed in glioma. Mod Pathol. 2006;19:1034-41 pubmed
    b>Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) is expressed in developing mammalian astrocytes, absent in mature adult astrocytes, and aberrantly elevated in gliomas...
  72. Niepmann M, Petersen A, Meyer K, Beck E. Functional involvement of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein in translation initiation complexes with the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus. J Virol. 1997;71:8330-9 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that PTB plays an important role in the formation of initiation complexes with FMDV IRES RNA and in stimulation of internal translation initiation with this picornavirus. ..
  73. Hunt S, Hsuan J, Totty N, Jackson R. unr, a cellular cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein with five cold-shock domains, is required for internal initiation of translation of human rhinovirus RNA. Genes Dev. 1999;13:437-48 pubmed
    ..Recombinant unr acts synergistically with recombinant PTB to stimulate translation dependent on the rhinovirus IRES. In contrast, unr did not significantly augment the PTB-dependent stimulation of poliovirus IRES activity. ..
  74. Izquierdo J, Majós N, Bonnal S, Martínez C, Castelo R, Guigo R, et al. Regulation of Fas alternative splicing by antagonistic effects of TIA-1 and PTB on exon definition. Mol Cell. 2005;19:475-84 pubmed
    ..The polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) promotes exon skipping by binding to an exonic splicing silencer and inhibiting the ..
  75. Markovtsov V, Nikolic J, Goldman J, Turck C, Chou M, Black D. Cooperative assembly of an hnRNP complex induced by a tissue-specific homolog of polypyrimidine tract binding protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7463-79 pubmed
    ..Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) H, polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB), and KH-type splicing-regulatory protein (KSRP) each bind to distinct elements within this ..
  76. He X, Pool M, Darcy K, Lim S, Auersperg N, Coon J, et al. Knockdown of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein suppresses ovarian tumor cell growth and invasiveness in vitro. Oncogene. 2007;26:4961-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover, because of its novel role in tumor cell growth and invasiveness, shown here for the first time, PTB may be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of ovarian cancer. ..
  77. Bothwell A, Ballard D, Philbrick W, Lindwall G, Maher S, Bridgett M, et al. Murine polypyrimidine tract binding protein. Purification, cloning, and mapping of the RNA binding domain. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:24657-63 pubmed
    ..of a cDNA that encodes a 528-amino acid protein that is highly homologous to the human 62-kDa human polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB) (Garcia-Blanco, M. A., Jamison, S. F., and Sharp, P. A. (1989) Genes & Dev...