heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein k


Summary: A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein K has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at nearly all levels: GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION; mRNA processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), mRNA transport, mRNA stability, and translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Multiple hnRNP K protein isoforms exist due to alternative splicing and display different nucleic-acid-binding properties.

Top Publications

  1. Naarmann I, Harnisch C, Flach N, Kremmer E, Kuhn H, Ostareck D, et al. mRNA silencing in human erythroid cell maturation: heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K controls the expression of its regulator c-Src. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:18461-72 pubmed publisher
    ..In premature erythroid cells, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of hnRNP K, but not of hnRNP E1, leads to the de-repression of c-Src synthesis...
  2. Roychoudhury P, Chaudhuri K. Evidence for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 2007;97:574-5; author reply 576 pubmed
  3. Bustelo X, Suen K, Michael W, Dreyfuss G, Barbacid M. Association of the vav proto-oncogene product with poly(rC)-specific RNA-binding proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1324-32 pubmed
    ..One of the clones encoded heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a poly(rC)-specific RNA-binding protein...
  4. Gao F, Wu Y, Zhao M, Liu C, Wang L, Chen G. Protein kinase C-delta mediates down-regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein: involvement in apoptosis induction. Exp Cell Res. 2009;315:3250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..By subcellular proteome analysis, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was identified as being significantly down-regulated in NSC606985-treated leukemic NB4 ..
  5. Hernaez B, Escribano J, Alonso C. African swine fever virus protein p30 interaction with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K) during infection. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:3275-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K) was identified as interacting cellular protein with the abundant immediate early protein p30 from African swine fever virus (ASFV) in a macrophage cDNA library screening...
  6. Nagano K, Masters J, Akpan A, Yang A, Corless S, Wood C, et al. Differential protein synthesis and expression levels in normal and neoplastic human prostate cells and their regulation by type I and II interferons. Oncogene. 2004;23:1693-703 pubmed
  7. Burnham A, Gong L, Hardy R. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein K interacts with Sindbis virus nonstructural proteins and viral subgenomic mRNA. Virology. 2007;367:212-21 pubmed
    ..Potential functions of hnRNP K during virus replication are discussed. ..
  8. Ostrowski J, Wyrwicz L, Rychlewski L, Bomsztyk K. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein associates with multiple mitochondrial transcripts within the organelle. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:6303-10 pubmed
    b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) protein interacts with a subset of cellular RNAs. We used K protein as a bait in the yeast three-hybrid screen to identify RNAs that bind K protein in vivo...
  9. Expert Bezançon A, Le Caer J, Marie J. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) K is a component of an intronic splicing enhancer complex that activates the splicing of the alternative exon 6A from chicken beta-tropomyosin pre-mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16614-23 pubmed
    ..hnRNP I (PTB) was also found associated with the strong enhancer sequences. Its function in the splicing of exon 6A is discussed. ..

More Information


  1. Backe P, Messias A, Ravelli R, Sattler M, Cusack S. X-ray crystallographic and NMR studies of the third KH domain of hnRNP K in complex with single-stranded nucleic acids. Structure. 2005;13:1055-67 pubmed
    ..Based on a structure alignment of the KH3-CTC(4) complex with known structures of other KH domains in complex with ssRNA, we discuss recognition of tetranucleotide sequences by KH domains. ..
  2. Ostareck Lederer A, Ostareck D, Rucknagel K, Schierhorn A, Moritz B, Huttelmaier S, et al. Asymmetric arginine dimethylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K by protein-arginine methyltransferase 1 inhibits its interaction with c-Src. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:11115-25 pubmed
    Arginine methylation is a post-translational modification found in many RNA-binding proteins. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) from HeLa cells was shown, by mass spectrometry and Edman degradation, to contain ..
  3. Dzwonek A, Mikula M, Ostrowski J. The diverse involvement of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in mitochondrial response to insulin. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:1839-45 pubmed
    b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K protein) is an RNA/DNA-binding protein that acts in several compartments, including mitochondria...
  4. Gates J, Thummel C. An enhancer trap screen for ecdysone-inducible genes required for Drosophila adult leg morphogenesis. Genetics. 2000;156:1765-76 pubmed
    ..Both bancal and vulcan are inducible by ecdysone, thus linking the hormone signal with leg morphogenesis. This screen provides new directions for understanding the hormonal regulation of leg development during Drosophila metamorphosis. ..
  5. Mukhopadhyay N, Kim J, Cinar B, Ramachandran A, Hager M, Di Vizio D, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is a novel regulator of androgen receptor translation. Cancer Res. 2009;69:2210-8 pubmed publisher
    ..pathway that regulates AR at this site, we identified the nucleic acid-binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K), by mass spectrometric analysis of Akt immune complexes from lipid raft-enriched ..
  6. Revil T, Pelletier J, Toutant J, Cloutier A, Chabot B. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K represses the production of pro-apoptotic Bcl-xS splice isoform. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21458-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results therefore document a clear role for hnRNP K in preventing the production of the pro-apoptotic Bcl-x(S) splice isoform. ..
  7. Zhou R, Shañas R, Nelson M, Bhattacharyya A, Shi J. Increased expression of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in pancreatic cancer and its association with the mutant p53. Int J Cancer. 2010;126:395-404 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Kras is activated and p53 is mutated in most pancreatic cancers, these data unveiled an important new signaling pathway that linked by hnRNP K and mutant p53 in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis. ..
  8. Li H, Liu J. Identification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K as a transactivator for human low density lipoprotein receptor gene transcription. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17789-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This work sheds new light on our current understanding of how LDLR gene expression is controlled at the transcriptional level. ..
  9. Ostrowski J, Klimek Tomczak K, Wyrwicz L, Mikula M, Schullery D, Bomsztyk K. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K enhances insulin-induced expression of mitochondrial UCP2 protein. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54599-609 pubmed
    ..The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNPK) is an RNA-binding protein involved in many processes that compose gene expression, ..
  10. Ostrowski J, Bomsztyk K. Nuclear shift of hnRNP K protein in neoplasms and other states of enhanced cell proliferation. Br J Cancer. 2003;89:1493-501 pubmed
    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), is a ubiquitously expressed protein that interacts with signal transducers, proteins that modulate gene expression and selective RNA and DNA motifs...
  11. Paziewska A, Wyrwicz L, Bujnicki J, Bomsztyk K, Ostrowski J. Cooperative binding of the hnRNP K three KH domains to mRNA targets. FEBS Lett. 2004;577:134-40 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate that in this heterologous in vivo system, the three KH domains bind RNA synergistically and that a single KH domain, in comparison, binds RNA weakly. ..
  12. Yano M, Okano H, Okano H. Involvement of Hu and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in neuronal differentiation through p21 mRNA post-transcriptional regulation. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:12690-9 pubmed
  13. Chen L, Hsueh C, Tsang N, Liang Y, Chang K, Hao S, et al. Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein k and thymidine phosphorylase are independent prognostic and therapeutic markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:3807-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Cytoplasmic hnRNP K and high TP may be potential prognostic and therapeutic markers for NPC, but additional validation studies are warranted. ..
  14. Schmidt T, Striebinger H, Haas J, Bailer S. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is important for Herpes simplex virus-1 propagation. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:4361-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that hnRNP K has an impact on a late step of herpesviral propagation making it a potential antiviral target. ..
  15. Aasheim H, Loukianova T, Deggerdal A, Smeland E. Tissue specific expression and cDNA structure of a human transcript encoding a nucleic acid binding [oligo(dC)] protein related to the pre-mRNA binding protein K. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:959-64 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, this study presents the cDNA sequence of a novel transcript which shows tissue specific expression and encodes a protein with oligo(dC) binding specificity in vitro. ..
  16. Schullery D, Ostrowski J, Denisenko O, Stempka L, Shnyreva M, Suzuki H, et al. Regulated interaction of protein kinase Cdelta with the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:15101-9 pubmed
    ..The regulated nature of the PKCdelta-K protein interaction may serve to meet cellular needs at sites of active transcription, RNA processing and translation in response to changing extracellular environment. ..
  17. Charroux B, Angelats C, Fasano L, Kerridge S, Vola C. The levels of the bancal product, a Drosophila homologue of vertebrate hnRNP K protein, affect cell proliferation and apoptosis in imaginal disc cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7846-56 pubmed
    ..Finally, the human K protein acts as a negative regulator of bancal gene expression. We propose that negative autoregulation limits the level of Bancal protein produced in vivo. ..
  18. Shnyreva M, Schullery D, Suzuki H, Higaki Y, Bomsztyk K. Interaction of two multifunctional proteins. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K and Y-box-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15498-503 pubmed
    ..Each protein was able to transactivate transcription from a polypyrimidine-rich promoter; however, this effect was reduced when K and YB-1 proteins were coexpressed suggesting a functional interaction between these two proteins. ..
  19. Denisenko O, Bomsztyk K. Yeast hnRNP K-like genes are involved in regulation of the telomeric position effect and telomere length. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:286-97 pubmed
    Mammalian heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is an RNA- and DNA-binding protein implicated in the regulation of gene expression processes...
  20. Yang J, Reddy T, Truong K, Suhasini M, Wong Staal F. Functional interaction of Sam68 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K. Oncogene. 2002;21:7187-94 pubmed
    ..Here we describe the identification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) as a protein that specifically interacts with Sam68 in vitro and in vivo...
  21. Dejgaard K, Leffers H, Rasmussen H, Madsen P, Kruse T, Gesser B, et al. Identification, molecular cloning, expression and chromosome mapping of a family of transformation upregulated hnRNP-K proteins derived by alternative splicing. J Mol Biol. 1994;236:33-48 pubmed
    ..hnRNP-K has been implicated in pre-mRNA metabolism of transcripts containing cytidine-rich sequences and our results point towards a role during cell cycle progression. ..
  22. Michelotti E, Michelotti G, Aronsohn A, Levens D. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K is a transcription factor. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:2350-60 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that hnRNP K binds to a specific cis element, interacts with the RNA polymerase II transcription machinery, and stimulates transcription and thus has all of the properties of a transcription factor. ..
  23. Denisenko O, O NEILL B, Ostrowski J, Van Seuningen I, Bomsztyk K. Zik1, a transcriptional repressor that interacts with the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle K protein. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:27701-6 pubmed
  24. Bomsztyk K, Van Seuningen I, Suzuki H, Denisenko O, Ostrowski J. Diverse molecular interactions of the hnRNP K protein. FEBS Lett. 1997;403:113-5 pubmed
    ..K protein can simultaneously engage several proteins and may facilitate molecular cross-talk. Taken together these diverse interactions suggest that K protein may act as a nucleic acid-regulated docking platform. ..
  25. Hsieh T, Matsumoto M, Chou H, Schneider R, Hwang S, Lee A, et al. Hepatitis C virus core protein interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:17651-9 pubmed
    ..Among the proteins identified was heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), which has been demonstrated to be a transcriptional regulator...
  26. Blanchette A, Fuentes Medel Y, Gardner P. Cell-type-specific and developmental regulation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K mRNA in the rat nervous system. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:596-606 pubmed
    b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) was originally identified as being part of the hnRNP particle...
  27. Braddock D, Baber J, Levens D, Clore G. Molecular basis of sequence-specific single-stranded DNA recognition by KH domains: solution structure of a complex between hnRNP K KH3 and single-stranded DNA. EMBO J. 2002;21:3476-85 pubmed
    ..the solution structure of a complex between the KH3 domain of the transcriptional regulator heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) and a 10mer ssDNA...
  28. Jeon H, Ahn J, Choe J, Park J, Lee T. Anti-IgM induces up-regulation and tyrosine-phosphorylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K proteins (hnRNP K) in a Ramos B cell line. Immunol Lett. 2005;98:303-10 pubmed
    b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein (hnRNP K) has diverse molecular partners implicated in signal transduction pathways, and is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to growth factors and oxidative stress...
  29. Chen H, Lin W, Tsay Y, Lee S, Chang C. An RNA helicase, DDX1, interacting with poly(A) RNA and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:40403-9 pubmed
    b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) is a multifunctional protein known to be involved in the regulation of transcription, translation, nuclear transport, and signal transduction...
  30. Lynch M, Chen L, Ravitz M, Mehtani S, Korenblat K, Pazin M, et al. hnRNP K binds a core polypyrimidine element in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) promoter, and its regulation of eIF4E contributes to neoplastic transformation. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:6436-53 pubmed
    ..hnRNP K is an unusually diverse regulator of multiple steps in growth regulation because it also directly regulates c-myc transcription, mRNA export, splicing, and translation initiation. ..
  31. Moumen A, Masterson P, O Connor M, Jackson S. hnRNP K: an HDM2 target and transcriptional coactivator of p53 in response to DNA damage. Cell. 2005;123:1065-78 pubmed
    ..Through differential proteomics, we identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) as being rapidly induced by DNA damage in a manner that requires the DNA-damage ..
  32. Siomi H, Choi M, Siomi M, Nussbaum R, Dreyfuss G. Essential role for KH domains in RNA binding: impaired RNA binding by a mutation in the KH domain of FMR1 that causes fragile X syndrome. Cell. 1994;77:33-9 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate an essential role for KH domains in RNA binding. Furthermore, they strengthen the connection between fragile X syndrome and loss of the RNA binding activity of FMR1. ..
  33. Grillari J, Löscher M, Denegri M, Lee K, Fortschegger K, Eisenhaber F, et al. Blom7alpha is a novel heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology domain protein involved in pre-mRNA splicing that interacts with SNEVPrp19-Pso4. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:29193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the putative binding partners was a so far uncharacterized protein carrying two heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K homology domains that we termed Blom7alpha...
  34. Shi L, Ko S, Kim S, Echchgadda I, Oh T, Song C, et al. Loss of androgen receptor in aging and oxidative stress through Myb protooncoprotein-regulated reciprocal chromatin dynamics of p53 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase PARP-1. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:36474-85 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K, residing at the ADF element in association with PARP-1, may serve a platform role in ..
  35. Chang C, Luh H, Wang S, Lin H, Lee S, Hu S. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) interacts with dengue virus core protein. DNA Cell Biol. 2001;20:569-77 pubmed
    b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a component of hnRNP particles, is involved in several steps of gene expression regulation...
  36. Ostareck Lederer A, Ostareck D. Control of mRNA translation and stability in haematopoietic cells: the function of hnRNPs K and E1/E2. Biol Cell. 2004;96:407-11 pubmed
    ..As components of different mRNA-protein complexes, hnRNP K and hnRNP E1/E2 function in the control of mRNA translation and mRNA stability in haematopoietic cell differentiation. ..
  37. Bomsztyk K, Denisenko O, Ostrowski J. hnRNP K: one protein multiple processes. Bioessays. 2004;26:629-38 pubmed
    ..The greater diversity of mammalian K protein interactions and function may reflect gain of novel docking sites and expansion evolutionary of gene expression networks. ..
  38. Valverde R, Edwards L, Regan L. Structure and function of KH domains. FEBS J. 2008;275:2712-26 pubmed publisher
    The hnRNP K homology (KH) domain was first identified in the protein human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) 14 years ago...
  39. Ostrowski J, Kawata Y, Schullery D, Denisenko O, Bomsztyk K. Transient recruitment of the hnRNP K protein to inducibly transcribed gene loci. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:3954-62 pubmed
    The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein is an RNA- and DNA-binding protein implicated in the regulation of multiple processes that comprise gene expression...
  40. Barboro P, Repaci E, Rubagotti A, Salvi S, Boccardo S, Spina B, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K: altered pattern of expression associated with diagnosis and prognosis of prostate cancer. Br J Cancer. 2009;100:1608-16 pubmed publisher
    Using proteomic analysis of the nuclear matrix (NM), we found that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a member of the hnRNP family with pleiotropic functions, was differentially expressed in prostate cancer (PCa) ..
  41. Ostareck Lederer A, Ostareck D, Cans C, Neubauer G, Bomsztyk K, Superti Furga G, et al. c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of hnRNP K drives translational activation of specifically silenced mRNAs. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4535-43 pubmed
    ..Our results establish a novel role of c-Src kinase in translational gene regulation and reveal a mechanism by which silenced mRNAs can be translationally activated. ..
  42. Stains J, Lecanda F, Towler D, Civitelli R. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K represses transcription from a cytosine/thymidine-rich element in the osteocalcin promoter. Biochem J. 2005;385:613-23 pubmed
    HnRNP K (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K) was biochemically purified from a screen of proteins co-purifying with binding activity to the osteocalcin promoter...
  43. Iwasaki T, Koretomo Y, Fukuda T, Paronetto M, Sette C, Fukami Y, et al. Expression, phosphorylation, and mRNA-binding of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K in Xenopus oocytes, eggs, and early embryos. Dev Growth Differ. 2008;50:23-40 pubmed
    Here we show that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a member of the K homology domain-containing proteins, is expressed in Xenopus immature oocytes, unfertilized eggs, and early embryos...
  44. Feliers D, Lee M, Ghosh Choudhury G, Bomsztyk K, Kasinath B. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K contributes to angiotensin II stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA translation. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F607-15 pubmed
    ..The role of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) in ANG II regulation of VEGF mRNA translation initiation was examined...
  45. Lee P, Liao P, Chang W, Tseng J. Epidermal growth factor increases the interaction between nucleolin and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K/poly(C) binding protein 1 complex to regulate the gastrin mRNA turnover. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:5004-13 pubmed
    ..RNA probe pull-down assay combined with mass spectrometry analysis, we identified the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) and poly(C) binding protein 1 (PCBP1) bound with the C-rich region in gastrin mRNA 3' ..
  46. Wei C, Zhang S, Chen Y, Guo D, Ingelfinger J, Bomsztyk K, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K modulates angiotensinogen gene expression in kidney cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:25344-55 pubmed
    ..and subsequently identified by mass spectrometry, which revealed that it was identical to 65-kDa heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K)...
  47. Mandal M, Vadlamudi R, Nguyen D, Wang R, Costa L, Bagheri Yarmand R, et al. Growth factors regulate heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K expression and function. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:9699-704 pubmed
    ..of antireceptor blocking antibodies; isolates from one cDNA clone were 100% identical to human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a protein with a conserved KH motif and RGG boxes, has been implicated in such ..
  48. Habelhah H, Shah K, Huang L, Ostareck Lederer A, Burlingame A, Shokat K, et al. ERK phosphorylation drives cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP-K and inhibition of mRNA translation. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:325-30 pubmed
    b>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP-K) is one of a family of 20 proteins that are involved in transcription and post-transcriptional messenger RNA metabolism...
  49. Ostrowski J, Kawata Y, Schullery D, Denisenko O, Higaki Y, Abrass C, et al. Insulin alters heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K protein binding to DNA and RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001;98:9044-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a class of insulin pathways that signal nucleic acid-directed processes that involve K protein. ..
  50. Thisted T, Lyakhov D, Liebhaber S. Optimized RNA targets of two closely related triple KH domain proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K and alphaCP-2KL, suggest Distinct modes of RNA recognition. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:17484-96 pubmed
  51. Du Z, Fenn S, James T. Resonance assignment of the first and second KH (hnRNP-K homology) domains of human poly(C)-binding protein-2 (PCBP2). J Biomol NMR. 2007;38:197 pubmed
  52. Chen Y, Zhou X, Liu N, Wang C, Zhang L, Mo W, et al. Arginine methylation of hnRNP K enhances p53 transcriptional activity. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:1761-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggested that arginine methylation of hnRNP K is a key element for p53 transcriptional activity. ..
  53. Ritchie S, Pasha M, Batten D, Sharma R, Olson D, Ross A, et al. Identification of the SRC pyrimidine-binding protein (SPy) as hnRNP K: implications in the regulation of SRC1A transcription. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:1502-13 pubmed
    ..digestion of purified SPy followed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis identified SPy as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K), a known nucleic-acid binding protein implicated in various aspects of gene expression ..
  54. Schwartz J, Younger S, Nguyen N, Hardy D, Monia B, Corey D, et al. Antisense transcripts are targets for activating small RNAs. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008;15:842-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that antisense transcripts have a central role in recognition of the PR promoter by both activating and inhibitory agRNAs. ..
  55. Klimek Tomczak K, Mikula M, Dzwonek A, Paziewska A, Wyrwicz L, Hennig E, et al. Mitochondria-associated satellite I RNA binds to hnRNP K protein. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53:169-78 pubmed
    ..The role of satellite I RNA in mitochondria remains to be elucidated. ..
  56. Hahm K, Kim G, Turck C, Smale S. Isolation of a murine gene encoding a nucleic acid-binding protein with homology to hnRNP K. Nucleic Acids Res. 1993;21:3894 pubmed