Genomes and Genes
heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein group f h
Summary: A group of closely-related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins that are involved in pre-mRNA splicing.
- Martinez Contreras R, Fisette J, Nasim F, Madden R, Cordeau M, Chabot B. Intronic binding sites for hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H proteins stimulate pre-mRNA splicing. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e21 pubmed..Our results document a positive role for the hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H proteins in generic splicing, and suggest that these proteins may modulate the conformation of mammalian pre-mRNAs. ..
- Matunis M, Xing J, Dreyfuss G. The hnRNP F protein: unique primary structure, nucleic acid-binding properties, and subcellular localization. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:1059-67 pubmed
- Garneau D, Revil T, Fisette J, Chabot B. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F/H proteins modulate the alternative splicing of the apoptotic mediator Bcl-x. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:22641-50 pubmed..Our results document a positive role for the hnRNP F/H proteins in the production of the proapoptotic regulator Bcl-x(S.). ..
- Veraldi K, Arhin G, Martincic K, Chung Ganster L, Wilusz J, Milcarek C. hnRNP F influences binding of a 64-kilodalton subunit of cleavage stimulation factor to mRNA precursors in mouse B cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:1228-38 pubmed
- Markovtsov V, Nikolic J, Goldman J, Turck C, Chou M, Black D. Cooperative assembly of an hnRNP complex induced by a tissue-specific homolog of polypyrimidine tract binding protein. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:7463-79 pubmed
- Honore B, Rasmussen H, Vorum H, Dejgaard K, Liu X, Gromov P, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H, H', and F are members of a ubiquitously expressed subfamily of related but distinct proteins encoded by genes mapping to different chromosomes. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:28780-9 pubmed..The genes coding for hnRNPs H, H', and F were chromosome-mapped to 5q35.3 (HNRPH1), 6q25.3-q26, and/or Xq22 (HNRPH2) and 10q11.21-q11.22 (HNRPF), respectively. ..
- Marcucci R, Baralle F, Romano M. Complex splicing control of the human Thrombopoietin gene by intronic G runs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:132-42 pubmed..Removal of hnRNP H1 by RNA interference promoted the usage of the cryptic 3' splice site so providing functional evidence that this factor is involved in the selection of the authentic 3' splice site of THPO IVS2. ..
- Mahe D, Mahl P, Gattoni R, Fischer N, Mattei M, Stevenin J, et al. Cloning of human 2H9 heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Relation with splicing and early heat shock-induced splicing arrest. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:1827-36 pubmed..These 2H9 proteins, which are encoded by a single gene located on human chromosome 10, were also found to be associated with nuclear bodies in situ. ..
- Dominguez C, Allain F. Resonance assignments of the two N-terminal RNA recognition motifs (RRM) of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (HnRNP F). J Biomol NMR. 2005;33:282 pubmed
- Alkan S, Martincic K, Milcarek C. The hnRNPs F and H2 bind to similar sequences to influence gene expression. Biochem J. 2006;393:361-71 pubmed..A pronounced diminution in reporter expression was seen with the SAA20 mutant for both. Thus the relative levels of hnRNP F and H2 in cells, as well as the target sequences in the downstream GRS on pre-mRNA, influence gene expression. ..
- Kim D, Langlois M, Lee K, Riggs A, Puymirat J, Rossi J. HnRNP H inhibits nuclear export of mRNA containing expanded CUG repeats and a distal branch point sequence. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:3866-74 pubmed..The identification of hnRNP H as a factor capable of binding and possibly modulating nuclear retention of mutant DMPK mRNA may prove to be an important link in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that lead to DM1 pathogenesis. ..
- Kalifa Y, Huang T, Rosen L, Chatterjee S, Gavis E. Glorund, a Drosophila hnRNP F/H homolog, is an ovarian repressor of nanos translation. Dev Cell. 2006;10:291-301 pubmed..These data, together with the analysis of a glorund null mutant, reveal a specific role for an hnRNP in repression of nanos translation during oogenesis. ..
- Liu J, Beqaj S, Yang Y, Honore B, Schuger L. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-H plays a suppressive role in visceral myogenesis. Mech Dev. 2001;104:79-87 pubmed..hnRNP-H overexpression in cell cultures had the opposite effect. These studies, therefore, indicate a novel role for hnRNP-H in the control of visceral myogenesis. ..
- Dominguez C, Allain F. NMR structure of the three quasi RNA recognition motifs (qRRMs) of human hnRNP F and interaction studies with Bcl-x G-tract RNA: a novel mode of RNA recognition. Nucleic Acids Res. 2006;34:3634-45 pubmed..These regions define a novel interaction surface for RNA recognition by RRMs. ..
- Chou M, Rooke N, Turck C, Black D. hnRNP H is a component of a splicing enhancer complex that activates a c-src alternative exon in neuronal cells. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:69-77 pubmed..These two proteins presumably cooperate with each other and with other enhancer complex proteins to direct splicing to the N1 exon upstream. ..
- Wang Z, Rolish M, Yeo G, Tung V, Mawson M, Burge C. Systematic identification and analysis of exonic splicing silencers. Cell. 2004;119:831-45 pubmed..ExonScan and related bioinformatic analyses suggest that these ESS motifs play important roles in suppression of pseudoexons, in splice site definition, and in AS. ..
- Mauger D, Lin C, Garcia Blanco M. hnRNP H and hnRNP F complex with Fox2 to silence fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 exon IIIc. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5403-19 pubmed publisher..These results establish hnRNP H and hnRNP F as being repressors of exon inclusion and suggest that Fox proteins enhance their ability to antagonize ASF/SF2. ..
- McNally L, Yee L, McNally M. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H is required for optimal U11 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein binding to a retroviral RNA-processing control element: implications for U12-dependent RNA splicing. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:2478-88 pubmed..These results indicate that hnRNP H is an auxiliary factor for U11 binding to the NRS and that, more generally, hnRNP H is a splicing factor for a subset of U12-dependent introns that harbor G-rich elements. ..
- Hastings M, Wilson C, Munroe S. A purine-rich intronic element enhances alternative splicing of thyroid hormone receptor mRNA. RNA. 2001;7:859-74 pubmed..Mutations within this pseudo-5' splice site sequence have a dramatic effect on splicing and protein binding. Thus SEa2 and its associated factors are required for splicing of TRalpha2 pre-mRNA. ..
- Caputi M, Zahler A. SR proteins and hnRNP H regulate the splicing of the HIV-1 tev-specific exon 6D. EMBO J. 2002;21:845-55 pubmed..hnRNP H is required for interaction of U1 snRNP with the enhancer, independent of the point mutation. We propose that SC35 binding to the point mutation region may convert the hnRNP H-U1 snRNP complex into a splicing enhancer. ..
- Fogel B, McNally M. A cellular protein, hnRNP H, binds to the negative regulator of splicing element from Rous sarcoma virus. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:32371-8 pubmed..The possible roles of hnRNP H in NRS function are discussed. ..
- Chen C, Kobayashi R, Helfman D. Binding of hnRNP H to an exonic splicing silencer is involved in the regulation of alternative splicing of the rat beta-tropomyosin gene. Genes Dev. 1999;13:593-606 pubmed..The involvement of hnRNP H in the activity of an ESS may represent a prototype for the regulation of tissue- and developmental-specific alternative splicing. ..
- Caputi M, Zahler A. Determination of the RNA binding specificity of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) H/H'/F/2H9 family. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43850-9 pubmed..Mutation of the C to an A changes the specificity of the DCS from a substrate that binds only hnRNP H/H' to a binding site for all hnRNP H family members. We conclude that the sequence GGGA is recognized by all hnRNP H family proteins. ..
- Wang L, Yan F. Molecular insights into the specific recognition between the RNA binding domain qRRM2 of hnRNP F and G-tract RNA: A molecular dynamics study. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017;494:95-100 pubmed publisher..These results provide novel insights into the recognition mechanism of qRRM2 with G-tract RNA that are not elucidated by the NMR technique...
- Kuo Y, Shiue Y, Chen C, Tang P, Lee Y. Proteomic analysis of hypothalamic proteins of high and low egg production strains of chickens. Theriogenology. 2005;64:1490-502 pubmed..In conclusion, the expression level of HNRPH3 may be a new molecular marker to screen for high egg production in slow-growth local chickens. ..
- Seo J, Singh N, Ottesen E, Sivanesan S, Shishimorova M, Singh R. Oxidative Stress Triggers Body-Wide Skipping of Multiple Exons of the Spinal Muscular Atrophy Gene. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0154390 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest SMN2 as a sensor of OS with implications to SMA and other diseases impacted by low levels of SMN protein. ..
- Tamayo J, Teramoto T, Chatterjee S, Hall T, Gavis E. The Drosophila hnRNP F/H Homolog Glorund Uses Two Distinct RNA-Binding Modes to Diversify Target Recognition. Cell Rep. 2017;19:150-161 pubmed publisher..Our findings suggest a molecular mechanism for the evolution of dual RNA motif recognition in Glo that may be applied to understanding the functional diversity of other RNA-binding proteins. ..
- Rauch J, O Neill E, Mack B, Matthias C, Munz M, Kolch W, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H blocks MST2-mediated apoptosis in cancer cells by regulating A-Raf transcription. Cancer Res. 2010;70:1679-88 pubmed publisher..Our findings define a novel mechanism that is usurped in tumor cells to escape naturally imposed apoptotic signals. ..
- Wei C, Guo D, Zhang S, Ingelfinger J, Chan J. Heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F modulates angiotensinogen gene expression in rat kidney proximal tubular cells. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:616-28 pubmed
- Diwaker D, Mishra K, Ganju L, Singh S. Dengue virus non-structural 1 protein interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H in human monocytic cells. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2016;9:112-8 pubmed publisher..Therefore, disruption of this key interaction between hnRNP H and DENV non-structural 1 could be an important therapeutic strategy for management of DENV infection. ..
- Hu J, Khodadadi Jamayran A, Mao M, Shah K, Yang Z, Nasim M, et al. AKAP95 regulates splicing through scaffolding RNAs and RNA processing factors. Nat Commun. 2016;7:13347 pubmed publisher..AKAP95 also directly interacts with itself. Taken together, our results establish AKAP95 as a mostly positive regulator of pre-mRNA splicing and a possible integrator of transcription and splicing regulation. ..
- Izumikawa K, Yoshikawa H, Ishikawa H, Nobe Y, Yamauchi Y, Philipsen S, et al. Chtop (Chromatin target of Prmt1) auto-regulates its expression level via intron retention and nonsense-mediated decay of its own mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2016;44:9847-9859 pubmed..Thus, the present study provides a novel molecular mechanism by which mRNA and protein levels are constitutively regulated by intron retention. ..
- Balasubramani M, Day B, Schoen R, Getzenberg R. Altered expression and localization of creatine kinase B, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F, and high mobility group box 1 protein in the nuclear matrix associated with colon cancer. Cancer Res. 2006;66:763-9 pubmed..These results suggest an involvement of hnRNP F and CKB in colorectal cancer. Additionally, they suggest that hnRNP F is a potential marker for colorectal cancer progression. ..
- Fijak M, Iosub R, Schneider E, Linder M, Respondek K, Klug J, et al. Identification of immunodominant autoantigens in rat autoimmune orchitis. J Pathol. 2005;207:127-38 pubmed..The identification of testicular autoantigens will allow a better understanding of disease pathogenesis and could provide a basis for the development of novel therapies for inflammation-based male infertility...
- Newman M, Sfaxi R, Saha A, Monchaud D, Teulade Fichou M, Vagner S. The G-Quadruplex-Specific RNA Helicase DHX36 Regulates p53 Pre-mRNA 3'-End Processing Following UV-Induced DNA Damage. J Mol Biol. 2017;429:3121-3131 pubmed publisher..Our work identifies DHX36 as a new actor in the compensatory mechanisms that are in place to ensure that the mRNAs encoding p53 are still processed following UV. ..
- Crawford J, Patton J. Activation of alpha-tropomyosin exon 2 is regulated by the SR protein 9G8 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H and F. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:8791-802 pubmed..These data suggest that the activation of exon 2 is dependent on the antagonistic activities of 9G8 and hnRNPs H and F. ..
- Shkreta L, Toutant J, Durand M, Manley J, Chabot B. SRSF10 Connects DNA Damage to the Alternative Splicing of Transcripts Encoding Apoptosis, Cell-Cycle Control, and DNA Repair Factors. Cell Rep. 2016;17:1990-2003 pubmed publisher..DNA damage therefore alters the interactions between splicing regulators to elicit a splicing response that determines cell fate. ..
- Damianov A, Ying Y, Lin C, Lee J, Tran D, Vashisht A, et al. Rbfox Proteins Regulate Splicing as Part of a Large Multiprotein Complex LASR. Cell. 2016;165:606-19 pubmed publisher..The function of this multimeric LASR complex has implications for deciphering the regulatory codes controlling splicing networks. ..
- Siomi M, Eder P, Kataoka N, Wan L, Liu Q, Dreyfuss G. Transportin-mediated nuclear import of heterogeneous nuclear RNP proteins. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:1181-92 pubmed..Thus, it is likely that after nuclear import, A1 dissociates from transportin1 by RanGTP and becomes incorporated into hnRNP complexes, where A1 functions in pre-mRNA processing. ..
- Stetak A, Csermely P, Ullrich A, Keri G. Physical and functional interactions between protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha, PI 3-kinase, and PKCdelta. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;288:564-72 pubmed..Taken together, we demonstrate the physical and functional association between PI 3-kinase, PKCdelta and PTPalpha in a signaling complex that mediates the antitumor activity of the somatostatin analogue TT-232. ..
- Van Dusen C, Yee L, McNally L, McNally M. A glycine-rich domain of hnRNP H/F promotes nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and nuclear import through an interaction with transportin 1. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:2552-62 pubmed publisher..Collectively, the results suggest that hnRNP H and F are GYR domain-dependent shuttling proteins whose posttranslational modifications may alter nuclear localization and hence function. ..
- Goh E, Pardo O, Michael N, Niewiarowski A, Totty N, Volkova D, et al. Involvement of heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein F in the regulation of cell proliferation via the mammalian target of rapamycin/S6 kinase 2 pathway. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17065-76 pubmed publisher..These results demonstrate that the specific interaction between mTOR and S6K2 with hnRNPs is implicated in the regulation of cell proliferation. ..
- Cabal S, van Heijenoort C, Guittet E. (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignment of the first N-terminal RNA recognition motif (RRM) of the human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H (hnRNP H). Biomol NMR Assign. 2007;1:221-3 pubmed publisher..The structure of the first N-terminal domain (residues 1-104) of hnRNP H was solved and its binding to an exonic splicing silencer (pESS2) studied. For this, all backbone and 85% of side-chain resonance frequencies were assigned. ..
- Bian Y, Masuda A, Matsuura T, Ito M, Okushin K, Engel A, et al. Tannic acid facilitates expression of the polypyrimidine tract binding protein and alleviates deleterious inclusion of CHRNA1 exon P3A due to an hnRNP H-disrupting mutation in congenital myasthenic syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:1229-37 pubmed publisher..These observations open the door to the discovery of novel therapies based on PTB overexpression and to detecting possible untoward effects of the overexpression. ..
- Fogel B, McNally L, McNally M. Efficient polyadenylation of Rous sarcoma virus RNA requires the negative regulator of splicing element. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:810-7 pubmed..We propose a model in which the NRS serves to enhance polyadenylation of RSV unspliced RNA in a process analogous to the stimulation of cellular pre-mRNA polyadenylation by splicing complexes. ..
- Schaub M, Lopez S, Caputi M. Members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein H family activate splicing of an HIV-1 splicing substrate by promoting formation of ATP-dependent spliceosomal complexes. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:13617-26 pubmed..Mutational analysis of six consensus motifs present within the intron of the substrate indicated that only one of these motifs acts as an intronic splicing enhancer. ..
- Yoshida T, Kokura K, Makino Y, Ossipow V, Tamura T. Heterogeneous nuclear RNA-ribonucleoprotein F binds to DNA via an oligo(dG)-motif and is associated with RNA polymerase II. Genes Cells. 1999;4:707-19 pubmed..The DNA-binding ability of hnRNP-F might facilitate the entry of pre-mRNA modification/splicing factors at a promoter. ..
- Honore B, Vorum H, Baandrup U. hnRNPs H, H' and F behave differently with respect to posttranslational cleavage and subcellular localization. FEBS Lett. 1999;456:274-80 pubmed..The presence of significant quantities of hnRNP F in the cytoplasm of many cells indicates that it also may have a functional role here. ..
- Somberg M, Zhao X, Fröhlich M, Evander M, Schwartz S. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein induces human papillomavirus type 16 late gene expression by interfering with splicing inhibitory elements at the major late 5' splice site, SD3632. J Virol. 2008;82:3665-78 pubmed publisher..One may speculate that an increase in PTB levels or a reduction in the concentration of a PTB antagonist is required for the activation of HPV-16 late gene expression during the viral life cycle. ..
- Fu X. Towards a splicing code. Cell. 2004;119:736-8 pubmed
- Honore B. The hnRNP 2H9 gene, which is involved in the splicing reaction, is a multiply spliced gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1492:108-19 pubmed..Due to their great structural variations the different proteins may thus possess different functions in the splicing reaction. ..
- Yoshida T, Makino Y, Tamura T. Association of the rat heterogeneous nuclear RNA-ribonucleoprotein F with TATA-binding protein. FEBS Lett. 1999;457:251-4 pubmed..We assume that the splicing machinery is associated with the transcription apparatus as a prerequisite prior to transcriptional elongation. ..
- Holzmann K, Korosec T, Gerner C, Grimm R, Sauermann G. Identification of human common nuclear-matrix proteins as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H and H' by sequencing and mass spectrometry. Eur J Biochem. 1997;244:479-86 pubmed..The two human common nuclear-matrix proteins were identified as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) H and H' or their variants. Furthermore, mass analysis revealed details on the N terminus of hnRNP H. ..
- Jablonski J, Buratti E, Stuani C, Caputi M. The secondary structure of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 transcript modulates viral splicing and infectivity. J Virol. 2008;82:8038-50 pubmed publisher..We propose a new regulatory mechanism mediated by RNA folding that may also explain the dual properties of hnRNP H in splicing regulation. ..
- Van den Bergh K, Hooijkaas H, Blockmans D, Westhovens R, Op De Beéck K, Verschueren P, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein h1, a novel nuclear autoantigen. Clin Chem. 2009;55:946-54 pubmed publisher..3% of the diseased controls. HnRNP H1 is a newly discovered autoantigen that could become an additional diagnostic marker. ..
- Ulke Lemee A, Trinkle Mulcahy L, Chaulk S, Bernstein N, Morrice N, Glover M, et al. The nuclear PP1 interacting protein ZAP3 (ZAP) is a putative nucleoside kinase that complexes with SAM68, CIA, NF110/45, and HNRNP-G. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:1339-50 pubmed..In ZAP3, although this domain is present, it now appears degenerate and functions to bind PP1 through an RVRW docking site located within the domain. ..
- Dobrowolski S, Andersen H, Doktor T, Andresen B. The phenylalanine hydroxylase c.30C>G synonymous variation (p.G10G) creates a common exonic splicing silencer. Mol Genet Metab. 2010;100:316-23 pubmed publisher..This is particularly important in PAH, since PKU patients harboring such mutations are unlikely to respond to therapy with 6R-tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)), despite the fact that the genetic code indicates otherwise. ..
- Shah Y, Basrur V, Rowan B. Selective estrogen receptor modulator regulated proteins in endometrial cancer cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2004;219:127-39 pubmed..These protein profiles may serve as novel indices of SERM response and may also provide insight into novel mechanisms of SERM-mediated growth. ..
- Wakabayashi Ito N, Belvin M, Bluestein D, Anderson K. fusilli, an essential gene with a maternal role in Drosophila embryonic dorsal-ventral patterning. Dev Biol. 2001;229:44-54 pubmed
- Chang L, Ali A, Hassan S, AbuBakar S. Human neuronal cell protein responses to Nipah virus infection. Virol J. 2007;4:54 pubmed
- Andrianaki A, Siapati E, Hirata R, Russell D, Vassilopoulos G. Dual transgene expression by foamy virus vectors carrying an endogenous bidirectional promoter. Gene Ther. 2010;17:380-8 pubmed publisher..In summary, we show that the endogenous promoter used in this study holds bidirectional activity in the context of FV vectors and can be used in gene therapy applications requiring synchronized expression of two genes. ..
- Millevoi S, Decorsière A, Loulergue C, Iacovoni J, Bernat S, Antoniou M, et al. A physical and functional link between splicing factors promotes pre-mRNA 3' end processing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:4672-83 pubmed publisher..Therefore, our results provide evidence of a concerted regulation of pA signal recognition by splicing factors bound to auxiliary polyadenylation sequence elements. ..
- Wang E, Dimova N, Cambi F. PLP/DM20 ratio is regulated by hnRNPH and F and a novel G-rich enhancer in oligodendrocytes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:4164-78 pubmed..We conclude that developmental changes in hnRNPH/F associated with OLs differentiation synergistically regulate PLP alternative splicing and a G-rich enhancer participates in the regulation. ..
- Brechbiel J, Gavis E. Spatial regulation of nanos is required for its function in dendrite morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:745-750 pubmed publisher..Targeting of nos mRNA to the processes of da neurons may reflect a local requirement for Nos protein in dendritic translational control. ..
- Xiao X, Wang Z, Jang M, Nutiu R, Wang E, Burge C. Splice site strength-dependent activity and genetic buffering by poly-G runs. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:1094-100 pubmed publisher..Certain other splicing factors may function similarly. ..
- Zhang Y, Lindblom T, Chang A, Sudol M, Sluder A, Golemis E. Evidence that dim1 associates with proteins involved in pre-mRNA splicing, and delineation of residues essential for dim1 interactions with hnRNP F and Npw38/PQBP-1. Gene. 2000;257:33-43 pubmed..These results parallel the arrest phenotypes associated with global disruption of zygotic gene expression, suggesting that Dim1 proteins maintain an essential function in gene expression in higher eukaryotes. ..
- Kalifa Y, Armenti S, Gavis E. Glorund interactions in the regulation of gurken and oskar mRNAs. Dev Biol. 2009;326:68-74 pubmed publisher..We propose that Glorund is a component of multiple protein complexes and functions both as a translational repressor and splicing regulator for anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral patterning. ..
- Wang E, Cambi F. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins H and F regulate the proteolipid protein/DM20 ratio by recruiting U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein through a complex array of G runs. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11194-204 pubmed publisher..Decreased expression of hnRNPH/F in differentiated oligodendrocytes may regulate the PLP/DM20 ratio by reducing DM20 5' splice site recognition by U1snRNP. ..