heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein group a b


Summary: A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.

Top Publications

  1. Weisman Shomer P, Cohen E, Fry M. Distinct domains in the CArG-box binding factor A destabilize tetraplex forms of the fragile X expanded sequence d(CGG)n. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:3672-81 pubmed
    ..Neither RNP1(1) nor the ATP/GTP motif are required for G'2 d(TTAGGG)n stabilization. Hence, CBF-A employs different domains to destabilize G'2 d(CGG)n or stabilize G'2 d(TTAGGG)n. ..
  2. Faura M, Renau Piqueras J, Bachs O, Bosser R. Differential distribution of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins in rat tissues. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995;217:554-60 pubmed
    ..We found that these proteins were heterogeneously distributed among tissues and that they were found in different proportions. ..
  3. Burd C, Swanson M, Görlach M, Dreyfuss G. Primary structures of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2, B1, and C2 proteins: a diversity of RNA binding proteins is generated by small peptide inserts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989;86:9788-92 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that the addition of small peptides, probably by alternative pre-mRNA splicing, generates some of the diversity apparent among hnRNP proteins. ..
  4. Xu R, Jokhan L, Cheng X, Mayeda A, Krainer A. Crystal structure of human UP1, the domain of hnRNP A1 that contains two RNA-recognition motifs. Structure. 1997;5:559-70 pubmed
    ..The UP1 structure also suggests that residues which lie outside of the RRMs can make potentially important interactions with RNA. ..
  5. Chabot B, Blanchette M, Lapierre I, La Branche H. An intron element modulating 5' splice site selection in the hnRNP A1 pre-mRNA interacts with hnRNP A1. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:1776-86 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that hnRNP A1 modulates splice site selection on its own pre-mRNA without changing the binding of U1 snRNP to competing 5' splice sites. ..
  6. Goina E, Skoko N, Pagani F. Binding of DAZAP1 and hnRNPA1/A2 to an exonic splicing silencer in a natural BRCA1 exon 18 mutant. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3850-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the binding of the splicing factors hnRNPA1/A2 and DAZAP1 is the primary determinant of T6 BRCA1 exon 18 exclusion. ..
  7. Nasim F, Hutchison S, Cordeau M, Chabot B. High-affinity hnRNP A1 binding sites and duplex-forming inverted repeats have similar effects on 5' splice site selection in support of a common looping out and repression mechanism. RNA. 2002;8:1078-89 pubmed
    ..Our results are consistent with the view that the binding of A1 to high-affinity sites promotes loop formation, an event that would repress the internal 5' splice site and lead to distal 5' splice site activation. ..
  8. Guil S, Long J, Caceres J. hnRNP A1 relocalization to the stress granules reflects a role in the stress response. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:5744-58 pubmed
    ..Our data are consistent with a model whereby hnRNP A1 recruitment to SGs involves Mnk1/2-dependent phosphorylation of mRNA-bound hnRNP A1. ..
  9. Zhu J, Mayeda A, Krainer A. Exon identity established through differential antagonism between exonic splicing silencer-bound hnRNP A1 and enhancer-bound SR proteins. Mol Cell. 2001;8:1351-61 pubmed
    ..The differential antagonism between a negative and two positive regulators exemplifies how inclusion of an alternative exon can be modulated. ..

More Information


  1. Mayeda A, Krainer A. Regulation of alternative pre-mRNA splicing by hnRNP A1 and splicing factor SF2. Cell. 1992;68:365-75 pubmed
    ..The regulation of these antagonistic activities may play an important role in the tissue-specific and developmental control of gene expression by alternative splicing. ..
  2. Fiset S, Chabot B. hnRNP A1 may interact simultaneously with telomeric DNA and the human telomerase RNA in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2001;29:2268-75 pubmed
    ..Notably, these interactions are sufficiently robust to withstand incubation in a cell extract. Our results suggest that hnRNP A1 may help recruit telomerase to the ends of chromosomes. ..
  3. Kosturko L, Maggipinto M, Korza G, Lee J, Carson J, Barbarese E. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) E1 binds to hnRNP A2 and inhibits translation of A2 response element mRNAs. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3521-33 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with a model where hnRNP E1 recruited to A2RE RNA granules by binding to hnRNP A2 inhibits translation of A2RE RNA during granule transport. ..
  4. Pollard V, Michael W, Nakielny S, Siomi M, Wang F, Dreyfuss G. A novel receptor-mediated nuclear protein import pathway. Cell. 1996;86:985-94 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, as hnRNP A1 likely participates in mRNA export, it raises the possibility that transportin is a mediator of this process as well. ..
  5. Clower C, Chatterjee D, Wang Z, Cantley L, Vander Heiden M, Krainer A. The alternative splicing repressors hnRNP A1/A2 and PTB influence pyruvate kinase isoform expression and cell metabolism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:1894-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings extend the links between alternative splicing and cancer, and begin to define some of the factors responsible for the switch to aerobic glycolysis. ..
  6. Ma A, Moran Jones K, Shan J, Munro T, Snee M, Hoek K, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, a novel RNA trafficking response element-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18010-20 pubmed
    ..Mutational analysis and confocal microscopy data support the hypothesis that the hnRNP A3 isoforms have a role in cytoplasmic trafficking of RNA. ..
  7. Patry C, Bouchard L, Labrecque P, Gendron D, Lemieux B, Toutant J, et al. Small interfering RNA-mediated reduction in heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticule A1/A2 proteins induces apoptosis in human cancer cells but not in normal mortal cell lines. Cancer Res. 2003;63:7679-88 pubmed
    ..Thus, manipulating the level and activity of A1/A2 proteins may constitute a potent and specific approach in the treatment of human cancers of various origins. ..
  8. Huynh J, Munro T, Smith Litière K, Lepesant J, St Johnston D. The Drosophila hnRNPA/B homolog, Hrp48, is specifically required for a distinct step in osk mRNA localization. Dev Cell. 2004;6:625-35 pubmed
    ..This suggests a new step in the localization pathway, which may correspond to the assembly of Staufen/oskar mRNA transport particles. ..
  9. Bonnal S, Pileur F, Orsini C, Parker F, Pujol F, Prats A, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 is a novel internal ribosome entry site trans-acting factor that modulates alternative initiation of translation of the fibroblast growth factor 2 mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:4144-53 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, hnRNP A1 binds to the FGF-2 IRES, implicating this interaction in the control of alternative initiation of translation. ..
  10. Fukuda H, Katahira M, Tsuchiya N, Enokizono Y, Sugimura T, Nagao M, et al. Unfolding of quadruplex structure in the G-rich strand of the minisatellite repeat by the binding protein UP1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:12685-90 pubmed
    ..This ability of UP1 suggests that unfolding of quadruplex DNA is required for DNA synthesis processes. ..
  11. Cobianchi F, Sengupta D, Zmudzka B, Wilson S. Structure of rodent helix-destabilizing protein revealed by cDNA cloning. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:3536-43 pubmed
    ..Computer-derived secondary structure predictions for the 34,215-dalton protein revealed two distinct domains consisting of residues 1 through approximately 196 and residues approximately 197 to 320, respectively. ..
  12. Martinez Contreras R, Fisette J, Nasim F, Madden R, Cordeau M, Chabot B. Intronic binding sites for hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H proteins stimulate pre-mRNA splicing. PLoS Biol. 2006;4:e21 pubmed
    ..Our results document a positive role for the hnRNP A/B and hnRNP F/H proteins in generic splicing, and suggest that these proteins may modulate the conformation of mammalian pre-mRNAs. ..
  13. Hayer S, Tohidast Akrad M, Haralambous S, Jahn Schmid B, Skriner K, Trembleau S, et al. Aberrant expression of the autoantigen heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-A2 (RA33) and spontaneous formation of rheumatoid arthritis-associated anti-RA33 autoantibodies in TNF-alpha transgenic mice. J Immunol. 2005;175:8327-36 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that overproduction of TNF-alpha leads to aberrant expression of hnRNP-A2 in the rheumatoid joint and subsequently to autoimmune reactions, which may enhance the inflammatory and destructive process. ..
  14. David C, Chen M, Assanah M, Canoll P, Manley J. HnRNP proteins controlled by c-Myc deregulate pyruvate kinase mRNA splicing in cancer. Nature. 2010;463:364-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results thus define a pathway that regulates an alternative splicing event required for tumour cell proliferation. ..
  15. Iervolino A, Santilli G, Trotta R, Guerzoni C, Cesi V, Bergamaschi A, et al. hnRNP A1 nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity is required for normal myelopoiesis and BCR/ABL leukemogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2255-66 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that the shuttling activity of hnRNP A1 is important for the nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of mRNAs that encode proteins influencing the phenotype of normal and BCR/ABL-transformed myeloid progenitors. ..
  16. Ford L, Wright W, Shay J. A model for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins in telomere and telomerase regulation. Oncogene. 2002;21:580-3 pubmed
    ..Telomere bound hnRNPs include hnRNP A1, A2-B1, D and E and telomerase bound hnRNPs including hnRNPA1 C1/C2 and D. The telomere and telomerase bound hnRNPs may prove to be good targets for regulating telomere length. ..
  17. Okunola H, Krainer A. Cooperative-binding and splicing-repressive properties of hnRNP A1. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:5620-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, when two distant high-affinity sites are present on the same RNA, they facilitate cooperative spreading of hnRNP A1 between the two sites. ..
  18. Hamasaki M, Kamma H, Wu W, Kaneko S, Fujiwara M, Satoh H, et al. Expression of hnRNP B1 in four major histological types of lung cancers. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:979-84 pubmed
    ..To establish the usefulness of B1, a threshold should be set for over-expression. ..
  19. Brumwell C, Antolik C, Carson J, Barbarese E. Intracellular trafficking of hnRNP A2 in oligodendrocytes. Exp Cell Res. 2002;279:310-20 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that the RBDII domain of hnRNP A2 targets hnRNP A2 to the periphery of the cell in a microtubule-dependent manner. ..
  20. Mili S, Shu H, Zhao Y, Pinol Roma S. Distinct RNP complexes of shuttling hnRNP proteins with pre-mRNA and mRNA: candidate intermediates in formation and export of mRNA. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7307-19 pubmed
    ..The characteristics of these complexes indicate that they result from RNP remodeling associated with mRNA maturation and delineate specific changes in RNP protein composition during formation and transport of mRNA in vivo. ..
  21. Hatfield J, Rothnagel J, Smith R. Characterization of the mouse hnRNP A2/B1/B0 gene and identification of processed pseudogenes. Gene. 2002;295:33-42 pubmed
    ..The fifth, which possesses putative promoter elements and has a coding sequence identical to that of the hnRNP A2 mRNA variant, may be functional. ..
  22. Moran Jones K, Grindlay J, Jones M, Smith R, Norman J. hnRNP A2 regulates alternative mRNA splicing of TP53INP2 to control invasive cell migration. Cancer Res. 2009;69:9219-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we report that the consequences of altered TP53INP2 splicing on invasion are likely mediated via alterations in Golgi complex integrity during migration on three-dimensional matrices. ..
  23. Listerman I, Sapra A, Neugebauer K. Cotranscriptional coupling of splicing factor recruitment and precursor messenger RNA splicing in mammalian cells. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2006;13:815-22 pubmed
    ..This provides direct evidence for a kinetic link between transcription, splicing factor recruitment and splicing catalysis. ..
  24. Ben David Y, Bani M, Chabot B, De Koven A, Bernstein A. Retroviral insertions downstream of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 gene in erythroleukemia cells: evidence that A1 is not essential for cell growth. Mol Cell Biol. 1992;12:4449-55 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that perturbations in RNA splicing mechanisms may contribute to malignant transformation and provide direct evidence that the A1 protein is not required for cell growth. ..
  25. Michael W, Choi M, Dreyfuss G. A nuclear export signal in hnRNP A1: a signal-mediated, temperature-dependent nuclear protein export pathway. Cell. 1995;83:415-22 pubmed
    ..These findings demonstrate that there is a signal-dependent, temperature-sensitive nuclear export pathway and strengthen the suggestion that A1 and other shuttling hnRNPs function as carriers for RNA during export to the cytoplasm. ..
  26. Moran Jones K, Wayman L, Kennedy D, Reddel R, Sara S, Snee M, et al. hnRNP A2, a potential ssDNA/RNA molecular adapter at the telomere. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:486-96 pubmed
    ..Our results support a model in which hnRNP A2 acts as a molecular adapter between single-stranded telomeric repeats, or telomerase RNA, and another segment of ssDNA. ..
  27. Sofola O, Jin P, Qin Y, Duan R, Liu H, de Haro M, et al. RNA-binding proteins hnRNP A2/B1 and CUGBP1 suppress fragile X CGG premutation repeat-induced neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of FXTAS. Neuron. 2007;55:565-71 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we show that hnRNP A2/B1 directly interacts with riboCGG repeats and that the CUGBP1 protein interacts with the riboCGG repeats via hnRNP A2/B1. ..
  28. Hamilton B, Nagy E, Malter J, Arrick B, Rigby W. Association of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and C proteins with reiterated AUUUA sequences. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:8881-7 pubmed
    ..As such, they may play a role as trans-acting factors in the modulation of cytoplasmic mRNA turnover and translation, in addition to their previously characterized roles as pre-mRNA binding proteins involved in nuclear mRNA processing. ..
  29. Yang X, Bani M, Lu S, Rowan S, Ben David Y, Chabot B. The A1 and A1B proteins of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoparticles modulate 5' splice site selection in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:6924-8 pubmed
    ..A1 protein synthesis was required for this effect since the expression of a mutated A1 cDNA did not affect 5'SS selection. These results demonstrate that in vivo variations in hnRNP A1 protein levels can influence 5'SS selection. ..
  30. Shamoo Y, Krueger U, Rice L, Williams K, Steitz T. Crystal structure of the two RNA binding domains of human hnRNP A1 at 1.75 A resolution. Nat Struct Biol. 1997;4:215-22 pubmed
    ..The anti-parallel arrangement of the A1 RNA binding platforms suggests mechanisms for RNA condensation and ways of bringing together distant RNA sequences for RNA metabolism such as splicing or transport. ..
  31. Matsuyama S, Goto Y, Sueoka N, Ohkura Y, Tanaka Y, Nakachi K, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 expressed in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas as a new biomarker for diagnosis. Jpn J Cancer Res. 2000;91:658-63 pubmed
    ..All our results support the significance of hnRNP B1 expression in esophageal SCC as a unique diagnostic marker with regard to association between expression level and histopathological grading. ..
  32. Hutchison S, Lebel C, Blanchette M, Chabot B. Distinct sets of adjacent heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1/A2 binding sites control 5' splice site selection in the hnRNP A1 mRNA precursor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29745-52 pubmed
    ..The presence of multiple A1/A2 binding sites downstream of common exon 7 and alternative exon 7B probably plays an important role in maximizing the activity of hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. ..
  33. Sueoka E, Sueoka N, Goto Y, Matsuyama S, Nishimura H, Sato M, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein B1 as early cancer biomarker for occult cancer of human lungs and bronchial dysplasia. Cancer Res. 2001;61:1896-902 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hnRNP B1 protein could be a useful diagnostic biomarker for both the very early stages of lung cancer and various squamous cell carcinomas in humans. ..
  34. Buxade M, Parra J, Rousseau S, Shpiro N, Marquez R, Morrice N, et al. The Mnks are novel components in the control of TNF alpha biosynthesis and phosphorylate and regulate hnRNP A1. Immunity. 2005;23:177-89 pubmed
    ..Moreover, Mnk-mediated phosphorylation decreases binding of hnRNP A1 to TNFalpha-ARE in vitro or TNFalpha-mRNA in vivo. Therefore, Mnks are novel players in cytokine regulation and potential new targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. ..
  35. Cheunim T, Zhang J, Milligan S, McPhillips M, Graham S. The alternative splicing factor hnRNP A1 is up-regulated during virus-infected epithelial cell differentiation and binds the human papillomavirus type 16 late regulatory element. Virus Res. 2008;131:189-98 pubmed
    ..We suggest that increased levels of these cellular RNA processing factors facilitate appropriate alternative splicing necessary for production of virus late transcripts in differentiated epithelial cells. ..
  36. Khateb S, Weisman Shomer P, Hershco Shani I, Ludwig A, Fry M. The tetraplex (CGG)n destabilizing proteins hnRNP A2 and CBF-A enhance the in vivo translation of fragile X premutation mRNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:5775-88 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that secondary structures of (CGG)n in mRNA obstruct its translation and that quadruplex-disrupting proteins alleviate the translational block. ..
  37. Ruggiero T, Trabucchi M, Ponassi M, Corte G, Chen C, Al Haj L, et al. Identification of a set of KSRP target transcripts upregulated by PI3K-AKT signaling. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:28 pubmed
    ..The increased expression of these gene products upon PI3K-AKT activation could play a role in the cellular events initiated by this signaling pathway. ..
  38. Kamma H, Horiguchi H, Wan L, Matsui M, Fujiwara M, Fujimoto M, et al. Molecular characterization of the hnRNP A2/B1 proteins: tissue-specific expression and novel isoforms. Exp Cell Res. 1999;246:399-411 pubmed
    ..The difference of expression of A2, B1, and A1 provides new information on their in vivo roles. The diversity of A/B group hnRNP proteins may have important effects on the posttranscriptional regulation of cell-specific gene expression. ..
  39. Dallaire F, Dupuis S, Fiset S, Chabot B. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 and UP1 protect mammalian telomeric repeats and modulate telomere replication in vitro. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:14509-16 pubmed
    ..These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that A1/UP1 is a telomere end-binding protein that plays a role in the maintenance of long 3' overhangs. ..
  40. Eperon I, Makarova O, Mayeda A, Munroe S, Caceres J, Hayward D, et al. Selection of alternative 5' splice sites: role of U1 snRNP and models for the antagonistic effects of SF2/ASF and hnRNP A1. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:8303-18 pubmed
  41. Carson J, Barbarese E. Systems analysis of RNA trafficking in neural cells. Biol Cell. 2005;97:51-62 pubmed
    ..Here we describe how each of the subsystems in the A2 system functions and how the different subsystems interact to regulate RNA trafficking. ..
  42. Fritsch R, Eselböck D, Skriner K, Jahn Schmid B, Scheinecker C, Bohle B, et al. Characterization of autoreactive T cells to the autoantigens heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2 (RA33) and filaggrin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol. 2002;169:1068-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the presence of autoreactive Th1-like cells in RA patients in conjunction with synovial overexpression of A2/RA33 may indicate potential involvement of this autoantigen in the pathogenesis of RA. ..
  43. Dodon M, Hamaia S, Martin J, Gazzolo L. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 interferes with the binding of the human T cell leukemia virus type 1 rex regulatory protein to its response element. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18744-52 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that hnRNP A1 by competing with Rex for the formation of REX-XRE complexes is specifically involved in the modulation of the post-transcriptional activity of Rex. ..
  44. Fleischhacker M, Beinert T, Ermitsch M, Seferi D, Possinger K, Engelmann C, et al. Detection of amplifiable messenger RNA in the serum of patients with lung cancer. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001;945:179-88 pubmed
    ..The hnRNP-B1 mRNA was detectable in 14/18 sera, and Her2/neu-specific mRNA could be amplified from the serum of 7/18 patients. Combining the last two markers, we were able to detect all patients with a malignant lung tumor. ..
  45. Zhou J, Allred D, Avis I, Martinez A, Vos M, Smith L, et al. Differential expression of the early lung cancer detection marker, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-A2/B1 (hnRNP-A2/B1) in normal breast and neoplastic breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2001;66:217-24 pubmed
    ..Expression of hnRNP-A2/B1 in breast cancer cells was decreased by exposure to retinoids coordinately with decreased cell growth. These results warrant further evaluation of hnRNP-A2/B1 as a marker of breast carcinogenesis. ..
  46. Carson J, Blondin N, Korza G. Rules of engagement promote polarity in RNA trafficking. BMC Neurosci. 2006;7 Suppl 1:S3 pubmed
    ..In the A2 RNA trafficking pathway rules of engagement governing interactions of hnRNP A2 with different binding partners provide the basis for polarity of movement of intermediates along the pathway. ..
  47. Yan Sanders Y, Hammons G, Lyn Cook B. Increased expression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2/B1 (hnRNP) in pancreatic tissue from smokers and pancreatic tumor cells. Cancer Lett. 2002;183:215-20 pubmed
    ..Over-expression of hnRNP has been suggested as evidence that normal transcriptional regulation is altered. ..
  48. Nakielny S, Siomi M, Siomi H, Michael W, Pollard V, Dreyfuss G. Transportin: nuclear transport receptor of a novel nuclear protein import pathway. Exp Cell Res. 1996;229:261-6 pubmed
    ..Transportin relatives from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which likely serve as additional nuclear transport receptors are described. ..
  49. Weighardt F, Biamonti G, Riva S. Nucleo-cytoplasmic distribution of human hnRNP proteins: a search for the targeting domains in hnRNP A1. J Cell Sci. 1995;108 ( Pt 2):545-55 pubmed
    ..We propose a mechanism for the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of A1 that envisages a specific role for the different structural domains and can explain the dependence of nuclear import from active transcription. ..
  50. Ting N, Pohorelic B, Yu Y, Lees Miller S, Beattie T. The human telomerase RNA component, hTR, activates the DNA-dependent protein kinase to phosphorylate heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6105-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are the first to report that hTR stimulates the kinase activity of DNA-PK toward a known telomere-associated protein, and may provide further insights into the function of DNA-PK at telomeres. ..
  51. Michlewski G, Guil S, Semple C, Caceres J. Posttranscriptional regulation of miRNAs harboring conserved terminal loops. Mol Cell. 2008;32:383-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data suggest the existence of auxiliary factors for the processing of specific miRNAs, revealing an additional level of complexity for the regulation of miRNA biogenesis. ..
  52. Kamma H, Portman D, Dreyfuss G. Cell type-specific expression of hnRNP proteins. Exp Cell Res. 1995;221:187-96 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, as the relative amounts of pre-mRNA-binding proteins (e.g., A1 and ASF/SF2) can affect alternative splicing patterns, the variations that we have observed could profoundly affect cell-specific gene expression. ..
  53. Siomi M, Eder P, Kataoka N, Wan L, Liu Q, Dreyfuss G. Transportin-mediated nuclear import of heterogeneous nuclear RNP proteins. J Cell Biol. 1997;138:1181-92 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is likely that after nuclear import, A1 dissociates from transportin1 by RanGTP and becomes incorporated into hnRNP complexes, where A1 functions in pre-mRNA processing. ..
  54. Pontius B, Berg P. Renaturation of complementary DNA strands mediated by purified mammalian heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 protein: implications for a mechanism for rapid molecular assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990;87:8403-7 pubmed
    ..Such interactions, mediated by flexible repeating domains, may act generally to increase the association kinetics of highly specific molecular assemblies in processes such as RNA maturation, transcription, translation, and transport. ..
  55. Khateb S, Weisman Shomer P, Hershco I, Loeb L, Fry M. Destabilization of tetraplex structures of the fragile X repeat sequence (CGG)n is mediated by homolog-conserved domains in three members of the hnRNP family. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:4145-54 pubmed
    ..Last, employing the same conserved motifs that mediated disruption of the DNA tetraplex G'2 d(CGG)n, hnRNP A2 destabilized r(CGG)n RNA tetraplex. ..
  56. Rooke N, Markovtsov V, Cagavi E, Black D. Roles for SR proteins and hnRNP A1 in the regulation of c-src exon N1. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:1874-84 pubmed
    ..Our results link the activity of these well-known exonic splicing regulators, SF2/ASF and hnRNP A1, to the splicing of an exon primarily controlled by intronic factors. ..
  57. Kamma H, Fujimoto M, Fujiwara M, Matsui M, Horiguchi H, Hamasaki M, et al. Interaction of hnRNP A2/B1 isoforms with telomeric ssDNA and the in vitro function. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;280:625-30 pubmed
    ..A2/B1 proteins, especially B1 and B0b, may function as telomeric ssDNA-binding proteins in cancer and reproductive cells. ..
  58. Smith R. Moving molecules: mRNA trafficking in Mammalian oligodendrocytes and neurons. Neuroscientist. 2004;10:495-500 pubmed
    ..Several other cis-acting sequences and trans-acting factors that participate in neuronal RNA localization have been discovered. ..
  59. Shan J, Munro T, Barbarese E, Carson J, Smith R. A molecular mechanism for mRNA trafficking in neuronal dendrites. J Neurosci. 2003;23:8859-66 pubmed
    ..A2RE-like sequences are found in a subset of dendritically localized mRNAs, which, together with these results, suggests that a molecular mechanism based on this cis-acting sequence may contribute to dendritic RNA localization. ..
  60. Antoniou M, Harland L, Mustoe T, Williams S, Holdstock J, Yague E, et al. Transgenes encompassing dual-promoter CpG islands from the human TBP and HNRPA2B1 loci are resistant to heterochromatin-mediated silencing. Genomics. 2003;82:269-79 pubmed
  61. Myers J, Moore S, Shamoo Y. Structure-based incorporation of 6-methyl-8-(2-deoxy-beta-ribofuranosyl)isoxanthopteridine into the human telomeric repeat DNA as a probe for UP1 binding and destabilization of G-tetrad structures. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:42300-6 pubmed
  62. Cammas A, Pileur F, Bonnal S, Lewis S, Leveque N, Holcik M, et al. Cytoplasmic relocalization of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 controls translation initiation of specific mRNAs. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:5048-59 pubmed
    ..Our data highlight a new way to regulate protein synthesis in eukaryotes through the subcellular relocalization of a nuclear mRNA-binding protein. ..
  63. Zhao X, Rush M, Schwartz S. Identification of an hnRNP A1-dependent splicing silencer in the human papillomavirus type 16 L1 coding region that prevents premature expression of the late L1 gene. J Virol. 2004;78:10888-905 pubmed
  64. Kosturko L, Maggipinto M, D Sa C, Carson J, Barbarese E. The microtubule-associated protein tumor overexpressed gene binds to the RNA trafficking protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A2. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:1938-47 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that TOG mediates the association of hnRNP A2-positive granules with microtubules during transport and/or localization. ..
  65. Caputi M, Zahler A. Determination of the RNA binding specificity of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) H/H'/F/2H9 family. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:43850-9 pubmed
    ..Mutation of the C to an A changes the specificity of the DCS from a substrate that binds only hnRNP H/H' to a binding site for all hnRNP H family members. We conclude that the sequence GGGA is recognized by all hnRNP H family proteins. ..
  66. Siomi H, Dreyfuss G. A nuclear localization domain in the hnRNP A1 protein. J Cell Biol. 1995;129:551-60 pubmed
    ..M9 is a novel type of nuclear localization domain as it does not contain sequences similar to classical basic-type NLS. Interestingly, sequences similar to M9 are found in other nuclear RNA-binding proteins including hnRNP A2. ..
  67. Buratti E, Brindisi A, Giombi M, Tisminetzky S, Ayala Y, Baralle F. TDP-43 binds heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B through its C-terminal tail: an important region for the inhibition of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator exon 9 splicing. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:37572-84 pubmed
    ..Finally, through splicing complex analysis, we show that splicing inhibition mediated by TDP-43 occurs at the earliest stages of spliceosomal assembly. ..
  68. Jin P, Duan R, Qurashi A, Qin Y, Tian D, Rosser T, et al. Pur alpha binds to rCGG repeats and modulates repeat-mediated neurodegeneration in a Drosophila model of fragile X tremor/ataxia syndrome. Neuron. 2007;55:556-64 pubmed
    ..These findings support the disease mechanism of FXTAS of rCGG repeat sequestration of specific RBPs, leading to neuronal cell death, and implicate that Pur alpha plays an important role in the pathogenesis of FXTAS. ..
  69. Guil S, Caceres J. The multifunctional RNA-binding protein hnRNP A1 is required for processing of miR-18a. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:591-6 pubmed
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