Genomes and Genes
heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein d
Summary: A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein that has specificity for AU-rich elements found in the 3'-region of mRNA and may play a role in RNA stability. Several isoforms of hnRNP D protein have been found to occur due to alternative mRNA splicing (RNA SPLICING).
- Lal A, Mazan Mamczarz K, Kawai T, Yang X, Martindale J, Gorospe M. Concurrent versus individual binding of HuR and AUF1 to common labile target mRNAs. EMBO J. 2004;23:3092-102 pubmed
- Arao Y, Kikuchi A, Ikeda K, Nomoto S, Horiguchi H, Kayama F. A+U-rich-element RNA-binding factor 1/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D gene expression is regulated by oestrogen in the rat uterus. Biochem J. 2002;361:125-32 pubmed..post-transcriptional regulation, we focused on A+U-rich-element RNA-binding factor 1/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (AUF1/hnRNP D), which is known as a regulator of cytosolic mRNA degradation and nuclear pre-mRNA ..
- Wilson G, Lu J, Sutphen K, Suarez Y, Sinha S, Brewer B, et al. Phosphorylation of p40AUF1 regulates binding to A + U-rich mRNA-destabilizing elements and protein-induced changes in ribonucleoprotein structure. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33039-48 pubmed
- Ing N, Massuto D, Jaeger L. Estradiol up-regulates AUF1p45 binding to stabilizing regions within the 3'-untranslated region of estrogen receptor alpha mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:1764-72 pubmed publisher..was identified as AUF1 (A + U-rich RNA-binding factor 1) protein isoform p45 (a product of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D gene)...
- Gouble A, Grazide S, Meggetto F, Mercier P, Delsol G, Morello D. A new player in oncogenesis: AUF1/hnRNPD overexpression leads to tumorigenesis in transgenic mice. Cancer Res. 2002;62:1489-95 pubmedAUF1/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D (hnRNPD) binds to adenylate uridylate-rich elements contained in the 3' untranslated region of many short-lived mRNAs...
- Gherzi R, Lee K, Briata P, Wegmüller D, Moroni C, Karin M, et al. A KH domain RNA binding protein, KSRP, promotes ARE-directed mRNA turnover by recruiting the degradation machinery. Mol Cell. 2004;14:571-83 pubmed..The ability of KHs to promote mRNA decay correlates with their ability to bind the ARE and associate with RNA-degrading enzymes. Thus, KHs promote rapid mRNA decay by recruiting degradation machinery to ARE-containing mRNAs. ..
- Buzby J, Brewer G, Nugent D. Developmental regulation of RNA transcript destabilization by A + U-rich elements is AUF1-dependent. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:33973-8 pubmed..Finally, accelerated ARE-dependent decay of the GM-CSF 3'-UTR in vitro by neonatal MNC protein is significantly attenuated by immunodepletion of AUF1, providing new evidence that this accelerated turnover is ARE- and AUF1-dependent. ..
- Sarkar S, Sinsimer K, Foster R, Brewer G, Pestka S. AUF1 isoform-specific regulation of anti-inflammatory IL10 expression in monocytes. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2008;28:679-91 pubmed publisher..Thus, the p40 AUF1 isoform selectively plays a critical, positive role in IL10 expression upon LPS exposure. ..
- Raineri I, Wegmueller D, Gross B, Certa U, Moroni C. Roles of AUF1 isoforms, HuR and BRF1 in ARE-dependent mRNA turnover studied by RNA interference. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:1279-88 pubmed
- Lal A, Abdelmohsen K, Pullmann R, Kawai T, Galban S, Yang X, et al. Posttranscriptional derepression of GADD45alpha by genotoxic stress. Mol Cell. 2006;22:117-28 pubmed..We propose that the posttranscriptional derepression of GADD45alpha critically contributes to its potent upregulation after DNA damage. ..
- Lu J, Schneider R. Tissue distribution of AU-rich mRNA-binding proteins involved in regulation of mRNA decay. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12974-9 pubmed
- Cok S, Acton S, Sexton A, Morrison A. Identification of RNA-binding proteins in RAW 264.7 cells that recognize a lipopolysaccharide-responsive element in the 3-untranslated region of the murine cyclooxygenase-2 mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:8196-205 pubmed..Thus, through a combination of alternative splicing and post-translational modification cells are able to increase greatly the repertoire of protein species expressed at a given time or in response to extracellular stimuli. ..
- Enokizono Y, Konishi Y, Nagata K, Ouhashi K, Uesugi S, Ishikawa F, et al. Structure of hnRNP D complexed with single-stranded telomere DNA and unfolding of the quadruplex by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:18862-70 pubmedb>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D, also known as AUF1, has two DNA/RNA-binding domains, each of which can specifically bind to single-stranded d(TTAGGG)n, the human telomeric repeat...
- Sarkar B, Lu J, Schneider R. Nuclear import and export functions in the different isoforms of the AUF1/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein protein family. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:20700-7 pubmedThe heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D family of proteins also known as AUF1 consists of four isoforms implicated in both nuclear and cytoplasmic functions...
- Lapucci A, Donnini M, Papucci L, Witort E, Tempestini A, Bevilacqua A, et al. AUF1 Is a bcl-2 A + U-rich element-binding protein involved in bcl-2 mRNA destabilization during apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:16139-46 pubmed..Inhibition of apoptosis by a general caspase inhibitor reduces this increase by 2-3-fold. These results indicate involvement of AUF1 in the ARE/AUBP-mediated modulation of bcl-2 mRNA decay during apoptosis. ..
- Nagaoka K, Tanaka T, Imakawa K, Sakai S. Involvement of RNA binding proteins AUF1 in mammary gland differentiation. Exp Cell Res. 2007;313:2937-45 pubmed..These results suggest that AUF1 participates in mammary gland differentiation processes under the control of lactogenic hormone signals. ..
- Zhang W, Wagner B, Ehrenman K, Schaefer A, DeMaria C, Crater D, et al. Purification, characterization, and cDNA cloning of an AU-rich element RNA-binding protein, AUF1. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:7652-65 pubmed..These results provide further support for a role of this protein in mediating ARE-directed mRNA degradation. ..
- Sadri N, Schneider R. Auf1/Hnrnpd-deficient mice develop pruritic inflammatory skin disease. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129:657-70 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these data highlight the importance of HNRNPD and proper regulation of mRNA stability in the intricate processes of leukocyte recruitment and inflammatory activation within the skin. ..
- Palanisamy V, Park N, Wang J, Wong D. AUF1 and HuR proteins stabilize interleukin-8 mRNA in human saliva. J Dent Res. 2008;87:772-6 pubmed..These results demonstrate that ARE-binding proteins contribute to the stability of ARE mRNAs in human saliva. ..
- Nechama M, Ben Dov I, Briata P, Gherzi R, Naveh Many T. The mRNA decay promoting factor K-homology splicing regulator protein post-transcriptionally determines parathyroid hormone mRNA levels. FASEB J. 2008;22:3458-68 pubmed publisher..Therefore, calcium or phosphorus depletion, as well as chronic kidney failure, regulate the interaction of KSRP and AUF1 with PTH mRNA and its half-life. Our data indicate a novel role for KSRP in PTH gene expression. ..
- Dobi A, Szemes M, Lee C, Palkovits M, Lim F, Gyorgy A, et al. AUF1 is expressed in the developing brain, binds to AT-rich double-stranded DNA, and regulates enkephalin gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28889-900 pubmed..AUF1 (also known as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D) has been known to regulate gene expression through altering the stability of AU-rich mRNAs...
- Chen C, Xu N, Zhu W, Shyu A. Functional dissection of hnRNP D suggests that nuclear import is required before hnRNP D can modulate mRNA turnover in the cytoplasm. RNA. 2004;10:669-80 pubmed..This study provides a useful model system to elucidate the mechanisms by which "nuclear history" affects cytoplasmic mRNA fates. ..
- Lu J, Sadri N, Schneider R. Endotoxic shock in AUF1 knockout mice mediated by failure to degrade proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3174-84 pubmed..Defects in the AUF1 post-transcriptionally controlled pathway may be involved in human inflammatory disease. ..
- Kamei D, Yamada M. Interactions of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D-like protein JKTBP and its domains with high-affinity binding sites. Gene. 2002;298:49-57 pubmed..These results indicate that JKTBP is a sequence-specific RNA binding protein differing from the related heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A1 and D. ..
- Fawal M, Armstrong F, Ollier S, Dupont H, Touriol C, Monsarrat B, et al. A "liaison dangereuse" between AUF1/hnRNPD and the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK. Blood. 2006;108:2780-8 pubmed..Thus, AUF1 could function in a novel pathway mediating the oncogenic effects of NPM-ALK. Our data establish an important link between oncogenic kinases and mRNA turnover, which could constitute a critical aspect of tumorigenesis. ..
- Lee C, Gyorgy A, Maric D, Sadri N, Schneider R, Barker J, et al. Members of the NuRD chromatin remodeling complex interact with AUF1 in developing cortical neurons. Cereb Cortex. 2008;18:2909-19 pubmed publisher..These results suggest that AUF1 is involved in integrating genetic and epigenetic signals during cortical development through recruiting HDAC1 and MTA2 to AT-rich DNA elements. ..
- Pullmann R, Abdelmohsen K, Lal A, Martindale J, Ladner R, Gorospe M. Differential stability of thymidylate synthase 3'-untranslated region polymorphic variants regulated by AUF1. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:23456-63 pubmed..Our results illustrate the functional consequences of ribonucleoprotein associations involving a polymorphic RNA sequence and uncover a novel mechanism of action for non-coding RNA polymorphisms. ..
- Sarkar B, Xi Q, He C, Schneider R. Selective degradation of AU-rich mRNAs promoted by the p37 AUF1 protein isoform. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:6685-93 pubmed..These data indicate that the p37 AUF1 isoform and, to some extent, the p40 isoform are limiting factors that facilitate rapid decay of AU-rich mRNAs. ..
- Wilson G, Lu J, Sutphen K, Sun Y, Huynh Y, Brewer G. Regulation of A + U-rich element-directed mRNA turnover involving reversible phosphorylation of AUF1. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:33029-38 pubmed..We propose that selected signal transduction pathways may regulate ARE-directed mRNA turnover by reversible phosphorylation of polysome-associated p40AUF1. ..
- Wang W, Martindale J, Yang X, Chrest F, Gorospe M. Increased stability of the p16 mRNA with replicative senescence. EMBO Rep. 2005;6:158-64 pubmed
- Laroia G, Cuesta R, Brewer G, Schneider R. Control of mRNA decay by heat shock-ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Science. 1999;284:499-502 pubmed..These results link the rapid degradation of cytokine mRNAs to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. ..
- Wagner B, DeMaria C, Sun Y, Wilson G, Brewer G. Structure and genomic organization of the human AUF1 gene: alternative pre-mRNA splicing generates four protein isoforms. Genomics. 1998;48:195-202 pubmed..Functionally, this creates isoforms with different RNA-binding affinities and specificities. Thus, alternative pre-mRNA splicing may serve to create functional versatility within the AUF1 family of proteins. ..
- Bell O, Silver J, Naveh Many T. Identification and characterization of cis-acting elements in the human and bovine PTH mRNA 3'-untranslated region. J Bone Miner Res. 2005;20:858-66 pubmed..Therefore, different species have alternative cis-acting protein-binding elements that may determine the regulation of PTH mRNA stability in response to changes in serum calcium and phosphate. ..
- Mazan Mamczarz K, Hagner P, Dai B, Wood W, Zhang Y, Becker K, et al. Identification of transformation-related pathways in a breast epithelial cell model using a ribonomics approach. Cancer Res. 2008;68:7730-5 pubmed publisher..These findings further support the feasibility of using a ribonomics approach for the identification of cancer-related pathways. ..
- Wagner B, Long L, Rao P, Pettenati M, Brewer G. Localization and physical mapping of genes encoding the A+U-rich element RNA-binding protein AUF1 to human chromosomes 4 and X. Genomics. 1996;34:219-22 pubmed..In situ hybridization analyses using P1 clones as probes identified the 4q21.1-q21.2 and Xq12 regions as the locations of the AUF1 genes. ..
- Lai R, Ljubicic V, D Souza D, Hood D. Effect of chronic contractile activity on mRNA stability in skeletal muscle. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C155-63 pubmed publisher..This adaptation is likely beneficial in permitting more rapid phenotypic plasticity in response to subsequent contractile activity. ..
- Schroeder J, Ibrahim H, Taylor L, Curthoys N. Role of deadenylation and AUF1 binding in the pH-responsive stabilization of glutaminase mRNA. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F733-40 pubmed..Thus AUF1 may mediate the rapid turnover of the GA mRNA, whereas increased binding of zeta-crystallin during acidosis may inhibit degradation and result in selective stabilization. ..
- Tolnay M, Vereshchagina L, Tsokos G. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D0B is a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein. Biochem J. 1999;338 ( Pt 2):417-25 pubmed..Our results suggest a new physiological role for hnRNP D0B that involves binding to double- and single-stranded DNA sequences in a specific manner and functioning as a transcription factor. ..
- Mizgalska D, Wegrzyn P, Murzyn K, Kasza A, Koj A, Jura J, et al. Interleukin-1-inducible MCPIP protein has structural and functional properties of RNase and participates in degradation of IL-1beta mRNA. FEBS J. 2009;276:7386-99 pubmed publisher..The interaction of the MCPIP with transcripts of both IL-1beta and MCPIP observed in an RNA immunoprecipitation assay suggests that this novel RNase may be involved in the regulation of expression of several genes. ..
- Pulcrano G, Leonardo R, Piscopo M, Nargi E, Locascio A, Aniello F, et al. PLAUF binding to the 3'UTR of the H3.3 histone transcript affects mRNA stability. Gene. 2007;406:124-33 pubmed..3 histone mRNAs co-localize in embryos at different stages of development. In conclusion all the reported results suggest that PLAUF can bind in vivo the 3'UTR of the H3.3 histone mRNA and plays some role in the stability of the mRNA. ..
- Okamoto S, Ji H, Howie D, Clarke K, Gullo C, Manning S, et al. Expression of the SH2D1A gene is regulated by a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:3176-86 pubmed..Although the SH2D1A mRNA level decreased upon triggering of the T cell receptor (TCR), the RNA degradation rate itself was not altered by TCR engagement. ..
- Czaplinski K, Mattaj I. 40LoVe interacts with Vg1RBP/Vera and hnRNP I in binding the Vg1-localization element. RNA. 2006;12:213-22 pubmed..We further demonstrate that titration of VM1 and E2 motif binding activity in vivo surprisingly suggests that the motif binding proteins have differing roles during Vg1LE-dependent mRNA localization. ..
- Sommer S, Cui Y, Brewer G, Fuqua S. The c-Yes 3'-UTR contains adenine/uridine-rich elements that bind AUF1 and HuR involved in mRNA decay in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;97:219-29 pubmed..Our results suggest that the c-Yes 3'-UTR contains at least three newly identified AREs which are bound specifically by ARE-BPs, and provide a structural basis for post-transcriptional regulation of c-Yes expression. ..
- Dhakras P, Hajarnis S, Taylor L, Curthoys N. cAMP-dependent stabilization of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA in LLC-PK1-F+ kidney cells. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2006;290:F313-8 pubmed..The latter process may result from a PKA-dependent phosphorylation of AUF1. ..
- Laroia G, Schneider R. Alternate exon insertion controls selective ubiquitination and degradation of different AUF1 protein isoforms. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:3052-8 pubmed..Thus, the stabilities of AUF1 isoforms are differentially controlled by insertion of an alternate exon that regulates ubiquitin targeting activity. ..
- Sun D, Ding A. MyD88-mediated stabilization of interferon-gamma-induced cytokine and chemokine mRNA. Nat Immunol. 2006;7:375-81 pubmed..These results demonstrate a MyD88-dependent post-transcriptional mechanism through which IFN-gamma can enhance the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory molecules. ..
- Huddleson J, Ahmad N, Srinivasan S, Lingrel J. Induction of KLF2 by fluid shear stress requires a novel promoter element activated by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent chromatin-remodeling pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:23371-9 pubmed..that PCAF (P-300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein-associated factor)) and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D bind this region as components of the shear stress regulatory complex...
- Torrisani J, Unterberger A, Tendulkar S, Shikimi K, Szyf M. AUF1 cell cycle variations define genomic DNA methylation by regulation of DNMT1 mRNA stability. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:395-410 pubmed..We show herein that AU-rich element/poly(U)-binding/degradation factor 1 (AUF1)/heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein D interacts with an AU-rich conserved element in the 3' untranslated region of the DNMT1 mRNA and ..
- Ruggiero T, Trabucchi M, Ponassi M, Corte G, Chen C, Al Haj L, et al. Identification of a set of KSRP target transcripts upregulated by PI3K-AKT signaling. BMC Mol Biol. 2007;8:28 pubmed..The increased expression of these gene products upon PI3K-AKT activation could play a role in the cellular events initiated by this signaling pathway. ..
- Ing N. Estradiol up-regulates expression of the A + U-rich binding factor 1 (AUF1) gene in the sheep uterus. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;122:172-9 pubmed publisher..These data indicate that E2 up-regulates AUF1 and ER genes coordinately by a post-transcriptional mechanism. ..
- Pende A, Giacchè M, Castigliola L, Contini L, Passerone G, Patrone M, et al. Characterization of the binding of the RNA-binding protein AUF1 to the human AT(1) receptor mRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;266:609-14 pubmed
- Shen Z, Esnault S, Rosenthal L, Szakaly R, Sorkness R, Westmark P, et al. Pin1 regulates TGF-beta1 production by activated human and murine eosinophils and contributes to allergic lung fibrosis. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:479-90 pubmed publisher..These data suggest that pharmacologic suppression of Pin1 may be a novel therapeutic option to prevent airway fibrosis in individuals with chronic asthma. ..
- Dean J, Sully G, Wait R, Rawlinson L, Clark A, Saklatvala J. Identification of a novel AU-rich-element-binding protein which is related to AUF1. Biochem J. 2002;366:709-19 pubmed..The similarity between CBF-A and AUF1 suggests that CBF-A could be re-named AUF2. ..
- Inoue A, Arao Y, Omori A, Ichinose S, Nishio K, Yamamoto N, et al. Identification of S1 proteins B2, C1 and D1 as AUF1 isoforms and their major role as heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein proteins. Biochem J. 2003;372:775-85 pubmed..The present results thus indicate that S1 proteins B2, C1 and D1 are identical with AUF1 proteins, but largely occur as hnRNP proteins in the nucleus. That hnRNP D0 is indeed an hnRNP protein was verified. ..
- Matsuda M, Goto A, Saito H, Kobayashi H, Kakegawa T. [Suppressive effect of spiramycin on cell division]. Jpn J Antibiot. 2003;56 Suppl A:121-3 pubmed
- Blum J, Samarel A, Mestril R. Phosphorylation and binding of AUF1 to the 3'-untranslated region of cardiomyocyte SERCA2a mRNA. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2005;289:H2543-50 pubmed..These data suggest that the phosphorylation, binding, and location of AUF1 affect the posttranscriptional regulation of the SERCA2a message in NRVM. ..
- Chen C, Xu N, Shyu A. Highly selective actions of HuR in antagonizing AU-rich element-mediated mRNA destabilization. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:7268-78 pubmed..Our data suggest that the ARE-binding specificity of HuR in vivo is modulated to interact only with and thus regulate specific AREs in a cell type- and physiological state-dependent manner. ..
- Blaxall B, Pende A, Wu S, Port J. Correlation between intrinsic mRNA stability and the affinity of AUF1 (hnRNP D) and HuR for A+U-rich mRNAs. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002;232:1-11 pubmed..Although the relative affinity ofAUF1 and HuR are generally predictive of mRNA stability, we find that certain mRNA sequences do not conform to these generalizations. ..
- Katahira M, Miyanoiri Y, Enokizono Y, Matsuda G, Nagata T, Ishikawa F, et al. Structure of the C-terminal RNA-binding domain of hnRNP D0 (AUF1), its interactions with RNA and DNA, and change in backbone dynamics upon complex formation with DNA. J Mol Biol. 2001;311:973-88 pubmed..Additionally, faster flexibility on the nano- to picosecond time scale was observed for loop 3 located between beta 2 and beta 3 in free RBD2, which is retained by the complex as well. ..
- Sheflin L, Zhang W, Spaulding S. Androgen regulates the level and subcellular distribution of the AU-rich ribonucleic acid-binding protein HuR both in vitro and in vivo. Endocrinology. 2001;142:2361-8 pubmed
- Paek K, Kim C, Park S, Kim J, Jang S. RNA-binding protein hnRNP D modulates internal ribosome entry site-dependent translation of hepatitis C virus RNA. J Virol. 2008;82:12082-93 pubmed publisher..Moreover, knockdown of hnRNP D with siRNA significantly hampers infection by HCV. A potential role of hnRNP D in HCV proliferation is discussed. ..
- Misquitta C, Chen T, Grover A. Control of protein expression through mRNA stability in calcium signalling. Cell Calcium. 2006;40:329-46 pubmed..We anticipate that these novel modes of control of protein expression will form an emerging area of research that may explore the central role of Ca(2+) in cell function during development and in disease. ..
- Arao Y, Kikuchi A, Kishida M, Yonekura M, Inoue A, Yasuda S, et al. Stability of A+U-rich element binding factor 1 (AUF1)-binding messenger ribonucleic acid correlates with the subcellular relocalization of AUF1 in the rat uterus upon estrogen treatment. Mol Endocrinol. 2004;18:2255-67 pubmed..These results suggested that E2-inducible ARE-containing gene transcripts are regulated, at least in part, via mRNA stabilization through the nucleocytoplasmic relocalization of AUF1. ..
- Hajarnis S, Schroeder J, Curthoys N. 3'-Untranslated region of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase mRNA contains multiple instability elements that bind AUF1. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28272-80 pubmed..Thus, AUF1 binds to multiple destabilizing elements within the 3'-UTR that participate in the rapid turnover of the PEPCK mRNA. ..
- Vallejo A, Bryl E, Klarskov K, Naylor S, Weyand C, Goronzy J. Molecular basis for the loss of CD28 expression in senescent T cells. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:46940-9 pubmed..The present data also provide evidence for INR-regulated transcription that is independent of the known components of the basal transcription complex. ..
- Lahti A, Jalonen U, Kankaanranta H, Moilanen E. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase inhibitor anthra(1,9-cd)pyrazol-6(2H)-one reduces inducible nitric-oxide synthase expression by destabilizing mRNA in activated macrophages. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;64:308-15 pubmed..These results show that the JNK pathway is involved in the up-regulation of LPS-induced iNOS expression and NO production by a mechanism related to the stabilization of iNOS mRNA. ..
- Rui E, de Moura P, Kobarg J. Expression of deletion mutants of the hepatitis B virus protein HBx in E. coli and characterization of their RNA binding activities. Virus Res. 2001;74:59-73 pubmed..This new aspect of HBx function is discussed in the context of cellular transformation. ..
- Manjithaya R, Dighe R. The 3' untranslated region of bovine follicle-stimulating hormone beta messenger RNA downregulates reporter expression: involvement of AU-rich elements and transfactors. Biol Reprod. 2004;71:1158-66 pubmed