Genomes and Genes
heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins
Summary: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
- Caceres J, Kornblihtt A. Alternative splicing: multiple control mechanisms and involvement in human disease. Trends Genet. 2002;18:186-93 pubmed..We also focus on the role of the transcriptional machinery in the regulation of alternative splicing, and on those alterations of alternative splicing that lead to human disease. ..
- Mallik M, Lakhotia S. Improved activities of CREB binding protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and proteasome following downregulation of noncoding hsromega transcripts help suppress poly(Q) pathogenesis in fly models. Genetics. 2010;184:927-45 pubmed publisher..reinforce the view that the noncoding hsromega RNA functions as a "hub" in cellular networks to maintain homeostasis by coordinating the functional availability of crucial cellular regulatory proteins. ..
- Pozzoli U, Sironi M. Silencers regulate both constitutive and alternative splicing events in mammals. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005;62:1579-604 pubmed..These methods and are briefly described, as well as the motifs they retrieved, and summary of silenced exons is provided. ..
- Kamath R, Leary D, Huang S. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein is uncoupled from RNA export. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:3808-20 pubmed..The uncoupling of PTB shuttling and RNA export suggests that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of PTB may also play a regulatory role for its functions in the nucleus and cytoplasm. ..
- Lau P, Chang B, Chan L. Two-hybrid cloning identifies an RNA-binding protein, GRY-RBP, as a component of apobec-1 editosome. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;282:977-83 pubmed..In addition to its involvement with apobec-1 editosome, the suggested cellular functions of GRY-RBD and its structural homologues include RNA transport and RNA secondary structure stabilization. ..
- Arhin G, Boots M, Bagga P, Milcarek C, Wilusz J. Downstream sequence elements with different affinities for the hnRNP H/H' protein influence the processing efficiency of mammalian polyadenylation signals. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:1842-50 pubmed..Sequences capable of binding hnRNP H protein with varying affinities may play a role in determining the processing efficiency of a significant number of mammalian polyadenylation signals. ..
- Barberan Soler S, Zahler A. Alternative splicing regulation during C. elegans development: splicing factors as regulated targets. PLoS Genet. 2008;4:e1000001 pubmed publisher..This suggests that the targeting of splicing factors by NMD may have downstream effects on alternative splicing regulation. ..
- Ostareck Lederer A, Ostareck D, Cans C, Neubauer G, Bomsztyk K, Superti Furga G, et al. c-Src-mediated phosphorylation of hnRNP K drives translational activation of specifically silenced mRNAs. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:4535-43 pubmed..Our results establish a novel role of c-Src kinase in translational gene regulation and reveal a mechanism by which silenced mRNAs can be translationally activated. ..
- Yukitake M, Sueoka E, Sueoka Aragane N, Sato A, Ohashi H, Yakushiji Y, et al. Significantly increased antibody response to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins in cerebrospinal fluid of multiple sclerosis patients but not in patients with human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:130-5 pubmed publisherIt has been reported that antibodies (Abs) against heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and multiple ..
- Goodrich J, Clouse K, Schupbach T. Hrb27C, Sqd and Otu cooperatively regulate gurken RNA localization and mediate nurse cell chromosome dispersion in Drosophila oogenesis. Development. 2004;131:1949-58 pubmedb>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, hnRNPs, are RNA-binding proteins that play crucial roles in controlling gene expression...
- Meng Q, Rayala S, Gururaj A, Talukder A, O Malley B, Kumar R. Signaling-dependent and coordinated regulation of transcription, splicing, and translation resides in a single coregulator, PCBP1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:5866-71 pubmed..These findings establish the principle that a single coregulator can function as a signal-dependent and coordinated regulator of transcription, splicing, and translation. ..
- Geng C, Macdonald P. Imp associates with squid and Hrp48 and contributes to localized expression of gurken in the oocyte. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:9508-16 pubmed..The opposing effects of reduced and elevated Imp activity on gurken mRNA expression indicate a role in gurken mRNA regulation. ..
- Dreyfuss G, Kim V, Kataoka N. Messenger-RNA-binding proteins and the messages they carry. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002;3:195-205 pubmed..These proteins communicate crucial information to the translation machinery for the surveillance of nonsense mutations and for mRNA localization and translation. ..
- Ostareck Lederer A, Ostareck D. Control of mRNA translation and stability in haematopoietic cells: the function of hnRNPs K and E1/E2. Biol Cell. 2004;96:407-11 pubmed..regulation of gene expression in haematopoietic cells have uncovered that a subfamily of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) is involved in cytoplasmic gene regulation...
- Kiesler E, Hase M, Brodin D, Visa N. Hrp59, an hnRNP M protein in Chironomus and Drosophila, binds to exonic splicing enhancers and is required for expression of a subset of mRNAs. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:1013-25 pubmed..We also show that Hrp59 binds preferentially to exonic splicing enhancers and our results provide new insights into the role of hnRNP M in splicing regulation...
- Han K, Yeo G, An P, Burge C, Grabowski P. A combinatorial code for splicing silencing: UAGG and GGGG motifs. PLoS Biol. 2005;3:e158 pubmed
- Chaudhury A, Chander P, Howe P. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) in cellular processes: Focus on hnRNP E1's multifunctional regulatory roles. RNA. 2010;16:1449-62 pubmed publisherb>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) comprise a family of RNA-binding proteins...
- Hector R, Nykamp K, Dheur S, Anderson J, Non P, Urbinati C, et al. Dual requirement for yeast hnRNP Nab2p in mRNA poly(A) tail length control and nuclear export. EMBO J. 2002;21:1800-10 pubmed..We propose that Nab2p provides an important link between the termination of mRNA polyadenylation and nuclear export. ..
- Camats M, Guil S, Kokolo M, Bach Elias M. P68 RNA helicase (DDX5) alters activity of cis- and trans-acting factors of the alternative splicing of H-Ras. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2926 pubmed publisher..Taken together, p68 is shown to be an essential player in the regulation of H-Ras expression as well as in a vital transduction signal pathway tied to cell proliferation and many cancer processes. ..
- Rossoll W, Kröning A, Ohndorf U, Steegborn C, Jablonka S, Sendtner M. Specific interaction of Smn, the spinal muscular atrophy determining gene product, with hnRNP-R and gry-rbp/hnRNP-Q: a role for Smn in RNA processing in motor axons?. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:93-105 pubmed..Interestingly, hnRNP-R is predominantly located in axons of motor neurons and co-localizes with Smn in this cellular compartment. Thus, this finding could provide a key to understand a motor neuron-specific Smn function in SMA. ..
- Kabat J, Barberan Soler S, Zahler A. HRP-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of mammalian heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins Q and R, is an alternative splicing factor that binds to UCUAUC splicing regulatory elements. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:28490-7 pubmed publisher..HRP-2, the Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins Q and R, binds to UCUAUC in the context of unc-52 intronic regulatory sequences as well as to ..
- Reimann I, Huth A, Thiele H, Thiele B. Suppression of 15-lipoxygenase synthesis by hnRNP E1 is dependent on repetitive nature of LOX mRNA 3'-UTR control element DICE. J Mol Biol. 2002;315:965-74 pubmed..Most DICEs were two- to fourfold repetitive, but also highly repetitive structures were found, as in quail myelin protein mRNA (31 repeats) and hyperglycemic hormone mRNA of two crayfish species (nine and 11 repeats). ..
- Xiao X, Tang Y, Mackins J, Sun X, Jayaram H, Hansen D, et al. Isolation and characterization of a folate receptor mRNA-binding trans-factor from human placenta. Evidence favoring identity with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41510-7 pubmed..Collectively, the data favor identity of the FR mRNA-binding trans-factor and hnRNP E1, confirm its critical role in the translation of FR, and highlight yet another role of multifunctional hnRNP E1 in eukaryotic mRNA regulation. ..
- Ford L, Wright W, Shay J. A model for heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins in telomere and telomerase regulation. Oncogene. 2002;21:580-3 pubmedThe heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are a large family of nucleic acid binding proteins that are often found in, but not restricted to, the 40S-ribonucleoprotein particle...
- Bilodeau P, Domsic J, Mayeda A, Krainer A, Stoltzfus C. RNA splicing at human immunodeficiency virus type 1 3' splice site A2 is regulated by binding of hnRNP A/B proteins to an exonic splicing silencer element. J Virol. 2001;75:8487-97 pubmed..The results suggest that coordinate repression of HIV-1 RNA splicing is mediated by members of the hnRNP A/B protein family. ..
- Expert Bezançon A, Sureau A, Durosay P, Salesse R, Groeneveld H, Lecaer J, et al. hnRNP A1 and the SR proteins ASF/SF2 and SC35 have antagonistic functions in splicing of beta-tropomyosin exon 6B. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38249-59 pubmed..These data indicate that the G-rich sequence is a composite element that acts as an enhancer or as a silencer, depending on which proteins bind to them. ..
- Yano T, López de Quinto S, Matsui Y, Shevchenko A, Shevchenko A, Ephrussi A. Hrp48, a Drosophila hnRNPA/B homolog, binds and regulates translation of oskar mRNA. Dev Cell. 2004;6:637-48 pubmed..Our data also show that Hrp48, which binds to the 5' and 3' regions of oskar mRNA, plays an important role in restricting Oskar activity to the posterior of the oocyte, by repressing oskar mRNA translation during transport. ..
- Buratti E, Baralle M, De Conti L, Baralle D, Romano M, Ayala Y, et al. hnRNP H binding at the 5' splice site correlates with the pathological effect of two intronic mutations in the NF-1 and TSHbeta genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:4224-36 pubmed..Thus, the reason why similar nucleotide substitutions can be either neutral or very disruptive of splicing function can be explained by the presence of specific binding signatures depending on local contexts. ..
- Oberstrass F, Auweter S, Erat M, Hargous Y, Henning A, Wenter P, et al. Structure of PTB bound to RNA: specific binding and implications for splicing regulation. Science. 2005;309:2054-7 pubmed..Thus, PTB will induce RNA looping when bound to two separated pyrimidine tracts within the same RNA. This leads to structural models for how PTB functions as an alternative-splicing repressor. ..
- Vassileva M, Matunis M. SUMO modification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:3623-32 pubmed..Among the most abundant cargos transported through NPCs are the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs)...
- Zhang S, Schlott B, Görlach M, Grosse F. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) phosphorylates nuclear DNA helicase II/RNA helicase A and hnRNP proteins in an RNA-dependent manner. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:1-10 pubmed..These results support the view that DNA-PK can also function as an RNA-dependent protein kinase to regulate some aspects of RNA metabolism, such as RNA processing and transport. ..
- Yang C, Carrier F. The UV-inducible RNA-binding protein A18 (A18 hnRNP) plays a protective role in the genotoxic stress response. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:47277-84 pubmed..These data suggest that A18 hnRNP plays a protective role against genotoxic stresses by translocating to the cytosol and stabilizing specific transcripts involved in cell survival. ..
- Carpenter B, MacKay C, Alnabulsi A, MacKay M, Telfer C, Melvin W, et al. The roles of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins in tumour development and progression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1765:85-100 pubmedThe heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) are a family of proteins which share common structural domains, and extensive research has shown that they have central roles in DNA repair, telomere biogenesis, cell signaling and in ..
- Pillai M, Chacko P, Kesari L, Jayaprakash P, Jayaram H, Antony A. Expression of folate receptors and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein E1 in women with human papillomavirus mediated transformation of cervical tissue to cancer. J Clin Pathol. 2003;56:569-74 pubmed
- Venables J, Koh C, Froehlich U, Lapointe E, Couture S, Inkel L, et al. Multiple and specific mRNA processing targets for the major human hnRNP proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6033-43 pubmed publisher..Overall, our study highlights the potential contribution of all of these major hnRNP proteins in alternative splicing control and shows that the targets for individual hnRNP proteins can vary in different cellular contexts. ..
- Martinez Contreras R, Cloutier P, Shkreta L, Fisette J, Revil T, Chabot B. hnRNP proteins and splicing control. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;623:123-47 pubmed..Thus, hnRNP proteins utilize a variety of strategies to control splice site selection in a manner that is important for both alternative and constitutive pre-mRNA splicing. ..
- Caputi M, Zahler A. SR proteins and hnRNP H regulate the splicing of the HIV-1 tev-specific exon 6D. EMBO J. 2002;21:845-55 pubmed..hnRNP H is required for interaction of U1 snRNP with the enhancer, independent of the point mutation. We propose that SC35 binding to the point mutation region may convert the hnRNP H-U1 snRNP complex into a splicing enhancer. ..
- Ehrmann I, Dalgliesh C, Tsaousi A, Paronetto M, Heinrich B, Kist R, et al. Haploinsufficiency of the germ cell-specific nuclear RNA binding protein hnRNP G-T prevents functional spermatogenesis in the mouse. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:2803-18 pubmed publisher..Our data show that haploinsufficiency of Hnrnpgt results in abnormal sperm production in the mouse. Genetic defects resulting in reduced levels of HNRNPGT could, therefore, be a cause of male infertility in humans. ..
- Reed R, Hurt E. A conserved mRNA export machinery coupled to pre-mRNA splicing. Cell. 2002;108:523-31 pubmed..Export of mRNAs is coupled to upstream steps in gene expression, such as pre-mRNA splicing, and to downstream events, including nonsense-mediated decay. ..
- Kosturko L, Maggipinto M, Korza G, Lee J, Carson J, Barbarese E. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) E1 binds to hnRNP A2 and inhibits translation of A2 response element mRNAs. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:3521-33 pubmed..These results are consistent with a model where hnRNP E1 recruited to A2RE RNA granules by binding to hnRNP A2 inhibits translation of A2RE RNA during granule transport. ..
- Hase M, Yalamanchili P, Visa N. The Drosophila heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein M protein, HRP59, regulates alternative splicing and controls the production of its own mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:39135-41 pubmed..We propose that the ability of HRP59 to regulate the alternative splicing of its own pre-mRNA serves in a negative feedback loop that controls the levels of the HRP59 protein and maintains the homeostasis of the splicing environment. ..
- Sun W, Xing B, Sun Y, Du X, Lu M, Hao C, et al. Proteome analysis of hepatocellular carcinoma by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis: novel protein markers in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2007;6:1798-808 pubmed..For the first time, the overexpression of Hcp70/Hsp90-organizing protein and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins C1/C2 in HCC tissues was confirmed by Western blot and then by immunohistochemistry staining in ..
- Zahler A, Damgaard C, Kjems J, Caputi M. SC35 and heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A/B proteins bind to a juxtaposed exonic splicing enhancer/exonic splicing silencer element to regulate HIV-1 tat exon 2 splicing. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:10077-84 pubmed..We show that the SC35 and the hnRNP A1 binding sites overlap within the juxtaposed ESE/ESS. We propose that hnRNP A1 binding to the ESS inhibits splicing of the upstream intron by directly masking the SC35 binding site. ..
- Kanlaya R, Pattanakitsakul S, Sinchaikul S, Chen S, Thongboonkerd V. Vimentin interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and dengue nonstructural protein 1 and is important for viral replication and release. Mol Biosyst. 2010;6:795-806 pubmed publisher..study using expression proteomics demonstrated that many proteins, particularly five forms of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), were up-regulated in human endothelial cells upon dengue virus infection...
- Kinnaird J, Maitland K, Walker G, Wheatley I, Thompson F, Devaney E. HRP-2, a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein, is essential for embryogenesis and oogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Exp Cell Res. 2004;298:418-30 pubmedb>Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) have fundamental roles in the posttranscriptional control of gene expression...
- Fabini G, Raijmakers R, Hayer S, Fouraux M, Pruijn G, Steiner G. The heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins I and K interact with a subset of the ro ribonucleoprotein-associated Y RNAs in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:20711-8 pubmed..Here we show that the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) I and K are able to associate with a subset of hY RNAs in vitro and demonstrate these ..
- Jacquenet S, Mereau A, Bilodeau P, Damier L, Stoltzfus C, Branlant C. A second exon splicing silencer within human immunodeficiency virus type 1 tat exon 2 represses splicing of Tat mRNA and binds protein hnRNP H. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40464-75 pubmed..We propose that hnRNP H binds to the HIV-1 ESS2p element and competes with U2AF(35) for binding to the exon sequence flanking 3'-splice site A3. This binding results in the inhibition of splicing at 3'-splice site A3. ..
- Mourelatos Z, Abel L, Yong J, Kataoka N, Dreyfuss G. SMN interacts with a novel family of hnRNP and spliceosomal proteins. EMBO J. 2001;20:5443-52 pubmed..We further demonstrate that hnRNP Qs are required for efficient pre-mRNA splicing in vitro. The hnRNP Q proteins may provide a molecular link between the SMN complex and splicing. ..
- Tange T, Damgaard C, Guth S, Valcarcel J, Kjems J. The hnRNP A1 protein regulates HIV-1 tat splicing via a novel intron silencer element. EMBO J. 2001;20:5748-58 pubmed..hnRNP A1 interacts specifically with the ISS sequence, which overlaps with one of three alternative branch point sequences, pointing to a model where the entry of U2 snRNP is physically blocked by hnRNP A1 binding. ..
- Ma A, Moran Jones K, Shan J, Munro T, Snee M, Hoek K, et al. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A3, a novel RNA trafficking response element-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18010-20 pubmed..Mutational analysis and confocal microscopy data support the hypothesis that the hnRNP A3 isoforms have a role in cytoplasmic trafficking of RNA. ..
- Makeyev A, Liebhaber S. The poly(C)-binding proteins: a multiplicity of functions and a search for mechanisms. RNA. 2002;8:265-78 pubmed..Clearly the identification of additional binding targets and delineation of corresponding control mechanisms and effector pathways will establish highly informative models for further exploration. ..
- Hutchison S, Lebel C, Blanchette M, Chabot B. Distinct sets of adjacent heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A1/A2 binding sites control 5' splice site selection in the hnRNP A1 mRNA precursor. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:29745-52 pubmed..The presence of multiple A1/A2 binding sites downstream of common exon 7 and alternative exon 7B probably plays an important role in maximizing the activity of hnRNP A1/A2 proteins. ..
- Gagné J, Hunter J, Labrecque B, Chabot B, Poirier G. A proteomic approach to the identification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins as a new family of poly(ADP-ribose)-binding proteins. Biochem J. 2003;371:331-40 pubmedA new class of poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPr)-binding proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), has been identified by a proteomic approach using matrix-assisted laser-desorption-ionization time-of-flight ('MALDI-TOF') MS...
- Chkheidze A, Liebhaber S. A novel set of nuclear localization signals determine distributions of the alphaCP RNA-binding proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:8405-15 pubmed..This complexity of alphaCP distribution is likely to contribute to the diverse functions mediated by this group of abundant RNA-binding proteins. ..
- Habelhah H, Shah K, Huang L, Ostareck Lederer A, Burlingame A, Shokat K, et al. ERK phosphorylation drives cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP-K and inhibition of mRNA translation. Nat Cell Biol. 2001;3:325-30 pubmed..Our results establish the role of MAPK/ERK in phosphorylation-dependent cellular localization of hnRNP-K, which is required for its ability to silence mRNA translation. ..
- Lewis R, Kress T, Cote C, Gautreau D, Rokop M, Mowry K. Conserved and clustered RNA recognition sequences are a critical feature of signals directing RNA localization in Xenopus oocytes. Mech Dev. 2004;121:101-9 pubmed..laevis oocytes. These results suggest that clustered sets of cis-acting sites within the LE direct vegetal transport through specific interactions with the localization machinery. ..
- Fritzsche T, Schnolzer M, Fiedler S, Weigand M, Wiessler M, Frei E. Isolation and identification of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) from purified plasma membranes of human tumour cell lines as albumin-binding proteins. Biochem Pharmacol. 2004;67:655-65 pubmed..MV3 and MCF7) by albumin affinity chromatography and identified them as four members of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNP) family and calreticulin by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight ..
- Ahmad N, Lingrel J. Kruppel-like factor 2 transcriptional regulation involves heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and acetyltransferases. Biochemistry. 2005;44:6276-85 pubmed..Transactivation experiments demonstrated that these proteins are important for regulating KLF2 transcription. Of special interest is the role of hnRNPs in the transcription of the KLF2 gene. ..
- Neumann M, Igaz L, Kwong L, Nakashima Yasuda H, Kolb S, Dreyfuss G, et al. Absence of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins and survival motor neuron protein in TDP-43 positive inclusions in frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Acta Neuropathol. 2007;113:543-8 pubmed..These results argue against a role of these binding partners in the pathogenesis of FTLD-U and emphasize the specificity of TDP-43 as marker for FTLD-U pathology. ..
- Hofmann Y, Wirth B. hnRNP-G promotes exon 7 inclusion of survival motor neuron (SMN) via direct interaction with Htra2-beta1. Hum Mol Genet. 2002;11:2037-49 pubmed..Finally, we suggest a model of how the exon 7 mRNA processing is regulated by the splicing factors identified so far. ..
- Zhu J, Mayeda A, Krainer A. Exon identity established through differential antagonism between exonic splicing silencer-bound hnRNP A1 and enhancer-bound SR proteins. Mol Cell. 2001;8:1351-61 pubmed..The differential antagonism between a negative and two positive regulators exemplifies how inclusion of an alternative exon can be modulated. ..
- Perrotti D, Cesi V, Trotta R, Guerzoni C, Santilli G, Campbell K, et al. BCR-ABL suppresses C/EBPalpha expression through inhibitory action of hnRNP E2. Nat Genet. 2002;30:48-58 pubmed..Our results indicate that BCR-ABL regulates the expression of C/EBPalpha by inducing hnRNP E2-which inhibits the translation of CEBPA mRNA...
- Wright C, Oswald B, Dellis S. Vaccinia virus late transcription is activated in vitro by cellular heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:40680-6 pubmed..Here, extensive purification of VLTF-X has revealed that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins A2/B1 and RBM3 co-purified with in vitro late transcription stimulation...
- Huynh J, Munro T, Smith Litière K, Lepesant J, St Johnston D. The Drosophila hnRNPA/B homolog, Hrp48, is specifically required for a distinct step in osk mRNA localization. Dev Cell. 2004;6:625-35 pubmed..This suggests a new step in the localization pathway, which may correspond to the assembly of Staufen/oskar mRNA transport particles. ..