nuclear factor 45 protein


Summary: A protein subunit that takes part in forming nuclear factor 90 protein complexes.

Top Publications

  1. Marcoulatos P, Koussidis G, Mamuris Z, Velissariou V, Vamvakopoulos N. Mapping interleukin enhancer binding factor 2 gene (ILF2) to human chromosome 1 (1q11-qter and 1p11-p12) by polymerase chain reaction amplification of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA templates. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1996;16:1035-8 pubmed
  2. Karmakar S, Mahajan M, Schulz V, Boyapaty G, Weissman S. A multiprotein complex necessary for both transcription and DNA replication at the ?-globin locus. EMBO J. 2010;29:3260-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply a direct link between mammalian DNA replication, transcription and histone acetylation mediated by a single multiprotein complex. ..
  3. Sakamoto S, Aoki K, Higuchi T, Todaka H, Morisawa K, Tamaki N, et al. The NF90-NF45 complex functions as a negative regulator in the microRNA processing pathway. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3754-69 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the association of the NF90-NF45 complex with pri-miRNAs impairs access of the Microprocessor complex to the pri-miRNAs, resulting in a reduction of mature miRNA production. ..
  4. Ranpura S, Deshmukh U, Reddi P. NF45 and NF90 in murine seminiferous epithelium: potential role in SP-10 gene transcription. J Androl. 2008;29:186-97 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, we propose that NF45 and NF90 have the potential to activate SP-10 gene transcription, and that a chromatin modification event must occur first in order to provide access to these transcription factors...
  5. Shi L, Qiu D, Zhao G, Corthesy B, Lees Miller S, Reeves W, et al. Dynamic binding of Ku80, Ku70 and NF90 to the IL-2 promoter in vivo in activated T-cells. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:2302-10 pubmed
    ..Dynamic changes in binding of Ku80, Ku70 and NF90 to the IL-2 proximal promoter in vivo correlate with chromatin remodeling and transcriptional initiation in activated T-cells. ..
  6. Merrill M, Gromeier M. The double-stranded RNA binding protein 76:NF45 heterodimer inhibits translation initiation at the rhinovirus type 2 internal ribosome entry site. J Virol. 2006;80:6936-42 pubmed
    ..Results of this study suggest that the DRBP76:NF45 heterodimer selectively blocks HRV2 IRES-driven translation initiation in neuron-derived cells. ..
  7. Reichman T, Parrott A, Fierro Monti I, Caron D, Kao P, Lee C, et al. Selective regulation of gene expression by nuclear factor 110, a member of the NF90 family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins. J Mol Biol. 2003;332:85-98 pubmed
    ..Finally, we demonstrate that NF110b associates with the dsRBM-containing transcriptional co-activator, RNA helicase A, independently of RNA binding. ..
  8. Kao P, Chen L, Brock G, Ng J, Kenny J, Smith A, et al. Cloning and expression of cyclosporin A- and FK506-sensitive nuclear factor of activated T-cells: NF45 and NF90. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:20691-9 pubmed
  9. Parker L, Fierro Monti I, Mathews M. Nuclear factor 90 is a substrate and regulator of the eukaryotic initiation factor 2 kinase double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:32522-30 pubmed
    ..The C-terminal region also inhibits PKR function, probably through competitive binding to dsRNA. A model for NF90-PKR interactions is proposed. ..

More Information


  1. Ting N, Kao P, Chan D, Lintott L, Lees Miller S. DNA-dependent protein kinase interacts with antigen receptor response element binding proteins NF90 and NF45. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:2136-45 pubmed
    ..Together, our data suggest that NF90, in complex with NF45, interacts with DNA-PKcs and Ku on DNA and that NF90 and NF45 may be important for the function of DNA-PK. ..
  2. Shamanna R, Hoque M, Lewis Antes A, Azzam E, Lagunoff D, PE ERY T, et al. The NF90/NF45 complex participates in DNA break repair via nonhomologous end joining. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:4832-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, NF90/NF45 knockdown reduced end-joining activity in vivo. These results identify the NF90/NF45 complex as a regulator of DNA damage repair mediated by DNA-PK and suggest that structured RNA may modulate this process. ..
  3. Kiesler P, Haynes P, Shi L, Kao P, Wysocki V, Vercelli D. NF45 and NF90 regulate HS4-dependent interleukin-13 transcription in T cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:8256-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results identify NF45 and NF90 as novel regulators of HS4-dependent human IL13 transcription in response to T cell activation. ..
  4. Graber T, Baird S, Kao P, Mathews M, Holcik M. NF45 functions as an IRES trans-acting factor that is required for translation of cIAP1 during the unfolded protein response. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:719-29 pubmed publisher
    ..The data presented are consistent with a model in which translation of cIAP1 is governed, at least in part, by NF45, a novel cellular IRES trans-acting factor. ..
  5. Guan D, Altan Bonnet N, Parrott A, ARRIGO C, Li Q, Khaleduzzaman M, et al. Nuclear factor 45 (NF45) is a regulatory subunit of complexes with NF90/110 involved in mitotic control. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4629-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the study revealed that NF90 is functionally distinct from NF110 and is more important for cell growth. ..
  6. Harashima A, Guettouche T, Barber G. Phosphorylation of the NFAR proteins by the dsRNA-dependent protein kinase PKR constitutes a novel mechanism of translational regulation and cellular defense. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2640-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the NFARs constitute a novel, conserved mechanism of host defense used by the cell to detect and impede aberrant translation events. ..
  7. Ulke Lemee A, Trinkle Mulcahy L, Chaulk S, Bernstein N, Morrice N, Glover M, et al. The nuclear PP1 interacting protein ZAP3 (ZAP) is a putative nucleoside kinase that complexes with SAM68, CIA, NF110/45, and HNRNP-G. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1774:1339-50 pubmed
    ..In ZAP3, although this domain is present, it now appears degenerate and functions to bind PP1 through an RVRW docking site located within the domain. ..
  8. Aoki Y, Zhao G, Qiu D, Shi L, Kao P. CsA-sensitive purine-box transcriptional regulator in bronchial epithelial cells contains NF45, NF90, and Ku. Am J Physiol. 1998;275:L1164-72 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to Ku potently inhibit the purine-box DNA-binding complex. The purine-box transcriptional regulator in 16HBE cells likely comprises NF45, NF90, Ku80, Ku70, and the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. ..
  9. Zhao G, Shi L, Qiu D, Hu H, Kao P. NF45/ILF2 tissue expression, promoter analysis, and interleukin-2 transactivating function. Exp Cell Res. 2005;305:312-23 pubmed
    ..NF45 sense expression increased IL-2 luciferase reporter gene activity 120-fold, and IL-2 protein expression 2-fold compared to control cells. NF45 is a highly conserved, regulated transcriptional activator, and one target gene is IL-2. ..
  10. Langland J, Kao P, Jacobs B. Nuclear factor-90 of activated T-cells: A double-stranded RNA-binding protein and substrate for the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. Biochemistry. 1999;38:6361-8 pubmed
    ..The NF90 protein was found to be expressed not only in T-cells, but also in nonimmune HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the protein was almost exclusively localized to the ribosome salt wash fraction of cell lysates. ..
  11. Shin H, Kim S, Cho Y, Lee S, Rho H. Host cell proteins binding to the encapsidation signal epsilon in hepatitis B virus RNA. Arch Virol. 2002;147:471-91 pubmed
    ..Previously, we also proposed that the GRP94 was associated with HBV polymerase in the human liver cell HepG2. These results suggest that the heterodimeric factor plays an important role in the priming activity of HBV polymerase. ..
  12. Reichman T, Muniz L, Mathews M. The RNA binding protein nuclear factor 90 functions as both a positive and negative regulator of gene expression in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:343-56 pubmed
    ..This report characterizes NF90 as both a positive and negative regulator of gene expression, depending on the promoter context, and suggests a role for NF45 as a regulator of NF90. ..
  13. Lin H, Shao J, Xiang L, Wang H. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) NF45 (ILF2) cDNA, a subunit of the nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NF-AT). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:385-92 pubmed
    ..Stimulating the fish with PHA significantly up-regulated the expression of NF45 in most tissues examined, which potentially indicated that NF45 was involved in the immune responses triggered by PHA. ..
  14. Shamanna R, Hoque M, PE ERY T, Mathews M. Induction of p53, p21 and apoptosis by silencing the NF90/NF45 complex in human papilloma virus-transformed cervical carcinoma cells. Oncogene. 2013;32:5176-85 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that high-risk strains of HPV utilize the cellular NF90/NF45 complex for viral E6 expression in infected cervical carcinoma cell lines. Interference with NF90/NF45 function could assist in controlling cervical carcinoma. ..
  15. Lee J, Liao P, Young K, Chang C, Chen S, Chang T, et al. Identification of hnRNPH1, NF45, and C14orf166 as novel host interacting partners of the mature hepatitis C virus core protein. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:4522-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our findings suggest that spatial interactions of hnRNPH1, NF45, and C14orf166 with HCVc174 likely modulate HCV or cellular functions during acute and chronic HCV infection. ..
  16. Rigo F, Hua Y, Chun S, Prakash T, Krainer A, Bennett C. Synthetic oligonucleotides recruit ILF2/3 to RNA transcripts to modulate splicing. Nat Chem Biol. 2012;8:555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the possibility of using chemically engineered ASOs that recruit specific proteins to modulate gene expression for therapeutic intervention. ..
  17. Marchesini M, Ogoti Y, Fiorini E, Aktaş Samur A, Nezi L, D Anca M, et al. ILF2 Is a Regulator of RNA Splicing and DNA Damage Response in 1q21-Amplified Multiple Myeloma. Cancer Cell. 2017;32:88-100.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..The intimate link between 1q21-amplified ILF2 and the regulation of RNA splicing of DNA repair genes may be exploited to optimize the use of DNA-damaging agents in patients with high-risk MM. ..
  18. Chi H, Hu Y, Xiao Z, Sun L. Nuclear factor 45 of tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis): evidence for functional differentiation between two isoforms in immune defense against viral and bacterial pathogens. Dev Comp Immunol. 2014;42:125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that both CsNF45 and CsNF45i possess immunoregulatory properties, however, the two isoforms most likely participate in different aspects of host immune defense that target different pathogens...
  19. Shiina N, Nakayama K. RNA granule assembly and disassembly modulated by nuclear factor associated with double-stranded RNA 2 and nuclear factor 45. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:21163-80 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a novel molecular mechanism for the modulation of RNA granule assembly and disassembly by NFAR2, NF45, and phosphorylation at double-stranded RNA-activated kinase PKR sites. ..
  20. Huang Q, He X, Qiu X, Liu X, Sun G, Guo J, et al. Expression of NF45 correlates with malignant grade in gliomas and plays a pivotal role in tumor growth. Tumour Biol. 2014;35:10149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that NF45 plays an important role in the growth regulation of glioma cells, suggesting that NF45 maybe a molecular marker for pathology and a novel therapeutic target for malignant glioma. ..
  21. Li Y, Belshan M. NF45 and NF90 Bind HIV-1 RNA and Modulate HIV Gene Expression. Viruses. 2016;8: pubmed publisher
    ..RNA decay assays demonstrated that NF90, but not NF45, increased the half-life of the HIV RNA. Overall, these studies indicate that both NF45 and NF90 potentiate HIV infection through their RNA binding domains. ..
  22. Lockyer P, Mao H, Fan Q, Li L, Yu Lee L, Eissa N, et al. LRP1-Dependent BMPER Signaling Regulates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Vascular Inflammation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017;37:1524-1535 pubmed publisher
    ..The new signaling pathway initiated by BMPER/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 axis broadens our understanding about BMPER's role in vascular homeostasis. ..
  23. Volk N, Shomron N. Versatility of MicroRNA biogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19391 pubmed publisher
    ..Knock-down or over-expression of these genes suggested that hnRNPR inhibits, whereas hnRNPH1 facilitates, miRNA processing. Overall, our results emphasize that miRNA biogenesis is versatile. ..
  24. Yang J, Wang L, Huang M, Wang L, Gai Y, Qiu L, et al. An interleukin-2 enhancer binding factor 2 homolog involved in immune response from Chinese mitten crab Eriocheir sinensis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:1303-9 pubmed publisher
    ..05) up-regulated the expression level to 3.2-fold compared with the blank group at 6h post treatment. The results indicated that EsILF was involved in the immune response of crab toward both L. anguillarum and P. pastoris. ..
  25. Langland J, Kao P, Jacobs B. Regulation of IL-2 gene expression and nuclear factor-90 translocation in vaccinia virus-infected cells. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2003;23:489-500 pubmed
    ..Other VV mutants that produced excess dsRNA also inhibited protein binding to the IL-2 enhancer, suggesting that the presence of viral dsRNA has a role in retaining NF-90 in the cytosol and regulating IL-2 gene expression. ..
  26. López Fernández L, Parraga M, del Mazo J. Ilf2 is regulated during meiosis and associated to transcriptionally active chromatin. Mech Dev. 2002;111:153-7 pubmed
    ..The presence of ILF2 in active chromatin is corroborated in NIH3T3 cultured cells after transfection with Ilf2-EGFP constructs. ..
  27. Ye J, Jin H, Pankov A, Song J, Blelloch R. NF45 and NF90/NF110 coordinately regulate ESC pluripotency and differentiation. RNA. 2017;23:1270-1284 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a model in which NF45, NF90, and NF110 operate in feedback loops that enable them, through both overlapping and independent targets, to help balance the push and pull of pluripotency and differentiation cues. ..
  28. Bi Y, Shen W, Min M, Liu Y. MicroRNA-7 functions as a tumor-suppressor gene by regulating ILF2 in pancreatic carcinoma. Int J Mol Med. 2017;39:900-906 pubmed publisher
    ..The results revealed that ILF2 is regulated by miR-7 and suggest that downregulation of miR-7 may be an important factor for the ILF2 overexpression in pancreatic carcinoma. ..
  29. Wang H, Shao J, Xiang L, Shen J. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis of an ILF2 homologue from Tetraodon nigroviridis. J Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;39:686-95 pubmed
    ..Genes upand down-stream from the Tetraodon ILF2 were Rpa12, Peroxin-11b, Smad4, Snapap and Txnip homologue, which were different from that in human and mouse. ..
  30. Ni S, Zhu J, Zhang J, Zhang S, Li M, Ni R, et al. Expression and clinical role of NF45 as a novel cell cycle protein in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Tumour Biol. 2015;36:747-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggested that NF45 might play an important role in promoting the tumorigenesis of ESCC, and thus be a promising therapeutic target to prevent ESCC progression. ..
  31. López Fernández L, Parraga M, del Mazo J. Tex261, a novel gene presumably related but distinct from steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) gene, is regulated during the development of germ cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998;242:565-9 pubmed
  32. Stricker R, Behrens S, Mundt E. Nuclear factor NF45 interacts with viral proteins of infectious bursal disease virus and inhibits viral replication. J Virol. 2010;84:10592-605 pubmed publisher
  33. Groh K, Schönenberger R, Eggen R, Segner H, Suter M. Analysis of protein expression in zebrafish during gonad differentiation by targeted proteomics. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013;193:210-20 pubmed publisher
  34. Chi H, Xiao Z, Sun L. Nuclear factor 45 of half smooth tongue sole Cynoglossus semilaevis: gene structure, expression profile, and immunoregulatory property. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;35:972-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that CsNF45 possesses immunoregulatory property and is possibly involved in host immune defense against bacterial and viral infection. ..
  35. Cui H, Yan Y, Wei J, Hou Z, Huang Y, Huang X, et al. Cloning, characterization, and expression analysis of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) ILF2 gene (EcILF2). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:378-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that EcILF2 is potentially involved in grouper immune responses to invasion of bacterial and viral pathogens...
  36. Faye M, Graber T, Liu P, Thakor N, Baird S, Durie D, et al. Nucleotide composition of cellular internal ribosome entry sites defines dependence on NF45 and predicts a posttranscriptional mitotic regulon. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:307-18 pubmed publisher
    ..This study uncovers a novel role for NF45 in regulating ploidy and highlights the importance of IRES-mediated translation in cellular homeostasis. ..
  37. Wolkowicz U, Cook A. NF45 dimerizes with NF90, Zfr and SPNR via a conserved domain that has a nucleotidyltransferase fold. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:9356-68 pubmed publisher
  38. Eperon I. Antisense therapeutics: New ways to nudge splicing. Nat Chem Biol. 2012;8:507-8 pubmed publisher
  39. Park M, Chu F, Xie J, Wang Y, Bhattacharya P, Chan W. Identification of cyclophilin-40-interacting proteins reveals potential cellular function of cyclophilin-40. Anal Biochem. 2011;410:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, we conclude that reduction of the HIF-1 ? protein by RACK1 is CyP40-mediated. ..
  40. Marcoulatos P, Avgerinos E, Tsantzalos D, Vamvakopoulos N. Mapping interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 gene (ILF3) to human chromosome 19 (19q11-qter and 19p11-p13.1) by polymerase chain reaction amplification of human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNA templates. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1998;18:351-5 pubmed
    ..1) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of ILF3-specific DNA sequences from well-characterized human-rodent somatic cell hybrid DNAs. ..
  41. Haskins W, Eedala S, Jadhav Y, Labhan M, Pericherla V, Perlman E. Insights on neoplastic stem cells from gel-based proteomics of childhood germ cell tumors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;58:722-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Differential regulation of FKBP4 and NF45, combined with previous research on immunosuppressant binding, suggests that glucocorticoid receptor signaling merits further investigation in cGCTs and NSCs. ..