Genomes and Genes
cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor
Summary: An RNA-binding protein that recognizes the AAUAAA RNA SEQUENCE at the 3' end of MRNA. It contains four subunits of 30, 73, 100 and 160 kDa molecular size and combines with CLEAVAGE STIMULATION FACTOR to form a stable complex with mRNA that directs the 3' cleavage and polyadenylation reaction.
- Dominski Z. Nucleases of the metallo-beta-lactamase family and their role in DNA and RNA metabolism. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;42:67-93 pubmed..This article reviews the cellular roles of nucleases of the metallo-beta-lactamase family and the recent advances in studying these proteins. ..
- Twu K, Kuo R, Marklund J, Krug R. The H5N1 influenza virus NS genes selected after 1998 enhance virus replication in mammalian cells. J Virol. 2007;81:8112-21 pubmed..Consequently, these internal HK97 proteins largely compensate for the absence of F103 and M106, presumably by stabilizing the NS1A-CPSF30 complex. ..
- Addepalli B, Hunt A. A novel endonuclease activity associated with the Arabidopsis ortholog of the 30-kDa subunit of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2007;35:4453-63 pubmed..Among the most interesting of these proteins is the 30-kDa-subunit of the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor, or CPSF30. In this study, the Arabidopsis CPSF30 ortholog, AtCPSF30, is characterized...
- Evsyukova I, Bradrick S, Gregory S, Garcia Blanco M. Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 (CPSF1) regulates alternative splicing of interleukin 7 receptor (IL7R) exon 6. RNA. 2013;19:103-15 pubmed publisher..These experiments identified cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 (CPSF1) among protein-binding candidates...
- Thomas P, Wu X, Liu M, Gaffney B, Ji G, Li Q, et al. Genome-wide control of polyadenylation site choice by CPSF30 in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2012;24:4376-88 pubmed publisherThe Arabidopsis thaliana ortholog of the 30-kD subunit of the mammalian Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (CPSF30) has been implicated in the responses of plants to oxidative stress, suggesting a role for alternative ..
- Zhang J, Addepalli B, Yun K, Hunt A, Xu R, Rao S, et al. A polyadenylation factor subunit implicated in regulating oxidative signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2410 pubmed publisher..a complex gene (At1g30460) that encodes the Arabidopsis ortholog of the 30-kD subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF30) as well as a larger, related 65-kD protein...
- Yang X, Sullivan K, Marzluff W, Dominski Z. Studies of the 5' exonuclease and endonuclease activities of CPSF-73 in histone pre-mRNA processing. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:31-42 pubmed publisher..RNA interference experiments with HeLa cells indicate that degradation of the DCP does not depend on the Xrn2 5' exonuclease, suggesting that CPSF-73 degrades the DCP both in vitro and in vivo. ..
- Hsin J, Sheth A, Manley J. RNAP II CTD phosphorylated on threonine-4 is required for histone mRNA 3' end processing. Science. 2011;334:683-6 pubmed publisher..Our data thus illustrate how a CTD modification can play a highly specific role in facilitating efficient gene expression. ..
- Rao S, Dinkins R, Hunt A. Distinctive interactions of the Arabidopsis homolog of the 30 kD subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (AtCPSF30) with other polyadenylation factor subunits. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:51 pubmed publisherThe Arabidopsis ortholog of the 30 kD subunit of the mammalian Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (AtCPSF30) is an RNA-binding endonuclease that is associated with other Arabidopsis CPSF subunits (orthologs of the 160, 100, ..
- Lee K, Ambrose Z, Martin T, Oztop I, Mulky A, Julias J, et al. Flexible use of nuclear import pathways by HIV-1. Cell Host Microbe. 2010;7:221-33 pubmed publisher..These findings reveal a remarkable flexibility in HIV-1 nuclear transport and highlight a single residue in CA as essential in regulating interactions with NUPs. ..
- Mir Montazeri B, Ammelburg M, Forouzan D, Lupas A, Hartmann M. Crystal structure of a dimeric archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor. J Struct Biol. 2011;173:191-5 pubmed publisher..of this superfamily based on sequence similarity and characterized a subfamily of the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (CPSF) with an uncommon domain composition: in addition to an extended M?L domain, which ..
- Ramos I, Carnero E, Bernal Rubio D, Seibert C, Westera L, Garcia Sastre A, et al. Contribution of double-stranded RNA and CPSF30 binding domains of influenza virus NS1 to the inhibition of type I interferon production and activation of human dendritic cells. J Virol. 2013;87:2430-40 pubmed publisher
- Noah D, Twu K, Krug R. Cellular antiviral responses against influenza A virus are countered at the posttranscriptional level by the viral NS1A protein via its binding to a cellular protein required for the 3' end processing of cellular pre-mRNAS. Virology. 2003;307:386-95 pubmed..Mutation of this binding site in the NS1A protein also affects a second cellular antiviral response: in cells infected by the mutant virus, IFN-beta mRNA is produced earlier and in larger amounts. ..
- Calzado M, Sancho R, Munoz E. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat increases the expression of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 73-kilodalton subunit modulating cellular and viral expression. J Virol. 2004;78:6846-54 pubmed..HIV-1 Tat specifically increases the expression of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) 73-kDa subunit (CPSF3) without affecting the expression of the 160- and 100-kDa ..
- Wickens M, Gonzalez T. Molecular biology. Knives, accomplices, and RNA. Science. 2004;306:1299-300 pubmed
- Dominski Z, Yang X, Purdy M, Wagner E, Marzluff W. A CPSF-73 homologue is required for cell cycle progression but not cell growth and interacts with a protein having features of CPSF-100. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:1489-500 pubmed..vast majority of cellular mRNAs occurs through cleavage and polyadenylation and requires a cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) containing, among other proteins, CPSF-73 and CPSF-100...
- Twu K, Noah D, Rao P, Kuo R, Krug R. The CPSF30 binding site on the NS1A protein of influenza A virus is a potential antiviral target. J Virol. 2006;80:3957-65 pubmed
- Mandel C, Kaneko S, Zhang H, Gebauer D, Vethantham V, Manley J, et al. Polyadenylation factor CPSF-73 is the pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing endonuclease. Nature. 2006;444:953-6 pubmed..Recent analyses indicated that the 73-kDa subunit of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF-73) might be the endonuclease for this and related reactions, although no direct data ..
- Hori T, Takeuchi H, Saito H, Sakuma R, Inagaki Y, Yamaoka S. A carboxy-terminally truncated human CPSF6 lacking residues encoded by exon 6 inhibits HIV-1 cDNA synthesis and promotes capsid disassembly. J Virol. 2013;87:7726-36 pubmed publisher..These findings could facilitate an increased understanding of viral cDNA synthesis in light of the viral capsid disassembly...
- Herr A, Molnar A, Jones A, Baulcombe D. Defective RNA processing enhances RNA silencing and influences flowering of Arabidopsis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:14994-5001 pubmed..According to this proposal, in the absence of these ESP proteins, these RNAs have aberrant 3' termini. The aberrant RNAs would enter the RNA silencing pathways because they are converted into dsRNA by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. ..
- Addepalli B, Limbach P, Hunt A. A disulfide linkage in a CCCH zinc finger motif of an Arabidopsis CPSF30 ortholog. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:4408-12 pubmed publisher..This finding raises the possibility that redox regulation of AtCPSF30 may occur through oxidation and reduction of the disulfide linkage. ..
- Steidle S, Martinez Sobrido L, Mordstein M, Lienenklaus S, Garcia Sastre A, Stäheli P, et al. Glycine 184 in nonstructural protein NS1 determines the virulence of influenza A virus strain PR8 without affecting the host interferon response. J Virol. 2010;84:12761-70 pubmed publisher..3 (IRF3), and it blocks posttranscriptional processing of cellular mRNAs by binding to the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF)...
- Moreno Morcillo M, Minvielle Sebastia L, Mackereth C, Fribourg S. Hexameric architecture of CstF supported by CstF-50 homodimerization domain structure. RNA. 2011;17:412-8 pubmed publisher..CstF recognizes U and G/U-rich cis-acting RNA sequence elements and helps stabilize the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (CPSF) at the polyadenylation site as required for productive RNA cleavage...
- Zhao H, Xing D, Li Q. Unique features of plant cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor revealed by proteomic studies. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1546-56 pubmed publisher..This subgroup of proteins is known as the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF)...
- Ryan K, Calvo O, Manley J. Evidence that polyadenylation factor CPSF-73 is the mRNA 3' processing endonuclease. RNA. 2004;10:565-73 pubmed..Taken together, the available data provide strong evidence that CPSF-73 is the 3' processing endonuclease. ..
- Kuhn U, Gündel M, Knoth A, Kerwitz Y, Rüdel S, Wahle E. Poly(A) tail length is controlled by the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein regulating the interaction between poly(A) polymerase and the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22803-14 pubmed publisher..in an in vitro polyadenylation system reconstituted from three proteins: poly(A) polymerase, cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF), and the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1)...
- Xu R, Zhao H, Dinkins R, Cheng X, Carberry G, Li Q. The 73 kD subunit of the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex affects reproductive development in Arabidopsis. Plant Mol Biol. 2006;61:799-815 pubmedThe cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is an important multi-subunit component of the mRNA 3'-end processing apparatus in eukaryotes...
- Phung D, Rinaldi D, Langendijk Genevaux P, Quentin Y, Carpousis A, Clouet d Orval B. Archaeal ?-CASP ribonucleases of the aCPSF1 family are orthologs of the eukaryal CPSF-73 factor. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:1091-103 pubmed publisherBacterial RNase J and eukaryal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF-73) are members of the ?-CASP family of ribonucleases involved in mRNA processing and degradation...
- Collart C, Remacle J, Barabino S, van Grunsven L, Nelles L, Schellens A, et al. Smicl is a novel Smad interacting protein and cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor associated protein. Genes Cells. 2005;10:897-906 pubmed..and functionally, at least in vitro, similar to a domain in CPSF-30, the 30 kDa subunit of Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (CPSF)...
- Dominski Z, Yang X, Marzluff W. The polyadenylation factor CPSF-73 is involved in histone-pre-mRNA processing. Cell. 2005;123:37-48 pubmed..These studies suggest that CPSF-73 is both the endonuclease and 5'-3' exonuclease in histone-pre-mRNA processing and reveal an evolutionary link between 3' end formation of histone mRNAs and polyadenylated mRNAs. ..
- Delaney K, Xu R, Zhang J, Li Q, Yun K, Falcone D, et al. Calmodulin interacts with and regulates the RNA-binding activity of an Arabidopsis polyadenylation factor subunit. Plant Physiol. 2006;140:1507-21 pubmed..thaliana) gene that encodes the probable ortholog of the 30-kD subunit of the mammalian cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is a complex one, encoding small (approximately 28 kD) and large (approximately 68 kD) ..
- Naganuma T, Nakagawa S, Tanigawa A, Sasaki Y, Goshima N, Hirose T. Alternative 3'-end processing of long noncoding RNA initiates construction of nuclear paraspeckles. EMBO J. 2012;31:4020-34 pubmed publisher..This HNRNPK function led to the preferential accumulation of NEAT1_2 and initiated paraspeckle construction with multiple PSPs...
- Saito A, Henning M, Serrao E, Dubose B, Teng S, Huang J, et al. Capsid-CPSF6 Interaction Is Dispensable for HIV-1 Replication in Primary Cells but Is Selected during Virus Passage In Vivo. J Virol. 2016;90:6918-6935 pubmed publisherb>Cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 6 (CPSF6), a host factor that interacts with the HIV-1 capsid (CA) protein, is implicated in diverse functions during the early part of the HIV-1 life cycle, including uncoating, ..
- Levy S, Portnoy V, Admon J, Schuster G. Distinct activities of several RNase J proteins in methanogenic archaea. RNA Biol. 2011;8:1073-83 pubmed publisher..Unlike bacteria, in archaea RNase J proteins provide separately the exo- and endonucleolytic activities that are probably essential for RNA degradation. ..
- Clerici M, Faini M, Aebersold R, Jinek M. Structural insights into the assembly and polyA signal recognition mechanism of the human CPSF complex. elife. 2017;6: pubmed publisher..recognition of the hexanucleotide AAUAAA motif in the pre-mRNA polyadenylation signal by the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex...
- Kong J, Shen J, Huang Y, Ruan R, Xiang B, Zheng X, et al. [Development of a yeast two-hybrid screen for selection of A/H1N1 influenza NS1 non-structural protein and human CPSF30 protein interaction inhibitors]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 2010;45:388-94 pubmed..processing of cellular pre-mRNAs by binding the cellular protein: the 30-kDa subunit of CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor, CPSF30)...
- Tang Z, Yu W, Zhang C, Zhao S, Yu Z, Xiao X, et al. CREB-binding protein regulates lung cancer growth by targeting MAPK and CPSF4 signaling pathway. Mol Oncol. 2016;10:317-29 pubmed publisher..Collectively, our results indicate that CBP regulates lung cancer growth by targeting MAPK and CPSF4 signaling pathways. ..
- Sartini B, Wang H, Wang W, Millette C, Kilpatrick D. Pre-messenger RNA cleavage factor I (CFIm): potential role in alternative polyadenylation during spermatogenesis. Biol Reprod. 2008;78:472-82 pubmed..Together these findings suggest that CFIm complexes participate in alternative polyadenylation directed by noncanonical poly(A) signals during spermatogenesis. ..
- Reichert M. Proteome analysis of sheep B lymphocytes in the course of bovine leukemia virus-induced leukemia. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2017;242:1363-1375 pubmed publisher..alpha chain, zyxin, filamin-A, and vitamin D-binding protein were downregulated, whereas cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 5, non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein and small glutamine-rich ..
- Jurado A, Tan D, Jiao X, Kiledjian M, Tong L. Structure and function of pre-mRNA 5'-end capping quality control and 3'-end processing. Biochemistry. 2014;53:1882-98 pubmed publisher..The DXO family enzymes are required for the detection and degradation of these defective RNAs. ..
- Chakrabarti M, Hunt A. CPSF30 at the Interface of Alternative Polyadenylation and Cellular Signaling in Plants. Biomolecules. 2015;5:1151-68 pubmed publisher..amount of research has been done in characterizing different subunits of so-called Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor (CPSF)...
- Misra A, Green M. From polyadenylation to splicing: Dual role for mRNA 3' end formation factors. RNA Biol. 2016;13:259-64 pubmed publisher..Our understanding of the roles of 3' end formation factors is still evolving, and the final picture might be more complex than originally envisioned. ..
- KÃ¶hn M, Ihling C, Sinz A, Krohn K, HÃ¼ttelmaier S. The Y3** ncRNA promotes the 3' end processing of histone mRNAs. Genes Dev. 2015;29:1998-2003 pubmed publisherWe demonstrate that the Y3/Y3** noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) bind to the CPSF (cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor) and that Y3** associates with the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of histone pre-mRNAs...
- Kyburz A, Friedlein A, Langen H, Keller W. Direct interactions between subunits of CPSF and the U2 snRNP contribute to the coupling of pre-mRNA 3' end processing and splicing. Mol Cell. 2006;23:195-205 pubmed..Moreover, we showed that efficient cleavage required the presence of the U2 snRNA in coupled assays. We therefore propose that the interaction between CPSF and the U2 snRNP contributes to the coupling of splicing and 3' end formation. ..
- Dankar S, Miranda E, Forbes N, Pelchat M, Tavassoli A, Selman M, et al. Influenza A/Hong Kong/156/1997(H5N1) virus NS1 gene mutations F103L and M106I both increase IFN antagonism, virulence and cytoplasmic localization but differ in binding to RIG-I and CPSF30. Virol J. 2013;10:243 pubmed publisher..These mutations may contribute to the ability of previous HPAI H5N1 and recent LPAI H7N9 and H6N1 (NS1-103L+106M) viruses to switch hosts and cause disease in humans. ..
- Wah D, Levchenko I, Baker T, Sauer R. Characterization of a specificity factor for an AAA+ ATPase: assembly of SspB dimers with ssrA-tagged proteins and the ClpX hexamer. Chem Biol. 2002;9:1237-45 pubmed..SspB dimers do not commit bound substrates to ClpXP degradation but increase the affinity and cooperativity of binding of ssrA-tagged substrates to ClpX, facilitating enhanced degradation at low substrate concentrations. ..
- Huang C, Shi J, Guo Y, Huang W, Huang S, Ming S, et al. A snoRNA modulates mRNA 3' end processing and regulates the expression of a subset of mRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:8647-8660 pubmed publisher..These snoRNAs primarily interact with Fip1, a component of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF)...
- Palencia A, Bougdour A, Brenier Pinchart M, Touquet B, Bertini R, Sensi C, et al. Targeting Toxoplasma gondii CPSF3 as a new approach to control toxoplasmosis. EMBO Mol Med. 2017;9:385-394 pubmed publisher..to be resistant to AN3661 had mutations in TgCPSF3, which encodes a homologue of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 3 (CPSF-73 or CPSF3), an endonuclease involved in mRNA processing in eukaryotes...
- López Camarillo C, Orozco E, Marchat L. Entamoeba histolytica: comparative genomics of the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery. Exp Parasitol. 2005;110:184-90 pubmed..From these analyses, we propose a hypothetical working model for the pre-mRNA 3' end processing machinery in E. histolytica. ..
- Bell S, Hunt A. The Arabidopsis ortholog of the 77 kDa subunit of the cleavage stimulatory factor (AtCstF-77) involved in mRNA polyadenylation is an RNA-binding protein. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:1449-54 pubmed publisher..that AtCstF77 interacts with AtCPSF30, the Arabidopsis ortholog of the 30 kDa subunit of the Cleavage and Polyadenylation Specificity Factor. In further dissecting this interaction, it was found that the C-terminus of AtCstF77 ..
- Nag A, Narsinh K, Martinson H. The poly(A)-dependent transcriptional pause is mediated by CPSF acting on the body of the polymerase. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:662-9 pubmed..Any encounter with a hexamer triggers pausing. If the hexamer is part of a functional poly(A) signal, CstF is recruited and binds CPSF, causing it to release the polymerase body and move (with CstF) to the CTD. ..
- de La Vega L, Sanchez Duffhues G, Fresno M, Schmitz M, Munoz E, Calzado M. The 73 kDa subunit of the CPSF complex binds to the HIV-1 LTR promoter and functions as a negative regulatory factor that is inhibited by the HIV-1 Tat protein. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:317-30 pubmed..The cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) is critical for this process and its 73 kDa subunit (CPSF-73) mediates cleavage ..
- Zohari S, Gyarmati P, Thoren P, Czifra G, Bröjer C, Belak S, et al. Genetic characterization of the NS gene indicates co-circulation of two sub-lineages of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype in Northern Europe in 2006. Virus Genes. 2008;36:117-25 pubmed publisher..Sub-lineage I isolates contained unique substitutions V194I in NS1 and G63E in Nuclear export protein (NEP). ..
- Rozenblatt Rosen O, Nagaike T, FRANCIS J, Kaneko S, Glatt K, Hughes C, et al. The tumor suppressor Cdc73 functionally associates with CPSF and CstF 3' mRNA processing factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:755-60 pubmed publisher..Here, we show that Cdc73 physically associates with the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) and cleavage stimulation factor (CstF) complexes that are required for the maturation ..
- Engdahl C, Näslund J, Lindgren L, Ahlm C, Bucht G. The Rift Valley Fever virus protein NSm and putative cellular protein interactions. Virol J. 2012;9:139 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that the cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor subunit 2 (Cpsf2), the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (cyclophilin)-like 2 protein (..
- Chipumuro E, Henriksen M. The ubiquitin hydrolase USP22 contributes to 3'-end processing of JAK-STAT-inducible genes. FASEB J. 2012;26:842-54 pubmed publisher..These results further elaborate USP22 function and its role as a putative cancer stem cell marker. ..
- Xia S, Robertus J. X-ray structures of NS1 effector domain mutants. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2010;494:198-204 pubmed publisher..Therefore, this monomeric mutant protein could serve as a drug target for a high throughput inhibitor screening assays, since its binding pocket is unoccupied in solution and potentially more accessible to small molecule ligands. ..
- Mandel C, Gebauer D, Zhang H, Tong L. A serendipitous discovery that in situ proteolysis is essential for the crystallization of yeast CPSF-100 (Ydh1p). Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006;62:1041-5 pubmedThe cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF) complex is required for the cleavage and polyadenylation of the 3'-end of messenger RNA precursors in eukaryotes...
- M rtens B, Amman F, Manoharadas S, Zeichen L, Orell A, Albers S, et al. Alterations of the transcriptome of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius by exoribonuclease aCPSF2. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76569 pubmed publisher..Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso), which has been reclassified to the aCPSF2 (archaeal cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 2) group of ?-CASP proteins...
- Sabath I, Skrajna A, Yang X, Dadlez M, Marzluff W, Dominski Z. 3'-End processing of histone pre-mRNAs in Drosophila: U7 snRNP is associated with FLASH and polyadenylation factors. RNA. 2013;19:1726-44 pubmed publisher..Our studies also demonstrate that Drosophila symplekin and three factors involved in cleavage and polyadenylation-CPSF, CstF, and CF Im-are present in Drosophila nuclear extracts in a stable supercomplex. ..
- Zamudio J, Kelly T, Sharp P. Argonaute-bound small RNAs from promoter-proximal RNA polymerase II. Cell. 2014;156:920-34 pubmed publisher..TSS-miRNA activity is detectable from endogenous levels and following overexpression of mRNA constructs. Finally, we present evidence of differential expression and conservation in humans, suggesting important roles in gene regulation. ..
- Bercovich N, Levin M, Vazquez M. The FIP-1 like polyadenylation factor in trypanosomes and the structural basis for its interaction with CPSF30. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;380:850-5 pubmed publisher..Although CPSF30/FIP1 interaction is known in other organisms, this is the first report mapping the interaction surface at the amino acid level. ..
- Jackson D, Killip M, Galloway C, Russell R, Randall R. Loss of function of the influenza A virus NS1 protein promotes apoptosis but this is not due to a failure to activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). Virology. 2010;396:94-105 pubmed publisher..Our data suggest that the loss of a functionally intact NS1 protein promotes apoptosis, but this is not due to an inability to activate PI3K. ..
- Bolli N, Payne E, Rhodes J, Gjini E, Johnston A, Guo F, et al. cpsf1 is required for definitive HSC survival in zebrafish. Blood. 2011;117:3996-4007 pubmed publisher..the recovery and analysis of the grechetto mutant, which harbors an inactivating mutation in cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 1 (cpsf1), a gene ubiquitously expressed and required for 3' untranslated region processing ..