heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein u


Summary: A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found associated with the NUCLEAR MATRIX.

Top Publications

  1. Winteringham L, Endersby R, Kobelke S, McCulloch R, Williams J, Stillitano J, et al. Myeloid leukemia factor 1 associates with a novel heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like molecule. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:38791-800 pubmed
    ..In summary, this study reveals that Mlf1 translocates between nucleus and cytoplasm, associates with a novel hnRNP, and influences gene expression. ..
  2. Cok S, Acton S, Morrison A. The proximal region of the 3'-untranslated region of cyclooxygenase-2 is recognized by a multimeric protein complex containing HuR, TIA-1, TIAR, and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:36157-62 pubmed
    ..We identified four members of the protein-RNA complex as HuR, TIA-1, TIAR, and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U)...
  3. Ameyar Zazoua M, Souidi M, Fritsch L, Robin P, Thomas A, Hamiche A, et al. Physical and functional interaction between heterochromatin protein 1alpha and the RNA-binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27974-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Some of these are RNA-binding proteins, and among them is the protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U)/SAF-A, which is linked to chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation...
  4. Kawano S, Miyaji M, Ichiyasu S, Tsutsui K, Tsutsui K. Regulation of DNA Topoisomerase IIbeta through RNA-dependent association with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U). J Biol Chem. 2010;285:26451-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the presence of SP120 was required for the stable expression of topo IIbeta in vivo. Thus, SP120 regulates the enzyme in dual ways. ..
  5. Malik K, Jaffe H, Brady J, Young W. The class III POU factor Brn-4 interacts with other class III POU factors and the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1997;45:99-107 pubmed
    ..Subsequent affinity purification and microsequencing identified the protein as the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U)...
  6. Mondal S, Begum N, Hu W, Honjo T. Functional requirements of AID's higher order structures and their interaction with RNA-binding proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:E1545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..All of these AID/ribonucleoprotein associations are RNA-dependent. We propose that AID's structure-specific cofactor complex formations differentially contribute to its DNA-cleavage and recombination functions. ..
  7. Bramswig N, Lüdecke H, Hamdan F, Altmuller J, Beleggia F, Elcioglu N, et al. Heterozygous HNRNPU variants cause early onset epilepsy and severe intellectual disability. Hum Genet. 2017;136:821-834 pubmed publisher
    ..The HNRNPU gene (OMIM *602869) encodes the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U, which plays a crucial role in mammalian development...
  8. Tseng R, Chang J, Mao J, Tsai C, Wu P, Lin C, et al. Growth-arrest-specific 7C protein inhibits tumor metastasis via the N-WASP/FAK/F-actin and hnRNP U/β-TrCP/β-catenin pathways in lung cancer. Oncotarget. 2015;6:44207-21 pubmed publisher
    ..It also enhances β-catenin stability via hnRNP U/β-TrCP complex formation. Therefore, GAS7C acts as a metastasis suppressor in lung cancer. ..
  9. Ye J, Beetz N, O Keeffe S, Tapia J, Macpherson L, Chen W, et al. hnRNP U protein is required for normal pre-mRNA splicing and postnatal heart development and function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015;112:E3020-9 pubmed publisher
    We report that mice lacking the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U) in the heart develop lethal dilated cardiomyopathy and display numerous defects in cardiac pre-mRNA splicing...

More Information


  1. Jiao W, Chen Y, Song H, Li D, Mei H, Yang F, et al. HPSE enhancer RNA promotes cancer progression through driving chromatin looping and regulating hnRNPU/p300/EGR1/HPSE axis. Oncogene. 2018;37:2728-2745 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, as a p300-regulated nuclear noncoding RNA, HPSE eRNA bond to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNPU) to facilitate its interaction with p300 and their enrichment on super enhancer, ..
  2. Chigi Y, Sasaki H, Sado T. The 5' region of Xist RNA has the potential to associate with chromatin through the A-repeat. RNA. 2017;23:1894-1901 pubmed publisher
  3. Chun Y, Kim R, Lee S. Centromere Protein (CENP)-W Interacts with Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) U and May Contribute to Kinetochore-Microtubule Attachment in Mitotic Cells. PLoS ONE. 2016;11:e0149127 pubmed publisher
    Recent studies have shown that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), a component of the hnRNP complex, contributes to stabilize the kinetochore-microtubule interaction during mitosis...
  4. Li L, Yin J, He F, Huang M, Zhu T, Gao Y, et al. Long noncoding RNA SFTA1P promoted apoptosis and increased cisplatin chemosensitivity via regulating the hnRNP-U-GADD45A axis in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Oncotarget. 2017;8:97476-97489 pubmed publisher
    ..We further identified that hnRNP-U (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U) was down-regulated in LSCCs and positively correlated with patients' poor prognosis as well as ..
  5. Pospiech N, Cibis H, Dietrich L, Müller F, Bange T, Hennig S. Identification of novel PANDAR protein interaction partners involved in splicing regulation. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2798 pubmed publisher
    ..Simultaneous overexpression of PTBP1 was able to rescue this effect. Overall, our data suggest a role for PANDAR in the regulation of splicing events via its interaction partner PTBP1. ..
  6. Creamer K, Lawrence J. XIST RNA: a window into the broader role of RNA in nuclear chromosome architecture. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2017;372: pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of the themed issue 'X-chromosome inactivation: a tribute to Mary Lyon'. ..
  7. Mazur A, Radaszkiewicz T, Makowiecka A, Malicka Błaszkiewicz M, Mannherz H, Nowak D. Gelsolin interacts with LamR, hnRNP U, nestin, Arp3 and β-tubulin in human melanoma cells as revealed by immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Eur J Cell Biol. 2016;95:26-41 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report for the first time that gelsolin is a constituent of midbodies, a tubulin containing structure formed at the end of cytokinesis. ..
  8. Fan H, Lv P, Huo X, Wu J, Wang Q, Cheng L, et al. The nuclear matrix protein HNRNPU maintains 3D genome architecture globally in mouse hepatocytes. Genome Res. 2018;28:192-202 pubmed publisher
    ..assays, including in situ Hi-C, DamID, ChIP-seq, and RNA-seq, we investigated roles of the Heterogeneous Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein U (HNRNPU), a nuclear matrix (NM)-associated protein, in 3D genome organization...
  9. Lai B, Zou J, Lin Z, Qu Z, Song A, Xu Y, et al. Haploinsufficiency of hnRNP U Changes Activity Pattern and Metabolic Rhythms. Am J Pathol. 2018;188:173-183 pubmed publisher
    ..However, how these peptides are regulated remains uncharacterized. We found that heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U) is essential for the expression of Avp and Vip...
  10. Migocka Patrzałek M, Makowiecka A, Nowak D, Mazur A, Hofmann W, Malicka Błaszkiewicz M. β- and γ-Actins in the nucleus of human melanoma A375 cells. Histochem Cell Biol. 2015;144:417-28 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we observe differences in the ratio of cytoplasmic to nuclear actin distribution between the isoforms. We show that β-actin has a significantly higher nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio than γ-actin. ..
  11. Zheng Q, Liu H, Ye J, Zhang H, Jia Z, Cao J. Nuclear distribution of eIF3g and its interacting nuclear proteins in breast cancer cells. Mol Med Rep. 2016;13:2973-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Mass spectrometry characterization showed that three proteins, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U/scaffold attachment factor A, HSZFP36/zinc finger protein 823 and β‑actin, were among ..
  12. Majewski L, Nowak J, Sobczak M, Karatsai O, Havrylov S, Lenartowski R, et al. Myosin VI in the nucleus of neurosecretory PC12 cells: Stimulation-dependent nuclear translocation and interaction with nuclear proteins. Nucleus. 2018;9:125-141 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed interaction of MVI with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNPU) and nucleolin, proteins involved in pre-mRNA binding and transport, and nucleolar ..
  13. Larsen S, Sylvestersen K, Mund A, Lyon D, Mullari M, Madsen M, et al. Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells. Sci Signal. 2016;9:rs9 pubmed publisher
    ..SRSF2 (serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2) and the RNA transport ribonucleoprotein HNRNPUL1 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 1)...
  14. Jiang H, Wang Y, Ai M, Wang H, Duan Z, Wang H, et al. Long noncoding RNA CRNDE stabilized by hnRNPUL2 accelerates cell proliferation and migration in colorectal carcinoma via activating Ras/MAPK signaling pathways. Cell Death Dis. 2017;8:e2862 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistically, it was demonstrated that CRNDE could form a functional complex with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 2 protein (hnRNPUL2) and direct the transport of hnRNPUL2 between the nucleus and cytoplasm...
  15. Liu P, Wang S, Wang Z, Chen B. HRPU-2, a Homolog of Mammalian hnRNP U, Regulates Synaptic Transmission by Controlling the Expression of SLO-2 Potassium Channel in Caenorhabditis elegans. J Neurosci. 2018;38:1073-1084 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we report that HRPU-2, an RNA-binding protein homologous to mammalian heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), plays an important role in regulating the expression of SLO-2 (a homolog of mammalian ..
  16. Göhring F, Fackelmayer F. The scaffold/matrix attachment region binding protein hnRNP-U (SAF-A) is directly bound to chromosomal DNA in vivo: a chemical cross-linking study. Biochemistry. 1997;36:8276-83 pubmed
    The protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP-U, also known as scaffold attachment factor A, SAF-A) is an abundant component of hnRNP particles and of the nuclear matrix...
  17. Lobov I, Tsutsui K, Mitchell A, Podgornaya O. Specific interaction of mouse major satellite with MAR-binding protein SAF-A. Eur J Cell Biol. 2000;79:839-49 pubmed
    ..A scheme based on morphological observations and biochemical data of SAF-A double satMa/MAR specificity is discussed. ..
  18. Tang Y, Getzenberg R, Vietmeier B, Stallcup M, Eggert M, Renkawitz R, et al. The DNA-binding and tau2 transactivation domains of the rat glucocorticoid receptor constitute a nuclear matrix-targeting signal. Mol Endocrinol. 1998;12:1420-31 pubmed
  19. Caliebe A, Kroes H, van der Smagt J, Martin Subero J, Tonnies H, van t Slot R, et al. Four patients with speech delay, seizures and variable corpus callosum thickness sharing a 0.440 Mb deletion in region 1q44 containing the HNRPU gene. Eur J Med Genet. 2010;53:179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, to reconcile the variability in the corpus callosum thickness, additional mechanisms, such as unmasking of hemizygous mutations, position effects and possible interactions with other loci need consideration. ..
  20. Peleg S, Ismail A, Uskokovic M, Avnur Z. Evidence for tissue- and cell-type selective activation of the vitamin D receptor by Ro-26-9228, a noncalcemic analog of vitamin D3. J Cell Biochem. 2003;88:267-73 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the cellular environment of intestinal cells, unlike that of osteoblasts, represses the ability of VDR-Ro-26-9228 complexes to interact with transcription partners. ..
  21. Yugami M, Kabe Y, Yamaguchi Y, Wada T, Handa H. hnRNP-U enhances the expression of specific genes by stabilizing mRNA. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:1-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that hnRNP-U enhances the expression of specific genes by regulating mRNA stability. ..
  22. Onishi Y, Hanai S, Ohno T, Hara Y, Ishida N. Rhythmic SAF-A binding underlies circadian transcription of the Bmal1 gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:3477-88 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the unique chromatin structure containing SAF-A is required for the circadian transcriptional regulation of the Bmal1 gene in cells. ..
  23. Michaille J, Tili E, Calin G, Garin J, Louwagie M, Croce C. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs expressed during chick development and encoding different isoforms of a putative zinc finger transcriptional regulator. Biochimie. 2005;87:939-49 pubmed
    ..Finally, the main chZFp isoforms are able to directly interact in vitro with the scaffold attachment factor-A (SAF-A, also known as heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U) through both their aminoterminal and carboxyterminal domains. ..
  24. Matsuoka Y, Uehara N, Tsubura A. hnRNP U interacts with the c-Myc-Max complex on the E-box promoter region inducing the ornithine decarboxylase gene. Oncol Rep. 2009;22:249-55 pubmed
    ..These findings increase our knowledge of how the c-Myc-Max complex exerts its transcriptional regulatory role and suggest that hnRNP U may be a coactivator of this transcriptional activator complex. ..
  25. Hadian K, Vincendeau M, Mäusbacher N, Nagel D, Hauck S, Ueffing M, et al. Identification of a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-recognition region in the HIV Rev protein. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:33384-91 pubmed publisher
  26. Tsuchiya Y, Asano T, Nakayama K, Kato T, Karin M, Kamata H. Nuclear IKKbeta is an adaptor protein for IkappaBalpha ubiquitination and degradation in UV-induced NF-kappaB activation. Mol Cell. 2010;39:570-82 pubmed publisher
    ..NF-kappaB activated by the nuclear IKKbeta adaptor protein suppresses anti-apoptotic gene expression and promotes UV-induced cell death. ..
  27. Fackelmayer F, Richter A. hnRNP-U/SAF-A is encoded by two differentially polyadenylated mRNAs in human cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994;1217:232-4 pubmed
    ..9 kb and 3.1 kb, respectively, exist in human cells. Using selective cDNA fragments as probes we show that the shorter mRNA lacks 800 nucleotides of the untranslated 3' end. ..
  28. Fackelmayer F, Dahm K, Renz A, Ramsperger U, Richter A. Nucleic-acid-binding properties of hnRNP-U/SAF-A, a nuclear-matrix protein which binds DNA and RNA in vivo and in vitro. Eur J Biochem. 1994;221:749-57 pubmed
    ..We conclude that hnRNP-U/SAF-A thus may have functions in the organisation of chromosomal DNA in addition to its suggested role in hnRNA metabolism. ..
  29. Howell M, Borchers C, Milgram S. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein U associates with YAP and regulates its co-activation of Bax transcription. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26300-6 pubmed
    ..The YAP-hnRNP U interaction provides another mechanism of YAP transcriptional regulation. ..
  30. Kwon C, Chung I. Interaction of an Arabidopsis RNA-binding protein with plant single-stranded telomeric DNA modulates telomerase activity. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:12812-8 pubmed
    ..The evidence presented here suggests that STEP1 is a telomere-end binding protein that may contribute to telomere length regulation by capping the ends of chromosomes and thereby repressing telomerase activity in plants. ..
  31. Gupta A, Drazba J, Banerjee A. Specific interaction of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle U with the leader RNA sequence of vesicular stomatitis virus. J Virol. 1998;72:8532-40 pubmed
    ..These results strongly suggest that hnRNP U plays an important role in the life cycle of VSV. ..
  32. Taniura H, Yoshikawa K. Necdin interacts with the ribonucleoprotein hnRNP U in the nuclear matrix. J Cell Biochem. 2002;84:545-55 pubmed
    ..One of the positive clones contained cDNA encoding a carboxyl-terminal portion of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), a nuclear matrix-associated protein that interacts with chromosomal DNA...
  33. Kipp M, Schwab B, Przybylski M, Nicotera P, Fackelmayer F. Apoptotic cleavage of scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A) by caspase-3 occurs at a noncanonical cleavage site. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:5031-6 pubmed
    ..A point mutation, D100A, abrogates cleavage by recombinant caspase-3 in vitro and during apoptosis in vivo, confirming SALD as a novel caspase-3 cleavage site. ..
  34. Obrdlik A, Kukalev A, Louvet E, Farrants A, Caputo L, Percipalle P. The histone acetyltransferase PCAF associates with actin and hnRNP U for RNA polymerase II transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6342-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, disruption of the actin-hnRNP U interaction repressed bromouridine triphosphate incorporation in living cells, suggesting that actin and hnRNP U cooperate with PCAF in the regulation of pol II transcription elongation. ..
  35. Martens J, Verlaan M, Kalkhoven E, Dorsman J, Zantema A. Scaffold/matrix attachment region elements interact with a p300-scaffold attachment factor A complex and are bound by acetylated nucleosomes. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2598-606 pubmed
    ..This binding is accompanied by local acetylation of nucleosomes, suggesting that p300-SAF-A interactions at S/MAR elements of nontranscribed genes might poise these genes for transcription. ..
  36. Britton S, Froment C, Frit P, Monsarrat B, Salles B, Calsou P. Cell nonhomologous end joining capacity controls SAF-A phosphorylation by DNA-PK in response to DNA double-strand breaks inducers. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:3717-22 pubmed
    ..Addtionaly, the mapped phospho-site on SAF-A might serve as a potential bio-marker for DNA-PK activity in academic studies and clinical analyses of DNA-PK activators or inhibitors. ..
  37. Verschure P, van der Kraan I, Enserink J, Moné M, Manders E, van Driel R. Large-scale chromatin organization and the localization of proteins involved in gene expression in human cells. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:1303-12 pubmed
    ..Our data support a conceptually simple model for the functional organization of interphase nuclei. ..
  38. Jenke B, Fetzer C, Stehle I, Jönsson F, Fackelmayer F, Conradt H, et al. An episomally replicating vector binds to the nuclear matrix protein SAF-A in vivo. EMBO Rep. 2002;3:349-54 pubmed
    ..These data provide the first experimental evidence for the binding of an artificial episome to a nuclear matrix protein in vivo and the basis for understanding the mitotic stability of this novel vector class. ..
  39. Tamaru T, Isojima Y, Nagai K, Takamatsu K. Circadian expression of hnRNP U, a nuclear multi-potent regulatory protein, in the murine suprachiasmatic nucleus. Neurosci Lett. 2003;341:111-4 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that hnRNP U participates in nuclear regulatory events that are involved in mammalian central and peripheral circadian clocks. ..
  40. Podgornaya O, Voronin A, Enukashvily N, Matveev I, Lobov I. Structure-specific DNA-binding proteins as the foundation for three-dimensional chromatin organization. Int Rev Cytol. 2003;224:227-96 pubmed
  41. Lobov I, Tsutsui K, Mitchell A, Podgornaya O. Specificity of SAF-A and lamin B binding in vitro correlates with the satellite DNA bending state. J Cell Biochem. 2001;83:218-29 pubmed
    ..CEN and periCEN satDNAs are distinguished by proteins in correlation with the helical curvature of these fragments. ..
  42. von Kries J, Buck F, Strätling W. Chicken MAR binding protein p120 is identical to human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) U. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:1215-20 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that p120/hnRNP U may serve a dual function, first as a component of hnRNP particles, and second as an element in the higher-order organization of chromatin. ..
  43. Matsui M, Breau W, Iwasaki S, Hagiwara S, Tamai Y, Mori C, et al. Retrovirus integration site Mintb encoding the mouse homolog of hnRNP U. J Biochem. 1999;125:1104-14 pubmed
    ..gene R, which encodes an 800-residue protein that is highly homologous to the rat and human heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U)...
  44. Kiledjian M, Dreyfuss G. Primary structure and binding activity of the hnRNP U protein: binding RNA through RGG box. EMBO J. 1992;11:2655-64 pubmed
    ..We have termed this region the RGG box and propose that it is an RNA binding motif and a predictor of RNA binding activity. ..
  45. Göhring F, Schwab B, Nicotera P, Leist M, Fackelmayer F. The novel SAR-binding domain of scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A) is a target in apoptotic nuclear breakdown. EMBO J. 1997;16:7361-71 pubmed
  46. Eggert M, Michel J, Schneider S, Bornfleth H, Baniahmad A, Fackelmayer F, et al. The glucocorticoid receptor is associated with the RNA-binding nuclear matrix protein hnRNP U. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:28471-8 pubmed
    ..the factors we have identified to interact with the glucocorticoid receptor, is identical to the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U), a nuclear matrix protein binding to RNA as well as to scaffold attachment regions. GR...
  47. Neri L, Fackelmayer F, Zweyer M, Kohwi Shigematsu T, Martelli A. Subnuclear localization of S/MAR-binding proteins is differently affected by in vitro stabilization with heat or Cu2+. Chromosoma. 1997;106:81-93 pubmed
    ..Our results seem to indicate that a reevaluation of stabilization protocols employed for the preparation of the nuclear matrix is desirable, especially by performing morphological controls. ..
  48. Jordan P, Heid H, Kinzel V, Kübler D. Major cell surface-located protein substrates of an ecto-protein kinase are homologs of known nuclear proteins. Biochemistry. 1994;33:14696-706 pubmed
  49. Pullirsch D, Härtel R, Kishimoto H, Leeb M, Steiner G, Wutz A. The Trithorax group protein Ash2l and Saf-A are recruited to the inactive X chromosome at the onset of stable X inactivation. Development. 2010;137:935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation highlights a crucial role for spatial organization of chromatin changes in the maintenance of X inactivation. ..
  50. Valente S, Goff S. Inhibition of HIV-1 gene expression by a fragment of hnRNP U. Mol Cell. 2006;23:597-605 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that HIV-1 requires machinery for the nuclear export of viral mRNAs that can be specifically blocked by an interfering gene. ..
  51. Fu D, Collins K. Purification of human telomerase complexes identifies factors involved in telomerase biogenesis and telomere length regulation. Mol Cell. 2007;28:773-85 pubmed
  52. Pahlich S, Quero L, Roschitzki B, Leemann Zakaryan R, Gehring H. Analysis of Ewing sarcoma (EWS)-binding proteins: interaction with hnRNP M, U, and RNA-helicases p68/72 within protein-RNA complexes. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:4455-65 pubmed publisher
  53. Kukalev A, Nord Y, Palmberg C, Bergman T, Percipalle P. Actin and hnRNP U cooperate for productive transcription by RNA polymerase II. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2005;12:238-44 pubmed
    ..Actin in complex with hnRNP U may carry out its regulatory role during the initial phases of transcription activation. ..
  54. Helbig R, Fackelmayer F. Scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A) is concentrated in inactive X chromosome territories through its RGG domain. Chromosoma. 2003;112:173-82 pubmed
  55. Mattern K, van der Kraan I, Schul W, de Jong L, van Driel R. Spatial organization of four hnRNP proteins in relation to sites of transcription, to nuclear speckles, and to each other in interphase nuclei and nuclear matrices of HeLa cells. Exp Cell Res. 1999;246:461-70 pubmed
    ..Our results are compatible with the notion that hnRNP proteins are able to form complexes of many different, probably overlapping, compositions. ..
  56. Kim M, Nikodem V. hnRNP U inhibits carboxy-terminal domain phosphorylation by TFIIH and represses RNA polymerase II elongation. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:6833-44 pubmed
    ..With such functions, hnRNP U might provide one of the mechanisms by which the CTD is maintained in an unphosphorylated state in the Pol II holoenzyme. ..
  57. Davis M, Hatzubai A, Andersen J, Ben Shushan E, Fisher G, Yaron A, et al. Pseudosubstrate regulation of the SCF(beta-TrCP) ubiquitin ligase by hnRNP-U. Genes Dev. 2002;16:439-51 pubmed
    ..Our study points to a novel regulatory mechanism, which secures the localization, stability, substrate binding threshold, and efficacy of a specific protein-ubiquitin ligase. ..
  58. Shnyreva M, Schullery D, Suzuki H, Higaki Y, Bomsztyk K. Interaction of two multifunctional proteins. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K and Y-box-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:15498-503 pubmed
    ..Each protein was able to transactivate transcription from a polypyrimidine-rich promoter; however, this effect was reduced when K and YB-1 proteins were coexpressed suggesting a functional interaction between these two proteins. ..
  59. Lodge A, Walsh A, McNamee C, Moss D. Identification of chURP, a nuclear calmodulin-binding protein related to hnRNP-U. Eur J Biochem. 1999;261:137-47 pubmed
  60. Kukalev A, Lobov I, Percipalle P, Podgornaya O. SAF-A/hnRNP-U localization in interphase and metaphase. Cytogenet Genome Res. 2009;124:288-97 pubmed publisher
    ..In telophase cells, the anti-SAF-A antibody signal appeared as a kind of network covering unfolded chromosomes. ..
  61. Herrmann F, Bossert M, Schwander A, Akgün E, Fackelmayer F. Arginine methylation of scaffold attachment factor A by heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle-associated PRMT1. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:48774-9 pubmed
  62. Fackelmayer F, Richter A. Purification of two isoforms of hnRNP-U and characterization of their nucleic acid binding activity. Biochemistry. 1994;33:10416-22 pubmed
  63. Ding Y, Qiao A, Wang Z, Goodwin J, Lee E, Block M, et al. Retinoic acid attenuates beta-amyloid deposition and rescues memory deficits in an Alzheimer's disease transgenic mouse model. J Neurosci. 2008;28:11622-34 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support ATRA as an effective therapeutic agent for the prevention and treatment of AD. ..
  64. Zhao J, Ding J, Li Y, Ren K, Sha J, Zhu M, et al. HnRNP U mediates the long-range regulation of Shh expression during limb development. Hum Mol Genet. 2009;18:3090-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, distant cis-elements may modulate gene expression by altering HnRNP U's affinity for certain mediator proteins and nuclear relocation. ..
  65. Spraggon L, Dudnakova T, Slight J, Lustig Yariv O, Cotterell J, Hastie N, et al. hnRNP-U directly interacts with WT1 and modulates WT1 transcriptional activation. Oncogene. 2007;26:1484-91 pubmed
    ..These findings increase our knowledge of how WT1 exerts its transcriptional regulatory role and suggests that hnRNP-U may be a candidate Wilms' tumour gene at 1q44. ..
  66. Hasegawa Y, Brockdorff N, Kawano S, Tsutui K, Tsutui K, Nakagawa S. The matrix protein hnRNP U is required for chromosomal localization of Xist RNA. Dev Cell. 2010;19:469-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, ES cells lacking hnRNP U expression fail to form the Xi. We propose that the association with matrix proteins is an essential step in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by Xist RNA. ..
  67. Gao C, Guo H, Mi Z, Wai P, Kuo P. Transcriptional regulatory functions of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein-U and -A/B in endotoxin-mediated macrophage expression of osteopontin. J Immunol. 2005;175:523-30 pubmed
    ..This has not been previously described for the hnRNP proteins. Our results represent a unique transcriptional regulatory mechanism which involves interplay between members of the hnRNP protein family. ..
  68. Berglund F, Clarke P. hnRNP-U is a specific DNA-dependent protein kinase substrate phosphorylated in response to DNA double-strand breaks. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;381:59-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Using this system, we identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP-U), also termed scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), as a specific substrate for DNA-PK...
  69. Eggert H, Schulz M, Fackelmayer F, Renkawitz R, Eggert M. Effects of the heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP U/SAF-A) on glucocorticoid-dependent transcription in vivo. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;78:59-65 pubmed
    ..The relative concentrations of GR, hnRNP U and DNA-binding sites for GR are important for the effect of hnRNP U on transcription, suggesting a model where hnRNP-U acts as a storage site for intranuclear GR. ..
  70. Liu Q, Dreyfuss G. A novel nuclear structure containing the survival of motor neurons protein. EMBO J. 1996;15:3555-65 pubmed
    ..These structures are similar in number (2-6) and size (0.1-1.0 micron) to coiled bodies, and frequently are found near or associated with coiled bodies. We term these prominent nuclear structures gems, for Gemini of coiled bodies. ..
  71. Roshon M, Ruley H. Hypomorphic mutation in hnRNP U results in post-implantation lethality. Transgenic Res. 2005;14:179-92 pubmed