hmgn2 protein


Summary: An evolutionarily conserved 9-KDa nuclear protein that binds NUCLEOSOMES and may be involved in the process of CHROMATIN unfolding.

Top Publications

  1. Lehtonen S, Lehtonen E. HMG-17 is an early marker of inductive interactions in the developing mouse kidney. Differentiation. 2001;67:154-63 pubmed
    ..The present results suggest that HMG-17 could have a role in the activation of the genes regulating kidney organogenesis. ..
  2. Porkka K, Laakkonen P, Hoffman J, Bernasconi M, Ruoslahti E. A fragment of the HMGN2 protein homes to the nuclei of tumor cells and tumor endothelial cells in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:7444-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, F3 can carry a payload (phage, fluorescein) to a tumor and into the cell nuclei in the tumor. This peptide may be suitable for targeting cytotoxic drugs and gene therapy vectors into tumors. ..
  3. Deng L, Wu G, Cao Y, Fan B, Gao X, Luo L, et al. The chromosomal protein HMGN2 mediates lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of ?-defensins in A549 cells. FEBS J. 2011;278:2152-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that HMGN2 acts as a positive modulator of nuclear factor ?B signalling to promote lipopolysaccharide-induced ?-defensin expression. ..
  4. Li X, Venugopalan S, Cao H, Pinho F, Paine M, Snead M, et al. A model for the molecular underpinnings of tooth defects in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. Hum Mol Genet. 2014;23:194-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our findings validate the etiology of the enamel defect in a novel mouse model of ARS. ..
  5. Rattner B, Yusufzai T, Kadonaga J. HMGN proteins act in opposition to ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling factors to restrict nucleosome mobility. Mol Cell. 2009;34:620-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that HMGN proteins serve as a counterbalance to the action of the many ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling activities in the nucleus. ..
  6. Fiorillo A, Medler T, Feeney Y, Liu Y, Tommerdahl K, Clevenger C. HMGN2 inducibly binds a novel transactivation domain in nuclear PRLr to coordinate Stat5a-mediated transcription. Mol Endocrinol. 2011;25:1550-64 pubmed publisher
  7. Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, Bao L, Wang B. Alpha-helical domain is essential for antimicrobial activity of high mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 2 (HMGN2). Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2005;26:1087-92 pubmed
    ..alpha-helical structure (the putative antimicrobial domain) located from position 18 to 48 of the HMGN2 protein sequence...
  8. Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, Wang B. HMGN2: a novel antimicrobial effector molecule of human mononuclear leukocytes?. J Leukoc Biol. 2005;78:1136-41 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HMGN2 would be a novel antimicrobial effector molecule of human mononuclear leukocyte. ..
  9. Wu G, Cao Y, Fan B, Zheng F, Gao X, Liu N, et al. High-mobility group protein N2 (HMGN2) inhibited the internalization of Klebsiella pneumoniae into cultured bladder epithelial cells. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2011;43:680-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This disruption of bacterial internalization implied that HMGN2 could provide protection against K. pneumoniae infections. ..

More Information


  1. Furusawa T, Lim J, Catez F, Birger Y, Mackem S, Bustin M. Down-regulation of nucleosomal binding protein HMGN1 expression during embryogenesis modulates Sox9 expression in chondrocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:592-604 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a role for HMGN1 in chromatin remodeling during embryogenesis and in the activation of Sox9 during chondrogenesis. ..
  2. Li M, Pan X, Wang L, Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, et al. [Study of antmicrobial mechanisms of human cervical mucus: isolation and characterization of antibacterial polypeptides]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2005;85:1109-12 pubmed
    ..83 microg/ml +/- 6.25 microg/ml and 55.56 microg/ml +/- 16.67 microg/ml respectively. HMGN2 may be another antibacterial effecter in the defense mechanisms of human cervical mucus. ..
  3. Williams R, Naz R. Novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for prostate cancer. Front Biosci (Schol Ed). 2010;2:677-84 pubmed
    ..Novel markers for the diagnosis and development of new treatment modalities are urgently needed. ..
  4. Cao Y, Wu G, Fan B, Zheng F, Gao X, Liu N, et al. High mobility group nucleosomal binding domain 2 protein protects bladder epithelial cells from Klebsiella pneumoniae invasion. Biol Pharm Bull. 2011;34:1065-71 pubmed
    ..These changes led to inhibition of K. pneumoniae 03183 invasion of T 24 bladder epithelial cells. ..
  5. Zhang S, Huang J, Zhao H, Zhang Y, Hou C, Cheng X, et al. The in vitro reconstitution of nucleosome and its binding patterns with HMG1/2 and HMG14/17 proteins. Cell Res. 2003;13:351-9 pubmed
  6. Boumba V, Seferiadis K, Vougiouklakis T. Content of the HMG-17 chromosomal protein in porcine tissues. Protein Pept Lett. 2004;11:515-9 pubmed
    ..Our results showed high levels of HMG-17 compared to the DNA and H1 content of the tissues (on the contrary to previous reports), and more specifically that there were 1.7 molecules of HMG-17 per molecule of histone H1. ..
  7. Xiong W, Feng Y, Wang G, Huang N, Wu Q, Li X, et al. [Production of HMGN2 polyclonal antibody by immunization with recombinant GST-HMGN2 fusion protein and its application to analysis of HMGN2 distribution in human monocytes]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2005;36:451-5 pubmed
    ..HMGN2 could be present in the cytoplasm of monocytes and release to the extracellular environment when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). ..
  8. Xiong W, Feng Y, Huang N, Wu Q, Li X, Wang B. [Application of HMGN2-tag constructs to analysis of HMGN2 distribution in HeLa cells]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2005;22:1015-9 pubmed
    ..There results suggested that HMGN2 could be present in the nucleus and cytoplasm of HeLa cell as well as in the extracellular environment. ..
  9. Kulkeaw K, Inoue T, Mizuochi C, Horio Y, Ishihama Y, Sugiyama D. Ectopic expression of Hmgn2 antagonizes mouse erythroid differentiation in vitro. Cell Biol Int. 2012;36:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that ectopic expression of Hmgn2 antagonizes mouse erythroid differentiation in vitro, which may be due to enhancement of DNA replication and/or blocking entry of mitosis at S-phase. ..
  10. He X, Zhang Y, Jin S, Feng Y. [Inhibitory effect of recombinant HMGN2 protein on human hepatitis B viral]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2011;42:461-5 pubmed
    ..b>HMGN2 protein was expressed under IPTG induction and purified by GST protein purification system, then identified by SDS-..
  11. Feng Y, Yang H, Huangning -, Wu Q, Bao L, Wang B. [E. coli-based production of recombinant HMG-17 and its antibacterial domain]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2005;22:773-7 pubmed
    ..MIC of the alpha-helic domain was almost the same as that of HMG17, suggesting that the alpha-helic structure would be essential for the antibacterial activity of HMG-17...
  12. Deng L, Wu G, Cao Y, Fan B, Gao X, Tang X, et al. The chromosomal protein HMGN2 mediates the LPS-induced expression of ?-defensins in mice. Inflammation. 2012;35:456-73 pubmed publisher
    ..HMGN2 shRNA interference led to decreased mBD-3 and mBD-4 expression, while mBD-1 expression did not significantly change. These results demonstrate that HMGN2 is a component of the LPS-induced mouse ?-defensin response. ..
  13. Antoni L, Nuding S, Weller D, Gersemann M, Ott G, Wehkamp J, et al. Human colonic mucus is a reservoir for antimicrobial peptides. J Crohns Colitis. 2013;7:e652-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the mucus layer and its composition provide an attractive drug target to restore antimicrobial barrier function in intestinal diseases. ..
  14. Binder C, Read S, Cashman S, Kumar Singh R. Nuclear targeted delivery of macromolecules to retina and cornea. J Gene Med. 2011;13:158-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in the present study demonstrate that NBP can deliver small and large molecules into retinal and corneal cells and plasmid DNA into retinal cells and hence may be useful for the delivery of therapeutics to the eye. ..
  15. Hengeveld R, Hertz N, Vromans M, Zhang C, Burlingame A, Shokat K, et al. Development of a chemical genetic approach for human aurora B kinase identifies novel substrates of the chromosomal passenger complex. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2012;11:47-59 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed that HMGN2 is a bona fide Aurora B substrate in vivo and show that its dynamic association to chromatin is controlled by Aurora B. ..
  16. Lührs H, Hock R, Schauber J, Weihrauch M, Harrer M, Melcher R, et al. Modulation of HMG-N2 binding to chromatin by butyrate-induced acetylation in human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Int J Cancer. 2002;97:567-73 pubmed
    ..Modulation of nonhistone chromatin proteins, like the ubiquitous HMG-N2 proteins, may be partly responsible for the wide range of butyrate-associated effects. ..
  17. Kato H, van Ingen H, Zhou B, Feng H, Bustin M, Kay L, et al. Architecture of the high mobility group nucleosomal protein 2-nucleosome complex as revealed by methyl-based NMR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:12283-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, our approach is generally applicable to the study of nucleosome-binding interactions in chromatin. ..
  18. Mureşan F, Simescu R, Domsa I, Buiga R, Cazacu M. [Immunohistochemical screening of hMLH1 and hMSH2 gene mutations in patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer and microsatellite instability suspicion]. Chirurgia (Bucur). 2011;106:775-80 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemical staining can identify patients who need to be genetically tested for mutations of the DNA mismatch repair genes, in order to establish the correct diagnostic of Lynch syndrome. ..
  19. Li W, Zhang P, Kong X, Li Y, Chen S, Feng Y, et al. [Isolation and purification of antimicrobial polypeptide HMGN2 from human lymph node and analysis of its distribution]. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2010;27:842-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, HMGN2 protein is of antimicrobial activity and it is probably involved in the defence of innate immunity in vivo.
  20. Lucey M, Wang Y, Bustin M, Duncan M. Differential expression of the HMGN family of chromatin proteins during ocular development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2008;8:433-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5dpc. In the adult eye, HMGN2 protein is still found in all lens nuclei while in the cornea, HMGN2 protein is mostly restricted to the epithelium...
  21. Cherukuri S, Hock R, Ueda T, Catez F, Rochman M, Bustin M. Cell cycle-dependent binding of HMGN proteins to chromatin. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:1816-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies demonstrate that the mode of binding of HMGNs to chromatin is cell cycle dependent. ..
  22. Bastos G, Gonçalves P, Bordignon V. Immunolocalization of the high-mobility group N2 protein and acetylated histone H3K14 in early developing parthenogenetic bovine embryos derived from oocytes of high and low developmental competence. Mol Reprod Dev. 2008;75:282-90 pubmed
  23. Murphy K, Cutter A, Fang H, Postnikov Y, Bustin M, Hayes J. HMGN1 and 2 remodel core and linker histone tail domains within chromatin. Nucleic Acids Res. 2017;45:9917-9930 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms whereby HMGNs affect chromatin structure...
  24. Vallon M, Seidl C, Blechert B, Li Z, Gilbertz K, Baumgart A, et al. Enhanced efficacy of combined 213Bi-DTPA-F3 and paclitaxel therapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis is mediated by enhanced induction of apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2012;39:1886-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined treatment with (213)Bi-DTPA-F3 and paclitaxel significantly increased mean survival of mice with peritoneal carcinomatosis of ovarian origin, thus favouring future therapeutic application. ..
  25. Weigle B, Kiessling A, Ebner R, Fuessel S, Temme A, Meye A, et al. D-PCa-2: a novel transcript highly overexpressed in human prostate and prostate cancer. Int J Cancer. 2004;109:882-92 pubmed
    ..These results validate D-PCa-2 as a transcript with high tissue specificity and with a potential application in the diagnosis of PCa. ..
  26. Ueda T, Postnikov Y, Bustin M. Distinct domains in high mobility group N variants modulate specific chromatin modifications. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:10182-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, chromatin-binding structural proteins such as HMGNs affect the levels of specific chromatin modifications and therefore may play a role in epigenetic regulation. ..
  27. Amen M, Espinoza H, Cox C, Liang X, Wang J, Link T, et al. Chromatin-associated HMG-17 is a major regulator of homeodomain transcription factor activity modulated by Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:462-76 pubmed
    ..This mechanism provides a new role for canonical Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in regulating HD transcriptional activity during development using HMG-17 as a molecular switch. ..
  28. Luo L, Xie P, Gong P, Tang X, Ding Y, Deng L. Expression of HMGB1 and HMGN2 in gingival tissues, GCF and PICF of periodontitis patients and peri-implantitis. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:1106-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of HMGB1 and HMGN2 in periodontistis...
  29. Xiong W, Huang N, Feng Y, Wu Q, Wang B. Creation and anti-cancer potency in HeLa cells of a novel chimeric toxin, HMGNCIDIN, composed of HMGN2 a-helical domain and PE38 KDEL domain III. Chin Med J (Engl). 2008;121:82-5 pubmed
  30. Ueda T, Catez F, Gerlitz G, Bustin M. Delineation of the protein module that anchors HMGN proteins to nucleosomes in the chromatin of living cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:2872-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies identify a new chromatin-binding module that specifically recognizes nucleosome cores independently of DNA sequence or histone tail modifications. ..
  31. Hobbs C, Paul B, Gilmour S. Elevated levels of polyamines alter chromatin in murine skin and tumors without global changes in nucleosome acetylation. Exp Cell Res. 2003;290:427-36 pubmed
    ..The abnormal chromatin environment fostered by elevated levels of polyamines may be a necessary prerequisite for epithelial tumor growth and maintenance. ..
  32. Feng Y, He F, Zhang P, Wu Q, Huang N, Tang H, et al. Inhibitory effect of HMGN2 protein on human hepatitis B virus expression and replication in the HepG2.2.15 cell line. Antiviral Res. 2009;81:277-82 pubmed publisher
    ..1 kb mRNA species and HBV replicative intermediate DNA were significantly reduced in the HMGN2-treated HepG2.2.15 cells. These results indicated that HMGN2 protein could markedly inhibit HBV protein expression and replication in vitro.
  33. Saito A, Suzuki H, Horie M, Ohshima M, Morishita Y, Abiko Y, et al. An integrated expression profiling reveals target genes of TGF-? and TNF-? possibly mediated by microRNAs in lung cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e56587 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a line of evidence that the effects of TGF-? and TNF-? were partially mediated by microRNAs, and shed light on the complexity of molecular events elicited by TGF-? and TNF-?. ..
  34. Boumba V, Seferiadis K. Rabbit anti-HMG-17 antibodies recognize similar epitopes on the HMG-17 molecule as lupus autoantibodies. Relation with histone H1 defined epitopes. J Pept Sci. 2002;8:683-94 pubmed
  35. Ito Y, Bustin M. Immunohistochemical localization of the nucleosome-binding protein HMGN3 in mouse brain. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:1273-5 pubmed
    ..We suggest that HMGN3 might play a role in astrocyte function. ..
  36. Subramanian M, Gonzalez R, Patil H, Ueda T, Lim J, Kraemer K, et al. The nucleosome-binding protein HMGN2 modulates global genome repair. FEBS J. 2009;276:6646-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our finding that HMGNs play a role in global DNA repair expands the role of these proteins in the maintenance of genome integrity. ..